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  1. Roman Frigg, Chaos and Randomness: An Equivalence Proof of a Generalized Version of the Shannon Entropy and the Kolmogorov–Sinai Entropy for Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems.
    Chaos is often explained in terms of random behaviour; and having positive Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy (KSE) is taken to be indicative of randomness. Although seemly plausible, the association of positive KSE with random behaviour needs justification since the definition of the KSE does not make reference to any notion that is connected to randomness. A common way of justifying this use of the KSE is to draw parallels between the KSE and ShannonÕs information theoretic entropy. However, as it stands this no (...)
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  2. Roman Frigg, Fiction and Scientific Representation.
    Scientific discourse is rife with passages that appear to be ordinary descriptions of systems of interest in a particular discipline. Equally, the pages of textbooks and journals are filled with discussions of the properties and the behavior of those systems. Students of mechanics investigate at length the dynamical properties of a system consisting of two or three spinning spheres with homogenous mass distributions gravitationally interacting only with each other. Population biologists study the evolution of one species procreating at a constant (...)
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  3. Roman Frigg, Fiction in Science.
    At first blush, the idea that fictions play a role in science seems to be off the mark. Realists and antirealists alike believe that science instructs us about how the world is (they part ways only over the question of what exactly science tells us about the world). Fiction not only seems to play no role in such an endeavour; it seems to detract from it. The aims of science and fiction seem to be (...)
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  4. Roman Frigg, GRW Theory.
    Ψ and out corresponding to the marble being inside or outside the box. These states are eigenvectors of the operator Bˆ , measuring whether the marble is inside or outside the box. The formalism of quantum mechanics..
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  5. Roman Frigg, Los modeLos Y la Ficción∗∗∗.
    La mayoría de los modelos científicos no son objetos físicos y esto origina cuestiones importantes. ¿Qué clase de entidad son los modelos?, ¿qué es la verdad en un modelo? Y ¿cómo aprendemos sobre los modelos? En este escrito, argumento que los modelos tienen importantes aspectos en común con la ficción literaria y que, por tanto, las teorías de la ficción pueden aplicarse a estas cuestiones. En particular, argumento que la teoría de la simulación como la desarrolla Walton (1990) tiene (...)
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  6. Roman Frigg, Models and Representation: Why Structures Are Not Enough.
    Models occupy a central role in the scientific endeavour. Among the many purposes they serve, representation is of great importance. Many models are representations of something else; they stand for, depict, or imitate a selected part of the external world (often referred to as target system, parent system, original, or prototype). Well-known examples include the model of the solar system, the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the MIT (...)
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  7. Roman Frigg, Models in Physics.
    In its most common use, the term ‘model’ refers to a simplified and stylised version of the socalled target system, the part or aspect of the world that we are interested in. For instance, in order to determine the orbit of a planet moving around the sun we model the planet and the sun as perfect homogenous spheres that gravitationally interact with each other but nothing else in the universe, and then apply Newtonian mechanics to this system, which reveals that (...)
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  8. Roman Frigg, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, and Andrew Wayne (Eds.), Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory. Singapore: World Scientific (2002), 376 Pp., $98.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]
    What does quantum field theory (QFT) tell us about the furniture of the world? Seventeen essays gathered in the four parts of Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory address this question from different angles and with different objectives. Together, they form a wide-ranging and up-to-date volume that makes a valuable contribution to an ongoing discussion, which, due to the comprehensive introduction by the editors, can be of interest to experts and novices alike.
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  9. Roman Frigg, Review Kuhlmann, Lyre, and Wayne: Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory.
    The essays in the first part, Approaches to Ontology, explore different philosophical frameworks in which the ontology of QFT could fruitfully be examined. Despite their differences, they all agree that traditional ontologies, in particular substance-attribute ontology, are unsuitable for QFT. Peter Simons begins by pointing out why substance-attribute ontology, applied set theory, fact ontology, occurrent ontologies, and trope theory are inadequate ontologies for QFT and then puts forward his own suggestion: factored ontology. The main idea of this ontology is to (...)
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  10. Roman Frigg, Review of 'the Images of Time. An Essay on Temporal Representation' by Robin le Poidevin. [REVIEW]
    We experience time in different ways, and we construct different kinds of representation of time. What kinds of representation are there and how do they work? In particular, how do we integrate temporal features of the world into our understanding of the mechanisms underlying representations in the media of perception, memory, art, and narrative? Le Poidevin’s well written and carefully argued book is an exploration of these questions. Although interesting in its own right, Le Poidevin pursues this question as a (...)
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  11. Roman Frigg, The Biomechanical Influence of Tibio-Talar Containment on Stability of the Ankle Joint.
    this study is to analyse the biomechanical influence of the been studied extensively, little is known how it is influclinical data on stability of the ankle joint. A two-dimenenced by the osseous joint configuration. Based on lateral..
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  12. Roman Frigg, What is Statistical Mechanics?
    Let us begin with a characteristic example. Consider a gas that is confined to the left half of a box. Now we remove the barrier separating the two halves of the box. As a result, the gas quickly disperses, and it continues to do so until it homogeneously fills the entire box. This is illustrated in Figure 1.
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  13. Roman Frigg, Why Typicality Does Not Explain the Approach to Equilibrium.
    Why do systems prepared in a non-equilibrium state approach, and eventually reach, equilibrium? An important contemporary version of the Boltzmannian approach to statistical mechanics answers this question by an appeal to the notion of typicality. The problem with this approach is that it comes in different versions, which are, however, not recognised as such, much less clearly distinguished, and we often find different arguments pursued side by side. The aim of this paper is to disentangle different versions of typicality-based explanations (...)
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  14. Roman Frigg, Seamus Bradley, Hailiang Du & Leonard A. Smith (forthcoming). Laplace's Demon and the Adventures of His Apprentices. .
    The sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC) associated with nonlinear models imposes limitations on the models’ predictive power. We draw attention to an additional limitation than has been underappreciated, namely, structural model error (SME). A model has SME if the model dynamics differ from the dynamics in the target system. If a nonlinear model has only the slightest SME, then its ability to generate decision-relevant predictions is compromised. Given a perfect model, we can take the effects of SDIC into account (...)
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  15. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (forthcoming). A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation. Synthese.
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  16. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl (forthcoming). Explaining the Approach to Equilibrium in Terms of Epsilon-Ergodicity. Philosophy of Science.
     
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  17. Roman Frigg, Chance and Determinism.
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  18. Roman Frigg, Seamus Bradley, Reason L. Machete & Leonard A. Smith, Probabilistic Forecasting: Why Model Imperfection is a Poison Pill.
    This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the interdisciplinary development of its specialist fields, but also to provoke reflection on the idea of ‘European philosophy of science’. This efforts should foster a contemporaneous reflection on what might be meant by philosophy of science in Europe and European philosophy of science, and how in fact awareness of it could assist philosophers interpret and motivate (...)
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  19. Roman Frigg & Carl Hoefer (2013). The Best Humean System for Statistical Mechanics. Erkenntnis:1-24.
    Classical statistical mechanics posits probabilities for various events to occur, and these probabilities seem to be objective chances. This does not seem to sit well with the fact that the theory’s time evolution is deterministic. We argue that the tension between the two is only apparent. We present a theory of Humean objective chance and show that chances thus understood are compatible with underlying determinism and provide an interpretation of the probabilities we find in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics.
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  20. Roman Frigg, Leonard A. Smith & David A. Stainforth, The Myopia of Imperfect Climate Models: The Case of UKCP09.
    The United Kingdom Climate Impacts Program’s UKCP09 project makes high-resolution forecasts of climate during the 21st century using state of the art global climate models. The aim of this paper is to introduce and analyze the methodology used and then urge some caution. Given the acknowledged systematic errors in all current climate models, treating model outputs as decision relevant probabilistic forecasts can be seriously misleading. This casts doubt on our ability, today, to make trustworthy, high-resolution predictions out to the end (...)
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  21. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl, A New Approach to the Approach to Equilibrium.
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  22. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl (2012). Demystifying Typicality. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):917-929.
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  23. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Confirmation and Reduction: A Bayesian Account. Synthese 179 (2):321 - 338.
    Various scientific theories stand in a reductive relation to each other. In a recent article, we have argued that a generalized version of the Nagel-Schaffner model (GNS) is the right account of this relation. In this article, we present a Bayesian analysis of how GNS impacts on confirmation. We formalize the relation between the reducing and the reduced theory before and after the reduction using Bayesian networks, and thereby show that, post-reduction, the two theories are confirmatory of each other. We (...)
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  24. Roman Frigg & Joseph Berkovitz (2011). The Ergodic Hierarchy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The so-called ergodic hierarchy (EH) is a central part of ergodic theory. It is a hierarchy of properties that dynamical systems can possess. Its five levels are egrodicity, weak mixing, strong mixing, Kolomogorov, and Bernoulli. Although EH is a mathematical theory, its concepts have been widely used in the foundations of statistical physics, accounts of randomness, and discussions about the nature of chaos. We introduce EH and discuss how its applications in these fields.
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  25. Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert (2011). Preface. Synthese 180 (1):1-2.
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  26. Roman Frigg & Catherine Howard (2011). Neuropsychology of Art. In Elisabeth Schellekens & Peter Goldie (eds.), The Aesthetic Mind: Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford University Press. 54.
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  27. Roman Frigg & Ioannis Votsis (2011). Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Structural Realism but Were Afraid to Ask. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (2):227-276.
    Everything you always wanted to know about structural realism but were afraid to ask Content Type Journal Article Pages 227-276 DOI 10.1007/s13194-011-0025-7 Authors Roman Frigg, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE UK Ioannis Votsis, Philosophisches Institut, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, Geb. 23.21/04.86, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany Journal European Journal for Philosophy of Science Online ISSN 1879-4920 Print ISSN 1879-4912 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 2.
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  28. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl (2011). A Guide for the Perplexed. In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. 115.
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  29. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl (2011). Entropy-A Guide for the Perplexed. In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press.
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  30. Roman Frigg & Charlotte Werndl (2011). Explaining Thermodynamic-Like Behavior in Terms of Epsilon-Ergodicity. Philosophy of Science 78 (4):628-652.
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  31. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Who's Afraid of Nagelian Reduction? Erkenntnis 73 (3):393-412.
    We reconsider the Nagelian theory of reduction and argue that, contrary to a widely held view, it is the right analysis of intertheoretic reduction, since the alleged difficulties of the theory either vanish upon closer inspection or turn out to be substantive philosophical questions rather than knock-down arguments.
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  32. Roman Frigg (2010). Models and Fiction. Synthese 172 (2):251 - 268.
    Most scientific models are not physical objects, and this raises important questions. What sort of entity are models, what is truth in a model, and how do we learn about models? In this paper I argue that models share important aspects in common with literary fiction, and that therefore theories of fiction can be brought to bear on these questions. In particular, I argue that the pretence theory as developed by Walton (1990, Mimesis as make-believe: on the foundations of (...)
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  33. Roman Frigg & Carl Hoefer (2010). Determinism and Chance From a Humean Perspective. In Friedrich Stadler, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Hartmann J., Uebel Stephan, Weber Thomas & Marcel (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 351--72.
    On the face of it ‘deterministic chance’ is an oxymoron: either an event is chancy or deterministic, but not both. Nevertheless, the world is rife with events that seem to be exactly that: chancy and deterministic at once. Simple gambling devices like coins and dice are cases in point. On the one hand they are governed by deterministic laws – the laws of classical mechanics – and hence given the initial condition of, say, a coin toss it is determined whether (...)
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  34. Roman Frigg & Matthew Hunter (eds.) (2010). Beyond Mimesis and Convention: Representation in Art and Science. Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science.
    Featuring contributions from leading experts, this book represents the first collection of essays on the topic of art and science in the analytic tradition of ...
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  35. Roman Frigg (2009). A Companionable Coverage of the Philosophy of Science. Metascience 18 (1):139-142.
  36. Roman Frigg (2009). Typicality and the Approach to Equilibrium in Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):997-1008.
    An important contemporary version of Boltzmannian statistical mechanics explains the approach to equilibrium in terms of typicality. The problem with this approach is that it comes in different versions, which are, however, not recognized as such and not clearly distinguished. This article identifies three different versions of typicality‐based explanations of thermodynamic‐like behavior and evaluates their respective successes. The conclusion is that the first two are unsuccessful because they fail to take the system's dynamics into account. The third, however, is promising. (...)
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  37. Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert (2009). Models and Simluations. Synthese 169 (3).
    Special issue. With contributions by Anouk Barberouse, Sarah Francescelli and Cyrille Imbert, Robert Batterman, Roman Frigg and Julian Reiss, Axel Gelfert, Till Grüne-Yanoff, Paul Humphreys, James Mattingly and Walter Warwick, Matthew Parker, Wendy Parker, Dirk Schlimm, and Eric Winsberg.
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  38. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (2009). The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew? Synthese 169 (3):593 - 613.
    Computer simulations are an exciting tool that plays important roles in many scientific disciplines. This has attracted the attention of a number of philosophers of science. The main tenor in this literature is that computer simulations not only constitute interesting and powerful new science , but that they also raise a host of new philosophical issues. The protagonists in this debate claim no less than that simulations call into question our philosophical understanding of scientific ontology, the epistemology and semantics of (...)
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  39. Roman Frigg, A Field Guide to Recent Work on the Foundations of Statistical Mechanics.
    This is an extensive review of recent work on the foundations of statistical mechanics.
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  40. Roman Frigg (2008). Chance in Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):670-681.
    In two recent papers Barry Loewer ( 2001 , 2004 ) has suggested to interpret probabilities in statistical mechanics as chances in David Lewis’s ( 1994 ) sense. I first give a precise formulation of this proposal, then raise two fundamental objections, and finally conclude that these can be overcome only at the price of interpreting these probabilities epistemically. †To contact the author, please write to: Roman Frigg, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, (...)
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  41. Roman Frigg (2008). Models in Science. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The centrality of models such as the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, the double helix model of DNA, agent-based and evolutionary models in the social sciences, or general equilibrium models of markets in their respective domains are cases in point. (...)
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  42. Roman Frigg, Review of Mark Buchanan: "Ubiquity. The Science of History ... Or Why the World Is Simpler Than We Think". [REVIEW]
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  43. Roman Frigg & N. Cartwright, String Theory Under Scrutiny.
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  44. Roman Frigg, Probability in Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics.
    In two recent papers Barry Loewer (2001, 2004) has suggested to interpret probabilities in statistical mechanics as Humean chances in David Lewis’ (1994) sense. I first give a precise formulation of this proposal, then raise two fundamental objections, and finally conclude that these can be overcome only at the price of interpreting these probabilities epistemically.
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  45. Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2007). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):231-232.
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  46. Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann, Introduction - Special Issue.
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  47. Roman Frigg & Carl Hoefer (2007). Probability in GRW Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):371-389.
    GRW Theory postulates a stochastic mechanism assuring that every so often the wave function of a quantum system is `hit', which leaves it in a localised state. How are we to interpret the probabilities built into this mechanism? GRW theory is a firmly realist proposal and it is therefore clear that these probabilities are objective probabilities (i.e. chances). A discussion of the major theories of chance leads us to the conclusion that GRW probabilities can be understood only as either single (...)
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  48. Joseph Berkovitz, Roman Frigg & Fred Kronz (2006). The Ergodic Hierarchy, Randomness and Hamiltonian Chaos☆. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (4):661-691.
    Various processes are often classified as both deterministic and random or chaotic. The main difficulty in analysing the randomness of such processes is the apparent tension between the notions of randomness and determinism: what type of randomness could exist in a deterministic process? Ergodic theory seems to offer a particularly promising theoretical tool for tackling this problem by positing a hierarchy, the so-called ‘ergodic hierarchy’ (EH), which is commonly assumed to provide a hierarchy of increasing degrees of randomness. However, that (...)
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  49. Joseph Berkovitz, Roman Frigg & Fred Kronz (2006). The Ergodic Hierarchy, Randomness and Hamiltonian Chaos. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37 (4):661-691.
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