Abstract Among the world's religions, Islam has one of the most fully developed understandings of the notion of revelation. It views the whole of the created order as a revelation and, accordingly, considers religious revelation in the form of Scripture as an integral feature of the human condition. It is within this context that Muhammad's own revelatory experiences must be considered. These are well?attested in the Hadith literature. Islam recognises three distinct grades of revelation. Muhammad's was the highest of these (...) which, as the ahadith make clear, is a ?passing into the deep sleep state in full consciousness ...?. The explicit nature of these traditional accounts of prophecy in action, as well as Islam's universalism, sheds light upon revelation in all religious traditions. (shrink)
Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed under irradiation in fcc metals and alloys. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue in this is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is distinguished by a small physical size of the order of ?1?10?nm. We have performed atomistic simulations of edge and (...) screw dislocations interacting with SFTs of different sizes at different temperatures and strain rates. Five possible interaction outcomes have been identified, involving either partial absorption, or shearing or restoration of SFTs. The mechanisms that give rise to these processes are described and their dependence on interaction parameters, such as SFT size, dislocation?SFT geometry, temperature and stress/strain rate are determined. Mechanisms that help to explain the formation of defect-free channels cleared by gliding dislocations, as observed experimentally, are also discussed. Hardening due to the various mechanisms and their dependence on loading conditions will be presented in a following paper (Part II). (shrink)
Based on atomic-scale simulation techniques, we study the dislocation pinning mechanism in a dilute Ni(Al) model solid solution. For a solute concentration between 1 and 10 at.% , we found that the pinning of the dislocation on obstacles made of Al pairs is an interaction that operates significantly. The statistics of the dislocation motion is then modified accordingly to the nature of the obstacles and follows modified Mott?Nabarro statistics. Finally, a method to address thermal activation is proposed and exemplified on (...) a periodic row of solute pairs. (shrink)
In his last few years, Patrick Veyssière became involved in atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations that give access to the full atomistic details of dislocation/dislocation and dislocation/defect interactions. Such simulations are, however, very limited in time and do not allow the study of diffusional processes, such as vacancy migration. For such processes, one needs to explore the configuration space in search of activated states, whose energy barriers control the slow thermal-activated kinetics of defects. Here, we present work, performed in the context (...) of a France?China project and initiated by Patrick Veyssière, where we study the long-term evolution of vacancy supersaturations in fcc metals. We employed a combination of saddle-point search methods (activation?relaxation technique, automated basin climbing method and nudged elastic band method) and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to reach experimental timescales while retaining atomistic fidelity. The simulations identified a specific and, so far, unidentified cluster, the pentavacancy, made of five vacancies forming a bcc unit cell in the fcc lattice, which plays a central role in vacancy clustering in aluminium. (shrink)
In this article I examine a common objection to the fine-tuning argument (an objection which may be referred to as the atheistic many universes (AMU) objection). A reply to this objection due to Roger White has been the subject of much controversy; White's reply has been criticized by Rodney Holder, on the one hand, and Neil Manson and Michael Thrush on the other. In this paper I analyze Holder's work in an effort to determine whether the AMU objection successfully (...) defeats the fine-tuning argument. I conclude that the fine-tuning argument can be reformulated so as to avoid the AMU objection. (shrink)
Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production (e.g., social, cultural, historical, political). I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates (...) what is present in perceptual awareness. Making use of Anthony Steinbock's work on Husserlian phenomenological method — drawn from his extensive study of Husserl's unpublished manuscripts — I develop an epistemological framework that treats knowledge claims as inextricably bound to the horizons of meaning from which they arise, and provides standards of epistemic responsibility pertaining to an agent's "framing" of evidence. (shrink)
The ethical ‘eye’ of nursing, that is, the particular moral vision and values inherent in nursing work, is constrained by the preoccupations and practices of the superordinate biomedical structure in which nursing as a practice discipline is embedded. The intimate, situated knowledge of particular persons who construct and attach meaning to their health experience in the presence of and with the active participation of the nurse, is the knowledge that provides the evidence for nurses’ ethical decision making. It is largely (...) invisible to all but other nurses. Two nurse researchers, Joan Liaschenko of the University of Minnesota and Patricia Rodney of the University of Victoria, have investigated the ethical concerns of practising nurses and noted in their separate enquiries the invisible nature of critical aspects of nursing work. Noting the similarities in their respective observations, and with the feminist ethics of Margaret Urban Walker as a theoretical framework, this article examines the concept of ‘invisibility’ as it relates to nursing work and nursing ethics. (shrink)
It is claimed that the universe appears to be fine-tuned so as to admit the development of life. In this article Rodney Holder examines the evidence for fine-tuning and the chief rival explanation to design, namely the existence of a.
Whom a prime minister or president will not shake hands with is still more noticed than with whom they will. Public identity can afford to be ambiguous about friends, but not about enemies. Rodney Barker examines the available accounts of how enmity functions in the cultivation of identity, how essential or avoidable it is, and what the consequences are for the contemporary world.