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  1. Robert W. Korn (2005). The Emergence Principle in Biological Hierarchies. Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):137-151.
    Emergent properties have been described by Mill, Lewes, Broad, Morgan and others, as novel, nonadditive, nonpredictable and nondeducible within a hierarchical context. I have developed a more definitive concept of a hierarchy that can be used to inspect the phenomenon of emergence in a new and detailed manner. A hierarchy is held together by descending constraints and new features can arise when an upper level entity restrains its components in new combinations that are not expected when viewing these components (...)
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  2. Robert W. Korn (2002). Biological Hierarchies, Their Birth, Death and Evolution by Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):199-221.
    Description of the biologicalhierarchy of the organism has been extendedhere to included the evolutionary andecological sub-hierarchies with theirrespective levels in order to give a completehierarchical description of life. These newdescriptions include direction of formation,types of constraints, and dual levels. Constraints are produced at the macromolecularlevel of genes/proteins, some of which (a) aredescendent restraints which hold a hierarchytogether and others (b) interact horizontallywith selective agents at corresponding levelsof the niche. The organism is a dual levelconstrained by both the ecologicalsub-hierarchy (survival) and (...)
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  3. Robert W. Korn (1999). Biological Organization: A New Look at an Old Problem. Bioscience 49 (1):51.
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  4. Robert W. Korn (1994). Hierarchical Ordering in Plant Morphology. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (4).
    Plants are interpreted as structural hierarchies which are real systems organized through descending constraints. Types of hierarchical groups in plants are (a) cluster by integration, (b) support through attachment, (c) enclosure by encasement (d) dissipative by input of energy and (e) control through variable state switching. Most plant hierarchies are mixtures of these types which explains a number of paradoxes in plant morphology. The traditional means of identifying levels, i.e., cell, tissues, organs, uses a compositional group which is not a (...)
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  5. Robert W. Korn (1993). Apical Cells as Meristems. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3).
    Apical cells are universally present in lower plants and their description has been mostly viewed morphologically as single-celled meristems. This study attempts to demonstrate that the roles of apical cells and more generally of meristems collectively are (a) often the proliferative source of all cells in a plant, (b) sometimes a formative centre in histogenesis and organogenesis and (c) always a regulatory site. As a proliferative centre it occurs as a series of apical cells through a mitotic lineage by unequal (...)
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