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  1. Robin Cooper, Austinian Truth, Attitudes and Type Theory ∗.
    This paper is part of a broader project whose aim is to present a coherent unified approach to natural language dialogue semantics using tools from type theory. Here we explore aspects of our approach which relate to situation theory and situation semantics. We first point out a relationship between type theory and the Austinian notion of truth. We then consider how records in type theory might be used to represent situations and how dependent record types can be used to model (...)
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  2. Robin Cooper, Austinian Truth in Martin-L¨of Type Theory.
    A statement is said to be true when the historic state of affairs to which it is correlated by the demonstrative conventions (the ones to which it ‘refers’) is of a type with which the sentence used in making it is correlated by the descriptive conventions.
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  3. Robin Cooper, A Type Theoretic Approach to Information State Update in Issue Based Dialogue Management.
    For several years the research group at our Dialogue Systems Lab has been involved in the development of the information state update approach to the building of dialogue systems and in particular Issue based dialogue management developed in Staffan Larsson's PhD thesis and based on Jonathan Ginzburg's gameboard approach to dialogue, focussing on the notion of questions (or issues) under discussion. Larsson's computational approach to information state updates involves a large collection of update rules which fire when certain conditions in (...)
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  4. Robin Cooper, Copredication, Dynamic Generalized Quantification and Lexical Innovation by Coercion.
    We propose a record type theoretical account of cases of copredication which have motivated the introduction of dot types in the Generative Lexicon (Asher and Pustejovsky, 2005). We will suggest that using record types gives us a simple and intuitive account of dot types and also makes a connection between copredication and the use of hypothetical contexts in a record type theoretic analysis of dynamic generalized quantifiers. We propose a view of lexical innovation which draws both on Pustejovsky’s original (...)
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  5. Robin Cooper, Do Delicious Lunches Take a Long Time?
    In most language technology applications that include a lexicon, this lexicon is a collection of static accounts of the properties of words, such as their meaning. However, in human conversations it is often the case that word-meaning is adjusted to fit the context. Pustejovsky’s [10] theory of the Generative Lexicon explores some regular ways in which word meanings shift in context and thus represents an important step towards the implementation of systems which can assign meanings to words dynamically depending on (...)
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  6. Robin Cooper, Dynamic Generalised Quantifiers and Hypothetical Contexts.
    We shall consider a formulation of generalised quantifiers using type theory with records (TTR). TTR follows closely the development of record types in Martin-L¨of or constructive type theory but differs in that the type theory is defined on a classical set theoretic basis. This means that the classical set-theoretic approach to generalised quantifiers can be imported into the type theoretic framework. The result is, I believe, equivalent to the proposal for dynamic generalised quantifiers in Chierchia (1995). The use of dependent (...)
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  7. Robin Cooper, Is English Really a Formal Language?
    • languages as sets of strings and early transformational grammar • interpreted languages as sets of string-meaning pairs • Montague in ‘Universal Grammar’: There is in my opinion no important theoretical difference between natural languages and the artificial languages of logicians; indeed I consider it possible to comprehend the syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a single natural and mathematically precise theory.
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  8. Robin Cooper, Information States, Attitudes and Dependent Record Types.
    Within the community of researchers applying type theory to natural language there have been proposals to use contexts from type theory to model information states and to use context extension to model information updates. Examples of this are Ranta (1994) and research conducted in the DenK project (e.g. Ahn, 1995, Ahn and Borghuis, 1998).
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  9. Robin Cooper, Kvantifikator För En Dag.
    In a recent paper Asher and Pustejovsky propose a type theoretical approach to account for cases of copredication which had motivated Pustejovsky to introduce dot types in the Generative Lexicon. In this paper I will propose an alternative treatment to that given by Asher and Pustejovsky using type theory with records. I will suggest that using record types not only gives us a simple and intuitive account of dot types but also makes an important connection between copredication and (...)
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  10. Robin Cooper, Records and Record Types in Semantic Theory.
    I will explore possibilities for formulating linguistic semantics in terms of records and record types of the kind used in recent developments of Martin-L¨of type theory (Betarte, 1998, Betarte and Tasistro, 1998, Coquand, Pollock and Takeyama, 2003, Tasistro, 1997). I will suggest that they give us the tools to develop a theory which includes aspects of Montague semantics, using the lambda calculus1, Discourse Representation Theory (DRT)2, situation semantics3 and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)4 in a single theory. I will also (...)
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  11. Robin Cooper, Rising Frames.
    The temperature is 90◦F The temperature is rising..
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  12. Robin Cooper, Simple Situation Theory and its Graphical Representation Working Version.
    The work reported here is of two sorts. One the one hand, we attempt to consolidate a lot of recent work on situation theory into a workable version, one that researchers can use and add to in ways that might be suitable for various applications. On the other, we attempt to solve a representational problem with situation theory: how can we represent complicated situation-theoretic objects in a way that is perspicuous. Our way in to the latter problem comes from (...)
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  13. Robin Cooper, Towards a Formal View of Coordination and Learning in Dialogue.
    Naomi (2;7.16) Naomi: mittens Father: gloves. Naomi: gloves. Father: when they have fingers in them they are called gloves and when the fingers are all put together they are called mittens.
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  14. Robin Cooper, Type Theory with Records and Unification-Based Grammar.
    We suggest a way of bringing together type theory and unification-based grammar formalisms by using records in type theory. The work is part of a broader project whose aim is to present a coherent unified approach to natural language dialogue semantics using tools from type theory.
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  15. Robin Cooper & Aarne Ranta, Natural Languages as Collections of Resources.
    We propose a shift in perspective from the view of natural languages as formal languages to natural languages as a collection of resources for constructing local languages for use in particular situations. This is suggested by our experience constructing natural language grammars for particular applications using the Grammatical Framework. It points to a research programme investigating how such resources play a role in linguistic innovation by agents constructing situation-specific local languages and how they can be made dynamic, modified by the (...)
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  16. Staffan Larsson & Robin Cooper, Towards a Formal View of Corrective Feedback.
    This paper introduces a formal view of the semantics and pragmatics of corrective feedback in dialogues between adults and children. The goal of this research is to give a formal account of language coordination in dialogue, and semantic coordination in particular. Accounting for semantic coordination requires (1) a semantics, i.e. an architecture allowing for dynamic meanings and meaning updates as results of dialogue moves, and (2) a pragmatics, describing the dialogue moves involved in semantic coordination. We illustrate the general approach (...)
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  17. Robin Cooper, Austinian Propositions Davidsonian Events and Perception Complements.
    Intuitively Austinian propositions are propositions that tell us something about a situation In this paper we will consider Austinian propositions and the associated notion that situations support infons which are to be found in situation theory and situation semantics We will try to tease out the consequences of taking the Austinian approach advocated in situation semantics as opposed to a very similar approach originally proposed by Davidson That is that event predicates where events are to be generally conceived so as (...)
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  18. Robin Cooper, Using Dependent Record Types in Clarification Ellipsis.
    We present a sketch of a formulation of an analysis of clarification ellipsis using dependent record types as they have been developed in Martin-Lof type theory. Record types provide a semantic formalism which at the same time..
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  19. Robin Cooper & Staffan Larsson, Accommodation and Reaccommodation in Dialogue.
    1This work was supported in part by the projects TRINDI (Task Oriented Instructional Dialogue), EC Project LE4-8314, SDS (Swedish Dialogue Systems), NUTEK/HSFR Language Technology Project F1472/1997, INDI (Information Exchange in Dialogue), Riksbankens Jubileumsfond 1997-0134, and SIRIDUS (Specification, Interaction, Reconfiguration in Dialogue Understanding Systems), EC Project IST-1999-10516, and ILT (Interactive Language Technology), Vinnova Project 2001-6340. To appear in Presuppositions and Discourse ed. by Rainer Bäuerle, Uwe Reyle and Thomas Ede Zimmermann, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
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  20. Jonathan Ginzburg & Robin Cooper, Resolving Ellipsis in Clarification.
    We offer a computational analysis of the resolution of ellipsis in certain cases of dialogue clarification. We show that this goes beyond standard techniques used in anaphora and ellipsis resolution and requires operations on highly structured, linguistically heterogeneous representations. We characterize these operations and the representations on which they operate. We offer an analysis couched in a version of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar combined with a theory of information states (IS).
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  21. Jonathan Ginzburg & Robin Cooper (forthcoming). Quotation Via Dialogical Interaction. Journal of Logic, Language and Information:1-25.
    Quotation has been much studied in philosophy. Given that quotation allows one to diagonalize out of any grammar, there have been comparatively few attempts within the linguistic literature to develop an account within a formal linguistic theory. Nonetheless, given the ubiquity of quotation in natural language, linguists need to explicate the formal mechanisms it employs. The central claim of this paper is that once one assumes a dialogical perspective on language such as provided by the KoS (KoS is not an (...)
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  22. Jonathan Ginzburg & Robin Cooper (2004). Clarification, Ellipsis, and the Nature of Contextual Updates in Dialogue. Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (3):297-365.
    The paper investigates an elliptical construction, Clarification Ellipsis, that occurs in dialogue. We suggest that this provides data that demonstrates that updates resulting from utterances cannot be defined in purely semantic terms, contrary to the prevailing assumptions of existing approaches to dynamic semantics. We offer a computationally oriented analysis of the resolution of ellipsis in certain cases of dialogue clarification. We show that this goes beyond standard techniques used in anaphora and ellipsis resolution and requires operations on highly structured, linguistically (...)
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  23. Aarne Ranta & Robin Cooper (2004). Dialogue Systems as Proof Editors. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (2):225-240.
    This paper shows how a dialogue system for information-seekingdialogues can be implemented in a type-theory-based syntax editor,originally developed for editing mathematical proofs.The implementation gives a simple logical metatheory tosuch dialogue systems and also suggests new functions forthem, e.g., a local undo operation. The method developed provides alogically based declarative way of implementing simple dialoguesystems that is easy to port to new domains.
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  24. Robin Cooper (2003). Afterword. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):369-374.
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  25. Robin Cooper (1996). The Role of Situations in Generalized Quantifiers. In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. 65--86.
  26. Robin Cooper & Jonathan Ginzburg (1996). A Compositional Situation Semantics for Attitude Reports. In Jerry Seligman & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language and Computation. Csli Publications, Stanford. 1--151.
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  27. Elisabeth Engdahl, Dov Gabbay, U. Cambridge, Johan van Benthem, Jon Barwise, Robin Cooper, Jon Doyle, Brian Skyrms & U. Irvine (1996). Dag Westerstahl. Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 5:107-112.
     
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  28. Robin Cooper, Kuniaki Mukai & John Perry (eds.) (1990). Situation Theory and its Applications Vol. Csli.
    Preface This volume represents the proceedings of the First Conference on Situation Theory and Its Applications held by CSLI at Asilomar, California, ...
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  29. Robin Cooper (ed.) (1989). Thresholds Between Philosophy and Psychoanalysis: Papers From the Philadelphia Association. Free Association Books.
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  30. Robin Cooper (1987). Preliminaries to the Treatment of Generalized Quantifiers in Situation Semantics. In. In Peter Gärdenfors (ed.), Generalized Quantifiers. Reidel Publishing Company. 73--91.
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  31. Robin Cooper (1986). Tense and Discourse Location in Situation Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 9 (1):17 - 36.
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  32. Robin Cooper (1985). Introduction. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (1):1-1.
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  33. Richard Larson & Robin Cooper (1982). The Syntax and Semantics of When-Questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (1):155 - 169.
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  34. Jon Barwise & Robin Cooper (1981). Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (2):159--219.
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  35. Emmon Bach & Robin Cooper (1978). The NP-S Analysis of Relative Clauses and Compositional Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (1):145 - 150.
    We have sketched how it is possible to give an analysis for adjoined relative clauses which is consistent with the compositionality principle and have shown that the technique which seems necessary for this analysis can be used to provide a compositional semantics for the NP-S analysis of English relative clauses.It is unlikely that anyone working within the framework of a compositional theory would choose the NP-S analysis for English, since it is clearly much less elegant and simple, in some intuitive (...)
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