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  1. Rodney A. Brooks, Alternative Essences of Intelligence.
    We present a novel methodology for building humanlike artificially intelligent systems. We take as a model the only existing systems which are universally accepted as intelligent: humans. We emphasize building intelligent systems which are not masters of a single domain, but, like humans, are adept at performing a variety of complex tasks in the real world. Using evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience, we suggest four alternative essences of intelligence to those held by classical AI. These are the parallel themes (...)
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  2. Rodney A. Brooks, Fast, Cheap and Out of Control: A Robot Invasion of the Solar System.
    Complex systems and complex missions take years of planning and force launches to become incredibly expensive. The longer the planning and the more expensive the mission, the more catastrophic if it fails. The solution has always been to plan better, add redundancy, test thoroughly and use high quality components. Based on our experience in building ground based mobile robots (legged and wheeled) we argue here for cheap, fast missions using large numbers of mass produced simple autonomous robots that are small (...)
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  3. Rodney A. Brooks, From Earwigs to Humans.
    Both direct, and evolved, behavior-based approaches to mobile robots have yielded a number of interesting demonstrations of robots that navigate, map, plan and operate in the real world. The work can best be described as attempts to emulate insect level locomotion and navigation, with very little work on behavior-based non-trivial manipulation of the world. There have been some behavior-based attempts at exploring social interactions, but these too have been modeled after the sorts of social interactions we see in insects. But (...)
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  4. Rodney A. Brooks, New Approaches to Robotics.
    In order to build autonomous robots that can carry out useful work in unstructured environments new approaches have been developed to building intelligent systems. The relationship to traditional academic robotics and traditional artificial intelligence is examined. In the new approaches a tight coupling of sensing to action produces architectures for intelligence that are networks of simple computational elements which are quite broad, but not very deep. Recent work within this approach has demonstrated the use of representations, expectations, plans, goals, and (...)
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  5. Rodney A. Brooks, Technologies for Human/Humanoid Natural Interactions.
    There are a number of reasons to be interested in building humanoid robots. They include (1) since almost all human artifacts have been designed to easy for humans to interact with, humanoid robots provide backward compatibility with the existing human constructed world, (2) humanoid robots provide a natural form for humans to operate through telepresence since they have the same kinematic design as humans themselves, (3) by building humanoid robots that model humans directly they will be a useful tool in (...)
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  6. Bryan Adams, Rodney A. Brooks & Brian Scassellati, Humanoid Robots: A New Kind of Tool.
    In his 1923 play R.U.R.: Rossum s Universal Robots, Karel Capek coined robot as a derivative of the Czech robota (forced labor). Limited to work too tedious or dangerous for humans, today s robots weld parts on assembly lines, inspect nuclear plants, and explore other planets. Generally, robots are still far from achieving their fictional counterparts intelligence and flexibility. Humanoid robotics labs worldwide are working on creating robots that are one step closer to science fiction s androids. Building a humanlike (...)
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  7. Colin M. Angle & Rodney A. Brooks, Small Planetary Rovers.
    We have previously built a small IKg ([Angle 89] and [Brooks 89]) six legged walking robot named Genghis. It was remarkably successful as a testbed to develop walking and learning algorithms. It encouraged us to build a more fully engineered robot with higher performance. We are building two copies of the robot, both 1.6Kg in mass. Their generic name is Attila. Attila has 24 actuators and over 150 sensors, all connected via a local network (the I2C bus) to 11 onboard (...)
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  8. Rodney A. Brooks, Artificial Life and Real Robots.
    The first part of this paper explores the general issues in using Artificial Life techniques to program actual mobile robots. In particular it explores the difficulties inherent in transferring programs evolved in a simulated environment to run on an actual robot. It examines the dual evolution of organism morphology and nervous systems in biology. It proposes techniques to capture some of the search space pruning that dual evolution offers in the domain of robot programming. It explores the relationship between robot (...)
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  9. Rodney A. Brooks, A Robot That Walks; Emergent Behaviors From a Carefully Evolved Network.
    Most animals have significant behavioral expertise built in without having to explicitly learn it all from scratch. This expertise is a product of evolution of the organism; it can be viewed as a very long term form of learning which provides a structured system within which individuals might learn more specialized skills or abilities. This paper suggests one possible mechanism for analagous robot evolution by describing a carefully designed series of networks, each one being a strict augmentation of the previous (...)
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  10. Rodney A. Brooks, How to Build Complete Creatures Rather Than Isolated Cognitive Simulators.
    Artificial Intelligence as a discipline has gotten bogged down in subproblems of intelligence. These subproblems are the result of applying reductionist methods to the goal of creating a complete artificial thinking mind. In Brooks (1987) 1 have argued that these methods will lead us to solving irrelevant problems; interesting as intellectual puzzles, but useless in the long run for creating an artificial being.
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  11. Rodney A. Brooks, Integrated Systems Based on Behaviors.
    Behavior based systems require an orthogonal view of integration issues. In this paper we highlight those issues, discuss what is easy, what is hard, and where the research frontiers lie.
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  12. Rodney A. Brooks, Learning to Coordinate Behaviors.
    We describe an algorithm which allows a behavior-based robot to learn on the basis of positive and negative feedback when to activate its behaviors. In accordance with the philosophy of behavior-based robots, the algorithm is completely distributed: each of the behaviors independently tries to find out (i) whether it is relevant (ie. whether it is at all correlated to positive feedback) and (ii) what the conditions are under which it becomes reliable (i.e. the conditions under which i t maximizes the (...)
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  13. Rodney A. Brooks, Prospects for Human Level Intelligence for Humanoid Robots.
    Both direct, and evolved, behavior-based approaches to mobile robots have yielded a number of interesting demonstrations of robots that navigate, map, plan and operate in the real world. The work can best be described as attempts to emulate insect level locomotion and navigation, with very little work on behavior-based non-trivial manipulation of the world. There have been some behavior-based attempts at exploring social interactions, but these too have been modeled after the sorts of social interactions we see in insects. But (...)
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  14. Rodney A. Brooks, The Intelligent Room Project.
    At the MIT Arti cial Intelligence Laboratory we have been working on technologies for an Intelligent Room. Rather than pull people into the virtual world of the computer we are trying to pull the computer out into the real world of people. To do this we are combining robotics and vision technology with speech understanding systems, and agent based architectures to provide ready at hand computation and information services for people engaged in day to day activities, both on their own (...)
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  15. Rodney A. Brooks, The Role of Learning in Autonomous Robots.
    Applications of learning to autonomous agents (simulated or real) have often been restricted to learning a mapping from perceived state of the world to the next action to take. Often this is couched in terms of learning from no previous knowledge. This general case for real autonomous robots is very difficult. In any case, when building a real robot there is usually a lot of a priori knowledge (e.g., from the engineering that went into its design) which doesn’t need to (...)
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  16. Rodney A. Brooks & Anita M. Flynn, Twilight Zones and Cornerstones.
    We want to build tiny gnat-sized robots, a millimeter or two in diameter. They will be cheap, disposable, totally sefcontained autonomous agents able to do useful things in the world. This paper consists of two parts. The first describes why we want to build them. The second is a technical outline of how to go about it. Gnat robots are going to change the world.
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  17. Rodney A. Brooks & Liana M. Lorigo, Visually-Guided Obstacle Avoidance in Unstructured Environments.
    This paper presents an autonomous vision-based obstacle avoidance system. The system consists of three independent vision modules for obstacle detection, each of which is computationally simple and uses a di erent criterion for detection purposes. These criteria are based on brightness gradients, RGB Red, Green, Blue color, and HSV Hue, Saturation, Value color, respectively. Selection of which modules are used to command the robot proceeds exclusively from the outputs of the modules themselves. The system is implemented on a small monocular (...)
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  18. St Thomas Aquinas, Richard J. Bernstein, Bernard Bosanquet, Robert Brandom, James Henry Breasted, Joseph Brent, Rodney A. Brooks & Wendell T. Bush (2002). Carnap, Rudolf, 17,114,115 N, 227, 252 Cams, Paul, 43 Chisholm, Roderick, 17 Chomsky, Noam, 130. In F. Thomas Burke, D. Micah Hester & Robert B. Talisse (eds.), Dewey's Logical Theory: New Studies and Interpretations. Vanderbilt University Press.
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