Search results for 'Robot' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Amanda Sharkey & Noel Sharkey (2012). Granny and the Robots: Ethical Issues in Robot Care for the Elderly. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):27-40.
    The growing proportion of elderly people in society, together with recent advances in robotics, makes the use of robots in elder care increasingly likely. We outline developments in the areas of robot applications for assisting the elderly and their carers, for monitoring their health and safety, and for providing them with companionship. Despite the possible benefits, we raise and discuss six main ethical concerns associated with: (1) the potential reduction in the amount of human contact; (2) an increase in (...)
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  2. Simon van Rysewyk (2014). Robot Pain. International Journal of Synthetic Emotions 4 (2):22-33.
    Functionalism of robot pain claims that what is definitive of robot pain is functional role, defined as the causal relations pain has to noxious stimuli, behavior and other subjective states. Here, I propose that the only way to theorize role-functionalism of robot pain is in terms of type-identity theory. I argue that what makes a state pain for a neuro-robot at a time is the functional role it has in the robot at the time, and (...)
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  3. Robert Sparrow (2002). The March of the Robot Dogs. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):305-318.
    Following the success of Sony Corporation’s “AIBO”, robot cats and dogs are multiplying rapidly. “Robot pets” employing sophisticated artificial intelligence and animatronic technologies are now being marketed as toys and companions by a number of large consumer electronics corporations. -/- It is often suggested in popular writing about these devices that they could play a worthwhile role in serving the needs of an increasingly aging and socially isolated population. Robot companions, shaped like familiar household pets, could comfort (...)
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  4. R. Sorbello, A. Chella, C. Calì, M. Giardina, S. Nishio & H. Ishiguro (2014). Telenoid Android Robot as an Embodied Perceptual Social Regulation Medium Engaging Natural Human–Humanoid Interaction. Robotics and Autonomous System 62:1329-1341.
    The present paper aims to validate our research on human–humanoid interaction (HHI) using the minimalist humanoid robot Telenoid. We conducted the human–robot interaction test with 142 young people who had no prior interaction experience with this robot. The main goal is the analysis of the two social dimensions (‘‘Perception’’ and ‘‘Believability’’) useful for increasing the natural behaviour between users and Telenoid.Weadministered our custom questionnaire to human subjects in association with a well defined experimental setting (‘‘ordinary and goal-guided (...)
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  5.  24
    Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). You, Robot: On the Linguistic Construction of Artificial Others. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (1):61-69.
    How can we make sense of the idea of ‘personal’ or ‘social’ relations with robots? Starting from a social and phenomenological approach to human–robot relations, this paper explores how we can better understand and evaluate these relations by attending to the ways our conscious experience of the robot and the human–robot relation is mediated by language. It is argued that our talk about and to robots is not a mere representation of an objective robotic or social-interactive reality, (...)
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  6.  90
    Amanda Sharkey (2014). Robots and Human Dignity: A Consideration of the Effects of Robot Care on the Dignity of Older People. Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):63-75.
    This paper explores the relationship between dignity and robot care for older people. It highlights the disquiet that is often expressed about failures to maintain the dignity of vulnerable older people, but points out some of the contradictory uses of the word ‘dignity’. Certain authors have resolved these contradictions by identifying different senses of dignity; contrasting the inviolable dignity inherent in human life to other forms of dignity which can be present to varying degrees. The Capability Approach (CA) is (...)
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  7. Stephen Petersen (2007). The Ethics of Robot Servitude. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 19 (1):43-54.
    Assume we could someday create artificial creatures with intelligence comparable to our own. Could it be ethical use them as unpaid labor? There is very little philosophical literature on this topic, but the consensus so far has been that such robot servitude would merely be a new form of slavery. Against this consensus I defend the permissibility of robot servitude, and in particular the controversial case of designing robots so that they want to serve human ends. A typical (...)
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  8.  11
    Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein (2013). The Intervention of Robot Caregivers and the Cultivation of Children's Capability to Play. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):123-137.
    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types (...)
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  9.  20
    Wendell Wallach & Colin Allen (2013). Framing Robot Arms Control. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):125-135.
    The development of autonomous, robotic weaponry is progressing rapidly. Many observers agree that banning the initiation of lethal activity by autonomous weapons is a worthy goal. Some disagree with this goal, on the grounds that robots may equal and exceed the ethical conduct of human soldiers on the battlefield. Those who seek arms-control agreements limiting the use of military robots face practical difficulties. One such difficulty concerns defining the notion of an autonomous action by a robot. Another challenge concerns (...)
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  10.  71
    Donald Levy (2003). How to Psychoanalyze a Robot: Unconscious Cognition and the Evolution of Intentionality. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (2):203-212.
    According to a common philosophical distinction, the `original' intentionality, or `aboutness' possessed by our thoughts, beliefs and desires, is categorically different from the `derived' intentionality manifested in some of our artifacts –- our words, books and pictures, for example. Those making the distinction claim that the intentionality of our artifacts is `parasitic' on the `genuine' intentionality to be found in members of the former class of things. In Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness, Daniel Dennett criticizes that claim (...)
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  11.  10
    Mark Coeckelbergh, Cristina Pop, Ramona Simut, Andreea Peca, Sebastian Pintea, Daniel David & Bram Vanderborght (2016). A Survey of Expectations About the Role of Robots in Robot-Assisted Therapy for Children with ASD: Ethical Acceptability, Trust, Sociability, Appearance, and Attachment. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):47-65.
    The use of robots in therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder raises issues concerning the ethical and social acceptability of this technology and, more generally, about human–robot interaction. However, usually philosophical papers on the ethics of human–robot-interaction do not take into account stakeholders’ views; yet it is important to involve stakeholders in order to render the research responsive to concerns within the autism and autism therapy community. To support responsible research and innovation in this field, this paper (...)
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  12.  53
    Patrizia Marti (2010). Robot Companions: Towards a New Concept of Friendship? Interaction Studies 11 (2):220-226.
    Noel and Amanda Sharkey have written an insightful paper on the ethical issues concerned with the development of childcare robots for infants and toddlers, discussing the possible consequences for the psychological and emotional development and wellbeing of children. The ethical issues involving the use of robots as toys, interaction partners or possible caretakers of children are discussed reviewing a wide literature on the pathology and causes of attachment disorders. The potential risks emerging from the analysis lead the authors to promote (...)
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  13.  15
    Laura Carlson, Marjorie Skubic, Jared Miller, Zhiyu Huo & Tatiana Alexenko (2014). Strategies for Human‐Driven Robot Comprehension of Spatial Descriptions by Older Adults in a Robot Fetch Task. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):513-533.
    This contribution presents a corpus of spatial descriptions and describes the development of a human-driven spatial language robot system for their comprehension. The domain of application is an eldercare setting in which an assistive robot is asked to “fetch” an object for an elderly resident based on a natural language spatial description given by the resident. In Part One, we describe a corpus of naturally occurring descriptions elicited from a group of older adults within a virtual 3D home (...)
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  14.  23
    Yvette Pearson (2010). Robot Caregivers: Harbingers of Expanded Freedom for All? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):277-288.
    As we near a time when robots may serve a vital function by becoming caregivers, it is important to examine the ethical implications of this development. By applying the capabilities approach as a guide to both the design and use of robot caregivers, we hope that this will maximize opportunities to preserve or expand freedom for care recipients. We think the use of the capabilities approach will be especially valuable for improving the ability of impaired persons to interface more (...)
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  15.  5
    Shogo Okada, Yoichi Kobayashi, Satoshi Ishibashi & Toyoaki Nishida (2010). Incremental Learning of Gestures for Human–Robot Interaction. AI and Society 25 (2):155-168.
    For a robot to cohabit with people, it should be able to learn people’s nonverbal social behavior from experience. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning method for recognizing gestures used in interaction and communication. Our method enables robots to learn gestures incrementally during human–robot interaction in an unsupervised manner. It allows the user to leave the number and types of gestures undefined prior to the learning. The proposed method (HB-SOINN) is based on a self-organizing incremental (...)
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  16.  21
    Tatsuya Nomura, Takayuki Kanda & Tomohiro Suzuki (2006). Experimental Investigation Into Influence of Negative Attitudes Toward Robots on Human–Robot Interaction. AI and Society 20 (2):138-150.
    Negative attitudes toward robots are considered as one of the psychological factors preventing humans from interacting with robots in the daily life. To verify their influence on humans‘ behaviors toward robots, we designed and executed experiments where subjects interacted with Robovie, which is being developed as a platform for research on the possibility of communication robots. This paper reports and discusses the results of these experiments on correlation between subjects’ negative attitudes and their behaviors toward robots. Moreover, it discusses influences (...)
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  17.  67
    J. Kevin O'Regan (2012). How to Build a Robot That is Conscious and Feels. Minds and Machines 22 (2):117-136.
    Following arguments put forward in my book (Why red doesn’t sound like a bell: understanding the feel of consciousness. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 2011), this article takes a pragmatic, scientist’s point of view about the concepts of consciousness and “feel”, pinning down what people generally mean when they talk about these concepts, and then investigating to what extent these capacities could be implemented in non-biological machines. Although the question of “feel”, or “phenomenal consciousness” as it is called by (...)
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  18.  74
    James Gips (1994). Toward the Ethical Robot. In Kenneth M. Ford, C. Glymour & Patrick Hayes (eds.), Android Epistemology. MIT Press
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  19.  34
    Hutan Ashrafian (2015). Artificial Intelligence and Robot Responsibilities: Innovating Beyond Rights. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):317-326.
    The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics. A contrast to the moral status of animals may be (...)
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  20.  98
    Margaret A. Boden (1995). Could a Robot Be Creative--And Would We Know? In Android Epistemology. Cambridge: MIT Press
  21.  82
    Selmer Bringsjord (2004). On Building Robot Persons: Response to Zlatev. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (3):381-385.
    Zlatev offers surprisingly weak reasoning in support of his view that robots with the right kind of developmental histories can have meaning. We ought nonetheless to praise Zlatev for an impressionistic account of how attending to the psychology of human development can help us build robots that appear to have intentionality.
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  22.  66
    Daya Krishna (1961). "Lying" and the Compleat Robot. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12 (August):146-149.
  23.  66
    Keith Gunderson (1963). Interview with a Robot. Analysis 23 (June):136-142.
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  24.  11
    Roberto Cordeschi (2013). Automatic Decision-Making and Reliability in Robotic Systems: Some Implications in the Case of Robot Weapons. AI and Society 28 (4):431-441.
    In this article, I shall examine some of the issues and questions involved in the technology of autonomous robots, a technology that has developed greatly and is advancing rapidly. I shall do so with reference to a particularly critical field: autonomous military robotic systems. In recent times, various issues concerning the ethical implications of these systems have been the object of increasing attention from roboticists, philosophers and legal experts. The purpose of this paper is not to deal with these issues, (...)
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  25.  13
    Frank R. I. Harrison (1971). The Pains of R-George, Robot. Southern Journal of Philosophy 9 (4):371-380.
  26. Brian Fiala, Adam Arico & Shaun Nichols (2014). You, Robot. In Edouard Machery (ed.), Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy. Routledge 31-47.
    How do people think about the mental states of robots? Experimental philosophers have developed various models aiming to specify the factors that drive people's attributions of mental states to robots. Here we report on a new experiment involving robots, the results of which tell against competing models. We advocate a view on which attributions of mental states to robots are driven by the same dual-process architecture that subserves attributions of mental states more generally. In support of this view, we leverage (...)
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  27. Noel Sharkey & Amanda Sharkey (2010). The Crying Shame of Robot Nannies: An Ethical Appraisal. Interaction Studies 11 (2):161-190.
    Childcare robots are being manufactured and developed with the long term aim of creating surrogate carers. While total childcare is not yet being promoted, there are indications that it is 'on the cards'. We examine recent research and developments in childcare robots and speculate on progress over the coming years by extrapolating from other ongoing robotics work. Our main aim is to raise ethical questions about the part or full-time replacement of primary carers. The questions are about human rights, privacy, (...)
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  28.  14
    Karl F. MacDorman, Sandosh K. Vasudevan & Chin-Chang Ho (2009). Does Japan Really Have Robot Mania? Comparing Attitudes by Implicit and Explicit Measures. AI and Society 23 (4):485-510.
    Japan has more robots than any other country with robots contributing to many areas of society, including manufacturing, healthcare, and entertainment. However, few studies have examined Japanese attitudes toward robots, and none has used implicit measures. This study compares attitudes among the faculty of a US and a Japanese university. Although the Japanese faculty reported many more experiences with robots, implicit measures indicated both faculties had more pleasant associations with humans. In addition, although the US faculty reported people were more (...)
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  29.  11
    Henry Moss (2016). Genes, Affect, and Reason: Why Autonomous Robot Intelligence Will Be Nothing Like Human Intelligence. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 20 (1):1-15.
    Abstract: Many believe that, in addition to cognitive capacities, autonomous robots need something similar to affect. As in humans, affect, including specific emotions, would filter robot experience based on a set of goals, values, and interests. This narrows behavioral options and avoids combinatorial explosion or regress problems that challenge purely cognitive assessments in a continuously changing experiential field. Adding human-like affect to robots is not straightforward, however. Affect in organisms is an aspect of evolved biological systems, from the taxes (...)
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  30.  26
    John P. Sullins (2006). When is a Robot a Moral Agent. International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):23-30.
    In this paper Sullins argues that in certain circumstances robots can be seen as real moral agents. A distinction is made between persons and moral agents such that, it is not necessary for a robot to have personhood in order to be a moral agent. I detail three requirements for a robot to be seen as a moral agent. The first is achieved when the robot is significantly autonomous from any programmers or operators of the machine. The (...)
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  31.  19
    Peter M. Asaro (2006). What Should We Want From a Robot Ethic. International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):9-16.
    There are at least three things we might mean by "ethics in robotics": the ethical systems built into robots, the ethics of people who design and use robots, and the ethics of how people treat robots. This paper argues that the best approach to robot ethics is one which addresses all three of these, and to do this it ought to consider robots as socio-technical systems. By so doing, it is possible to think of a continuum of agency that (...)
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  32. Christopher Grau (2011). There is No 'I' in 'Robot': Robots and Utilitarianism (Expanded & Revised). In Susan Anderson & Michael Anderson (eds.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge University Press 451.
    Utilizing the film I, Robot as a springboard, I here consider the feasibility of robot utilitarians, the moral responsibilities that come with the creation of ethical robots, and the possibility of distinct ethics for robot-robot interaction as opposed to robot-human interaction. (This is a revised and expanded version of an essay that originally appeared in IEEE: Intelligent Systems.).
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  33.  26
    Kerstin Fischer, Kilian Foth, Katharina J. Rohlfing & Britta Wrede (2011). Mindful Tutors: Linguistic Choice and Action Demonstration in Speech to Infants and a Simulated Robot. Interaction Studies 12 (1):134-161.
    It has been proposed that the design of robots might benefit from interactions that are similar to caregiver-child interactions, which is tailored to children's respective capacities to a high degree. However, so far little is known about how people adapt their tutoring behaviour to robots and whether robots can evoke input that is similar to child-directed interaction. The paper presents detailed analyses of speakers' linguistic behaviour and non-linguistic behaviour, such as action demonstration, in two comparable situations: In one experiment, parents (...)
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  34.  17
    Bram Vanderborght, Ramona Simut, Jelle Saldien, Cristina Pop, Alina S. Rusu, Sebastian Pintea, Dirk Lefeber & Daniel O. David (2012). Using the Social Robot Probo as a Social Story Telling Agent for Children with ASD. Interaction Studies 13 (3):348-372.
    This paper aims to study the role of the social robot Probo in providing assistance to a therapist for robot assisted therapy (RAT) with autistic children. Children with autism have difficulties with social interaction and several studies indicate that they show preference toward interaction with objects, such as computers and robots, rather than with humans. In 1991, Carol Gray developed Social Stories, an intervention tool aimed to increase children's social skills. Social stories are short scenarios written or tailored (...)
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  35.  27
    Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David (2012). Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot: A Series of Single Case Experiments. Interaction Studies 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria (i.e. eye gaze, gaze shifting, free initiations and prompted initiations of arm movements, and smile/laughter) were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results (...)
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  36. Daniel C. Dennett (1994). The Practical Requirements for Making a Conscious Robot. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 349:133-46.
    Arguments about whether a robot could ever be conscious have been conducted up to now in the factually impoverished arena of what is possible "in principle." A team at MIT of which I am a part is now embarking on a longterm project to design and build a humanoid robot, Cog, whose cognitive talents will include speech, eye-coordinated manipulation of objects, and a host of self-protective, self-regulatory and self-exploring activities. The aim of the project is not to make (...)
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  37.  26
    Robert Rose, Matthias Scheutz & Paul Schermerhorn (2010). Towards a Conceptual and Methodological Framework for Determining Robot Believability. Interaction Studies 11 (2):314-335.
    Making interactions between humans and artificial agents successful is a major goal of interaction design. The aim of this paper is to provide researchers conducting interaction studies a new framework for the evaluation of robot believability. By critically examining the ordinary sense of believability, we first argue that currently available notions of it are underspecified for rigorous application in an experimental setting. We then define four concepts that capture different senses of believability, each of which connects directly to an (...)
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  38. Anthony F. Beavers, Between Angels and Animals: The Question of Robot Ethics, or is Kantian Moral Agency Desirable?
    In this paper, I examine a variety of agents that appear in Kantian ethics in order to determine which would be necessary to make a robot a genuine moral agent. However, building such an agent would require that we structure into a robot’s behavioral repertoire the possibility for immoral behavior, for only then can the moral law, according to Kant, manifest itself as an ought, a prerequisite for being able to hold an agent morally accountable for its actions. (...)
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  39.  43
    Rodney A. Brooks, A Robot That Walks; Emergent Behaviors From a Carefully Evolved Network.
    Most animals have significant behavioral expertise built in without having to explicitly learn it all from scratch. This expertise is a product of evolution of the organism; it can be viewed as a very long term form of learning which provides a structured system within which individuals might learn more specialized skills or abilities. This paper suggests one possible mechanism for analagous robot evolution by describing a carefully designed series of networks, each one being a strict augmentation of the (...)
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  40.  56
    Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Offer: One Billion Dollars for a Conscious Robot; If You're Honest, You Must Decline. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):28-43.
    You are offered one billion dollars to 'simply' produce a proof-of-concept robot that has phenomenal consciousness -- in fact, you can receive a deliciously large portion of the money up front, by simply starting a three-year work plan in good faith. Should you take the money and commence? No. I explain why this refusal is in order, now and into the foreseeable future.
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  41.  95
    Oliver Sacks, Jonathan Cole & Ian Waterman (2000). On the Immunity Principle: A View From a Robot. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (5):167.
    Preprint of Cole, Sacks, and Waterman. 2000. "On the immunity principle: A view from a robot." Trends in Cognitive Science 4 (5): 167, a response to Shaun Gallagher, S. 2000. "Philosophical conceptions of the self: implications for cognitive science," Trends in Cognitive Science 4 (1):14-21. Also see Shaun Gallagher, Reply to Cole, Sacks, and Waterman Trends in Cognitive Science 4, No. 5 (2000): 167-68.
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  42.  17
    Heather M. Roff (2014). The Strategic Robot Problem: Lethal Autonomous Weapons in War. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (3):211-227.
    The present debate over the creation and potential deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, or ‘killer robots’, is garnering more and more attention. Much of the argument revolves around whether such machines would be able to uphold the principle of noncombatant immunity. However, much of the present debate fails to take into consideration the practical realties of contemporary armed conflict, particularly generating military objectives and the adherence to a targeting process. This paper argues that we must look to the targeting process (...)
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  43.  43
    Shaun Gallagher (2013). You and I, Robot. AI and Society 28 (4):455-460.
    I address a number of issues related to building an autonomous social robot. I review different approaches to social cognition and ask how these different approaches may inform the design of social robots. I argue that regardless of which theoretical approach to social cognition one favors, instantiating that approach in a workable robot will involve designing that robot on enactive principles.
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  44.  11
    Fermin Martinez (2005). I, Robot (I). Questions: Philosophy for Young People 5:1-1.
    A testament of love and philosophy through the relations with artificial intelligence and comparing the Robot “Murry” to human life.
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  45.  4
    Jungsik Hwang & Kun Chang Lee (2015). Exploring the Effect of a User’s Personality Traits on Tactile Communication with a Robot Using Bayesian Networks. Interaction Studies 16 (1):29-53.
    Because robots are physically embodied agents, touch is one of the important modalities through which robots communicate with humans. Among the several factors that affect human-robot interaction, this research focuses on the effect of a user’s personality traits on tactile interactions with a robot. Participants interacted freely with a robot and their tactile interaction patterns were analyzed. Several classifiers were used to examine the effect of a participant’s degree of extroversion on tactile communication patterns with the (...) and our results showed that a user’s personality traits affected the way in which they interacted with the robot. Specifically, important features of Bayesian networks, such as the Markov blanket and what-if/goal-seeking power were tested and showed the effect of personality on tactile interaction with respect to where and how participants touched the robot. We also found that, by using Bayesian network classifiers, a user’s personality traits can be inferred based on tactile communication patterns. (shrink)
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  46.  40
    Anthony F. Beavers, What Can A Robot Teach Us About Kantian Ethics?," in Process".
    In this paper, I examine a variety of agents that appear in Kantian ethics in order to determine which would be necessary to make a robot a genuine moral agent. However, building such an agent would require that we structure into a robot’s behavioral repertoire the possibility for immoral behavior, for only then can the moral law, according to Kant, manifest itself as an ought, a prerequisite for being able to hold an agent morally accountable for its actions. (...)
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  47.  36
    Edoardo Datteri (2013). Predicting the Long-Term Effects of Human-Robot Interaction: A Reflection on Responsibility in Medical Robotics. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):139-160.
    This article addresses prospective and retrospective responsibility issues connected with medical robotics. It will be suggested that extant conceptual and legal frameworks are sufficient to address and properly settle most retrospective responsibility problems arising in connection with injuries caused by robot behaviours (which will be exemplified here by reference to harms occurred in surgical interventions supported by the Da Vinci robot, reported in the scientific literature and in the press). In addition, it will be pointed out that many (...)
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  48.  48
    Germund Hesslow & D.-A. Jirenhed (2007). The Inner World of a Simple Robot. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):85-96.
    The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether a particular robot can be said to have an 'inner world', something that can be taken to be a critical feature of consciousness. It has previously been argued that the mechanism underlying the appearance of an inner world in humans is an ability of our brains to simulate behaviour and perception. A robot has previously been designed in which perception can be simulated. A prima facie case can be made (...)
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  49.  7
    Fermin Martinez (2005). I, Robot (II). Questions 5:5-5.
    A testament of love and philosophy through the relations with artificial intelligence and comparing the Robot “Murry” to human life.
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    Michihiro Shimada & Takayuki Kanda (2012). What is the Appropriate Speech Rate for a Communication Robot. Interaction Studies 13 (3):406-433.
    This study investigates the influence of a robot's speech rate. In human communication, slow speech is considered boring, speech at normal speed is perceived as credible, and fast speech is perceived as competent. To seek the appropriate speech rate for robots, we test whether these tendencies are replicated in human-robot interaction by conducting an experiment with four rates of speech: fast, normal, moderately slow, and slow. Our experimental results reveal a rather surprising trend. Participants prefer normal and moderately (...)
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