This essay analyzes the relation between nothingness and the work of art, where negation appears as a fundamental element of art. Starting at a discussion of the concept of nothingness in existential phenomenology, it points to the limitations of Heidegger's notion of nullity and negation, which spring from the denial of the dimension of consciousness to his Dasein. Although Sartre recovers that dimension in his portrayal of the pour-soi, now the idea of nothingness is not taken to its ultimate consequence, (...) where art would appear as a product of consciousness that is entrenched in nothingness. Only through an enlarged notion of consciousness, one that allows the perception of negative experience as intrinsically related to poiesis, will the work of art appear ontologically grounded in a form of Being that searches for its own contradiction. Such an enlarged notion of consciousness appears in the thought of Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitarō, where concepts such as "the place of nothingness" and "pure experience" can serve as ground to an analysis of the relation between nothingness and the work of art. (shrink)
Tomando como fontes basilares a “Doutrina da Virtude” (segunda parte da Metafísica dos Costumes) e a Lições de ética – obras nas quais Kant trata com mais afinco o tema intentado –, o texto que segue apresenta em linhas gerais a noçáo kantiana de “deveres perfeitos para consigo mesmo”. Partindo das dificuldades que Kant aponta como subjacentes ao conceito de “dever para consigo mesmo” e, definindo os pontos distintivos entre deveres perfeitos e imperfeitos, pretende-se apresentar os pontos por ele realçados (...) como pertencentes aos deveres perfeitos que o agente moral tem para consigo próprio. (shrink)
The combined use of computers and telecommunications and the latest evolution in the field of Artificial Intelligence brought along new ways of contracting and of expressing will and declarations. The question is, how far we can go in considering computer intelligence and autonomy, how can we legally deal with a new form of electronic behaviour capable of autonomous action? In the field of contracting, through Intelligent Electronic Agents, there is an imperious need of analysing the question of expression of consent, (...) and two main possibilities have been proposed: considering electronic devices as mere machines or tools, or considering electronic devices as legal persons. Another possibility that has been frequently mentioned consists in the application of the rules of agency to electronic transactions. Meanwhile, the question remains: would it possible, under a Civil Law framework, to apply the notions of “legal personhood” and “representation” to electronic agents? It is obvious that existing legal norms are not fit for such an endeavouring challenge. Yet, the virtual world exists and it requires a new but realistic legal approach on software agents, in order to enhance the use of electronic commerce in a global world. (shrink)
We present three rights-based approaches to research and policies on gender justice and equity in the context of climate change adaptation. After a short introduction, we describe the dominant discourse that frames climate change and provide an overview of the literature that has depicted women both as vulnerable victims of climatic change and as active agents in adaptive responses. Discussion follows on the shift from gendered impacts to gendered adaptive capacities and embodied experiences, highlighting the continuing impact of social biases (...) and institutional practices that shape unequal access to and control over household and community decision-making processes undermining timely, fair, and successful adaptive responses. Assessment of rights-based frameworks considers the space they provide in addressing persistent gender and other inequalities, at different political and operational scales. We argue that a human security framework is useful to fill the gap in current gender and climate justice work, particularly when implemented through the entry point of adaptive social protection. Gender justice in climate change adaptation is an obligation for transformational social change, not just rights. The time is ripe to replace narrow-minded vulnerability studies with a contextualized understanding of our mutual fragility and a commitment to enhanced livelihood resilience, worldwide. (shrink)
This study discusses the relationship between Green Chemistry and Environmental Sustainability as expressed in textbooks and articles on Green Chemistry authored by their promoters. It was found that although the Brundtland concept of Sustainable Development/Sustainability has been mentioned often by green chemists, a full analysis of that relationship was almost never attempted. In particular, green chemists have paid scarce attention to the importance of The Second Law of thermodynamics on Environmental Sustainability and the consequences of the limitations it imposes on (...) Green Chemistry, which are discussed in this paper. (shrink)
Trata-se de analisar aspectos do diálogo Cármides que corroborem a necessidade de uma entrega total da alma na investigaçáo filosófica. A filosofia de Platáo náo pode ser compreendida sem se levar em conta a transformaçáo pessoal necessária em sua investigaçáo. Mesmo defendendo que a filosofia deva ser exercida eminentemente pela razáo, Platáo náo abre máo de que tal racionalidade transforme a pessoa como um todo, para que se alcance a vida boa.
The term ‘impact’ has become the kind of word which, when it relates to the evaluation of technological advances in contemporary culture, suggests signs of erosion, debilitation and evasion. The misinformed and indiscriminate use of the term in the most varied of contexts has created an impasse in the cultural semiotic approach, where sign systems are viewed in terms of borders and relations. The objective of this article is to examine the trivialisation of the use of the ballistic metaphor in (...) this explosive moment of the culture. For this, we will refer to the formulations presented by the semiotician, Juri Lotman, in his book, appropriately entitled Culture and Explosion. To what degree is the concept of explosion presented as a counterpart to the notion of impact? The desire to find answers to this question is what motivated this inquiry. (shrink)
The main focus of this article is the analysis of the concept of semiosphere as it has emerged from the conception of culture as information — instead of describing the transmission of messages from A to B, it is based on the general process of meaning generation. Following Lotman’s criticism on the paradoxes in communication and its theoretical domain, the article confronts the paradoxical concepts on: (1) the concept of message transmission from the addresser toaddressee; (2) the notion of isolated (...) processing systems; (3) the idea that culture speaks a unique language. From the standpoint of the semiosphere, the new object for studying such controversies could be found in the concept of text. When text is taken at the centre of the analysis of culture, nothing appears in an isolated fashion. Lotman’s thinking does not fear the new hypothesis in proposing the conceptual domain of semiosphere to the scientific study of culture. (shrink)
Projection is a dialogical mechanism that concerns the relationship among things in the world or in various systems, both in nature and culture. Instead of isolating these systems, projection creates an ecosystem without borderline. Projection is a way to comprehend how different cultures can link, enrich and deveop one another by understanding the relationship among different culture traditions can be related to one another by considering the nature of their sign system. That is why it is that the object of (...) semiotics of culture is not culture but its sign systems. That is why we understand the nature of relationship among sign system as projection. In this article, we are interested in a particular kind of projection: that one in which the formulations of semiotics of culture of Slavic tradition project themselves onto the Brazilian culture. The conceptual field of Russian semiotics - dialogism, carnivalization, hybridity, border, outsideness, heteroglossia, textuality and modelling semiotic sign system - projects itself on the equally defining aspects of the semiotic identity of the Brazilian culture. I will refer here to two sets of projections: the concept of textual history, as a possibility to reach internal displacement within the culture, and the notion of semiodiversity produced by the meeting of different sign systems. (shrink)
O presente estudo busca apresentar como a noçáo de fisio-psicologia proposta por Nietzsche se estrutura sobre o corpo e exige uma alteraçáo particular na determinaçáo da noçáo de vontade. Para realizar tal empreendimento, tomamos como parâmetro principalmente o aforismo 19 de Para Além de Bem e Mal . Neste texto, Nietzsche apresenta uma releitura da noçáo de vontade a partir da análise da estrutura dos afetos, dos pensamentos e dos sentimentos. A importância desse empreendimento se justifica por abrir espaço para (...) uma proposta psicológica baseada em um dinamismo que está para além dos processos conscientes. (shrink)
Kant divide a filosofia moral em duas partes: Ética e Teoria da Justiça. Cada uma é composta de diferentes descrições de deveres e direitos. A Ética contém deveres e direitos internos, voluntários e não-coercitivos. A Teoria da Justiça contém deveres e direitos externos e coercitivos. Os dois tipos de deveres e direitos são definidos em sua relação um com o outro. O que distingue os deveres éticos, ou deveres de virtude, dos deveres jurídicos, é que a compulsão externa para o (...) dever jurídico é moralmente possível, enquanto o dever de virtude é baseado na livre coerção própria. Assim, a finalidade deste artigo é pesquisar a noção de dever, e a relação entre dever, liberdade e coação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Dever. Liberdade e coação. ABSTRACT Kant divides moral philosophy into two parts: Ethics and the theory of justice. Each is composed of different sets of duties and rights. Ethics contains internal, voluntary, and unenforceable duties and rights. The theory of justice contains external, enforceable, and coercive duties and rights. Both types of duties and rights are defined in relation to each other, and therefore can be understood only in relation to each other. What distinguishes ethical duties or duties of virtue from juridical ones is that external compulsion to a juridical duty is morally possible, whereas a duty of virtue is based on free selfconstraint. So, the main purpose of this article is to research the notion of duty, and the relationship between duty, freedom and coercion. KEY WORDS – Duty. freedom and coercion. (shrink)
The “A-not-B” error is consistent with an old memory principle, Jost's Law. Quantitative properties of the effect can be explained by a dynamic model for habituation that is also consistent with Jost. Piaget was well aware of the resemblance between adult memory errors and the “A-not-B” effect and, contrary to their assertions, Thelen et al.'s analysis of the object concept is much the same as his, though couched in different language.
: This essay analyzes the relation between nothingness and the work of art, where negation appears as a fundamental element of art. Starting at a discussion of the concept of nothingness in existential phenomenology, it points to the limitations of Heidegger’s notion of nullity and negation, which spring from the denial of the dimension of consciousness to his Dasein. Although Sartre recovers that dimension in his portrayal of the pour-soi, now the idea of nothingness is not taken to its ultimate (...) consequence, where art would appear as a product of consciousness that is entrenched in nothingness. Only through an enlarged notion of consciousness, one that allows the perception of negative experience as intrinsically related to poiesis, will the work of art appear ontologically grounded in a form of Being that searches for its own contradiction. Such an enlarged notion of consciousness appears in the thought of Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitarō , where concepts such as ‘‘the place of nothingness’’ and ‘‘pure experience’’ can serve as ground to an analysis of the relation between nothingness and the work of art. (shrink)
This paper considers Roberto Unger's views on legal reasoning. His account is defended against two misplaced attacks. The first critique is by Emilios Christodoulidis. Using the language of systems theory, Christodoulidis contends that Unger's programme of democratic experimentalism cannot be achieved through law, as the constitutive structure of the legal system is immune to politics. Christodoulidis accuses Unger of attempting to reduce law to politics. It will be argued, however, that Unger does no such thing. The second attack holds (...) that Unger's criticisms of objectivism apply to his own democratic vision and that, as a result, he cannot promote this vision without self-contradiction. Again, it will be argued that this criticism rests on a misunderstanding of Unger's views. The paper concludes with a tentative objection to the substantive proposals of Unger's work, suggesting that they ought to be replaced by a pluralist account of value. (shrink)
Con motivo del bicentenario del nacimiento de Darwin, esta obra realiza un recorrido por la Teoría de la Evolución a partir del patrimonio bibliográfico y científico de la Universidad de Sevilla. Sus autores muestran la vigencia actual de esta teoría y el papel de Antonio Machado y Núñez, destacado darwinista de la Sevilla de finales del XIX.
Em entrevista a Alexandre Fontana intitulada “Verdade e Poder”, publicada na coletânea organizada por RobertoMachado, Microfísica do Poder, Michel Foucault esclarece que em seus primeiros escritos, História da Loucura (1961) e Nascimento da Clínica (1963), o campo de análise acerca do poder não estava a sua disposição, deixa claro ao leitor que a situação política a qual se achava no momento o incapacitava para tal empreendimento. Segundo Foucault, somente após os acontecimentos revolucionários de 1968 houve fecundidade possível (...) para análises do poder. Em 1970 o filósofo pronuncia sua aula inaugural no Collège de France, texto publicado com título de A Ordem do Discurso. Nota-se neste escrito, pela primeira vez e ainda não completamente elaborada, uma guinada metodológica no pensamento do filósofo que perpassará por textos como Vigiar e Punir (1975), História da Sexualidade – A vontade de saber (1976), Em defesa da Sociedade (1975-1976). O presente artigo, apresentado na XIX Semana de Filosofia da UFG, pretende discorrer sobre o texto Nietzsche, Genealogia e a História (1971), tendo em vista que é neste escrito que o método genealógico que o percorrerá Foucault por toda a década de 70 encontra-se mais maduro. E a partir desta questão de método, será possível alçar luzes para uma análise do poder conforme propõe Michel Foucault. (shrink)
Michels started from the radical wing of the German Marxist party, the SPD, and ended in Italy as one of Mussolini's professors of Fascist political science. What unifies his intellectual biography is a Weberian concern with bureaucracy.