When Herbert Marcuse's essay entitled “Repressive tolerance” was published in the mid-1960s it was trenchantly criticised because it was anti-democratic and defied the academic canon of value neutrality. Yet his argument is attracting renewed interest in the 21st century, particularly when, post 9/11, the thresholds or limits of tolerance are being contested. This article argues that Marcuse's original essay was concerned to problematise the dominant social understandings of tolerance at the time, which were more about insisting that individual citizens tolerate (...) government policy than governments encourage debate and dissent. The article shows how Marcuse attempted to demonstrate the social production of knowledge about tolerance, and how he diagnosed the social function performed by “impartiality” and “relativism”, and by “neutrality” and “objectivity”, which contributed to tolerance being repressive. In the sense that he was concerned about what counted socially as tolerance, and how it was socially defended and justified, his article can helpfully be conceived as an exercise in social epistemology. (shrink)
Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed under irradiation in fcc metals and alloys. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. The key issue in this is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is distinguished by a small physical size of the order of ?1?10?nm. We have performed atomistic simulations of edge and (...) screw dislocations interacting with SFTs of different sizes at different temperatures and strain rates. Five possible interaction outcomes have been identified, involving either partial absorption, or shearing or restoration of SFTs. The mechanisms that give rise to these processes are described and their dependence on interaction parameters, such as SFT size, dislocation?SFT geometry, temperature and stress/strain rate are determined. Mechanisms that help to explain the formation of defect-free channels cleared by gliding dislocations, as observed experimentally, are also discussed. Hardening due to the various mechanisms and their dependence on loading conditions will be presented in a following paper (Part II). (shrink)
Based on atomic-scale simulation techniques, we study the dislocation pinning mechanism in a dilute Ni(Al) model solid solution. For a solute concentration between 1 and 10 at.% , we found that the pinning of the dislocation on obstacles made of Al pairs is an interaction that operates significantly. The statistics of the dislocation motion is then modified accordingly to the nature of the obstacles and follows modified Mott?Nabarro statistics. Finally, a method to address thermal activation is proposed and exemplified on (...) a periodic row of solute pairs. (shrink)
In his last few years, Patrick Veyssière became involved in atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations that give access to the full atomistic details of dislocation/dislocation and dislocation/defect interactions. Such simulations are, however, very limited in time and do not allow the study of diffusional processes, such as vacancy migration. For such processes, one needs to explore the configuration space in search of activated states, whose energy barriers control the slow thermal-activated kinetics of defects. Here, we present work, performed in the context (...) of a France?China project and initiated by Patrick Veyssière, where we study the long-term evolution of vacancy supersaturations in fcc metals. We employed a combination of saddle-point search methods (activation?relaxation technique, automated basin climbing method and nudged elastic band method) and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to reach experimental timescales while retaining atomistic fidelity. The simulations identified a specific and, so far, unidentified cluster, the pentavacancy, made of five vacancies forming a bcc unit cell in the fcc lattice, which plays a central role in vacancy clustering in aluminium. (shrink)
In this article I examine a common objection to the fine-tuning argument (an objection which may be referred to as the atheistic many universes (AMU) objection). A reply to this objection due to Roger White has been the subject of much controversy; White's reply has been criticized by Rodney Holder, on the one hand, and Neil Manson and Michael Thrush on the other. In this paper I analyze Holder's work in an effort to determine whether the AMU objection successfully (...) defeats the fine-tuning argument. I conclude that the fine-tuning argument can be reformulated so as to avoid the AMU objection. (shrink)
Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production (e.g., social, cultural, historical, political). I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates (...) what is present in perceptual awareness. Making use of Anthony Steinbock's work on Husserlian phenomenological method — drawn from his extensive study of Husserl's unpublished manuscripts — I develop an epistemological framework that treats knowledge claims as inextricably bound to the horizons of meaning from which they arise, and provides standards of epistemic responsibility pertaining to an agent's "framing" of evidence. (shrink)
It is claimed that the universe appears to be fine-tuned so as to admit the development of life. In this article Rodney Holder examines the evidence for fine-tuning and the chief rival explanation to design, namely the existence of a.
Whom a prime minister or president will not shake hands with is still more noticed than with whom they will. Public identity can afford to be ambiguous about friends, but not about enemies. Rodney Barker examines the available accounts of how enmity functions in the cultivation of identity, how essential or avoidable it is, and what the consequences are for the contemporary world.
"Written in a racy, persuasive style, the book impresses the reader as a work of significant scholarship...I encourage students of comparative religions- and especially those of Islamic economics- to read it with great care."&$151; Islamic Studies The worlds of economics and theology rarely intersect. The former appears occupied exclusively with the concrete equations of supply and demand, while the latter revolves largely around the less tangible concerns of the soul and spirit. Intended as an interfaith clarification of the relationship between (...) the material and the spiritual worlds, this volume first inspects secular beliefs about the relationship between economics and ethics. Exploring the differences and similarities between the treatment of economic issues in each of the great monotheistic religions, Rodney Wilson reveals how each tradition considers such subjects as individual wealth, lending, economic regulation, usury, insurance capitalism, socialism, and banking. He concludes with an intriguing epilogue on the rapidly expanding field of business ethics. (shrink)