A study is described in which the effectiveness of a computer program (Hermes) on improving argumentative writing is tested. One group of students was randomly assigned to a control group and the other was assigned to the experimental group where they are asked to use the Hermes program. All students were asked to write essays on controversial topics to an opposed audience. Their essays were content-analysed for dialectical traits. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that the experimental group wrote (...) more dialectically effective essays than the control group, and the amount of difference between the control and experimental groups was related to the students' intellectual developmental level, as assessed by the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (MER). It is concluded that argumentative writing, operationalized here as dialectical writing, can be improved by computer-assisted instruction, but that attempts to teach such forms of thinking and writing need to take into account students' capacity to benefit from such instruction. Such capacity is defined here as intellectual development. (shrink)
Albert Einstein.--Bertrand Russell.--John Dewey.--R.A. Millikan.--Theodore Dreiser.--H.G. Wells.--Fridtjof Nansen.--Sir James Jeans.--Irving Babbitt.--Sir Arthur Keith.--J.T. Adams.--H.L. Mencken.--Julia Peterkin.--Lewis Mumford.--G.J. Nathan.--Hu Shih.--J.W. Krutch.--Irwin Edman.--Hilaire Belloc.--Beatrice Webb.--W.R. Inge.--J.B.S. Haldane.--Biographical notes. Note: This book was re-published by AMS Press, 1979.
Method in Ancient Philosophy brings together fifteen new, specially written essays by leading scholars on a broad subject of central importance. The ancient Greeks recognized that different forms of human activity are guided by different methods of reasoning; examination of how they reasoned, and how they thought about their own reasoning, helps us to see how they came to hold the views they did, and how our own methods of enquiry have developed under their influence. Contributors include Terence Irwin, (...) Patricia Curd, Ian Mueller, Robert Bolton, A.A. Long, Gail Fine, Constance C. Meinwald, Lesley Brown, Gisela Striker, C.D.C. Reeve, Charlotte Witt, Richard Kraut, Sarah Broadie, James Allen, and G.E.R. Lloyd. (shrink)
Machine generated contents note: Introduction; 1. Antiochus' biography Myrto Hatzimichali; 2. Antiochus and the Academy Roberto Polito; 3. Antiochus and Asclepiades: medical and philosophical sectarianism at the end of the Hellenistic era Rebecca Flemming; 4. Antiochus as historian of philosophy David Sedley; 5. Antiochus' epistemology Charles Brittain; 6. Antiochus on contemplation and the happy life Georgia Tsouni; 7. Antiochus, Aristotle, and the Stoics on degrees of happiness T. H. Irwin; 8. Antiochus on social virtue Malcolm Schofield; 9. Antiochus on (...) physics Brad Inwood; 10. Antiochus' metaphysics G. R. Boys-Stones; 11. The neutralizing argument: Carneades, Antiochus, Cicero Malcolm Schofield; 12. Varro and Antiochus David Blank; 13. Other followers of Antiochus Carlos Le;vy; 14. Antiochus and Platonism Mauro Bonazzi; Appendix: a guide to the testimonies for Antiochus David Sedley; Bibliography. (shrink)
The chief message of george santayana's "life of reason or the phases of human progress" (1905-1906)--The unity of the ideal and natural worlds--Has inspired some of america's greatest thinkers. John dewey, Morris r cohen, And frederick j e woodbridge understood santayana's message: through their efforts a new naturalism now flows in the mainstream of american thought. Inter-War philosophers like j loewenberg, William p montague, Horace m kallen, Harold a larrabee, Sterling p lamprecht, And irwin edman were favorably impressed; their (...) respect for santayana's naturalism helped to popularize his philosophy. Post-War naturalists like ernest nagel, John herman randall, Jr, And justus buchler were also impressed; in their works, The new naturalism is being brought to fruition. (shrink)
That all pleasure is good and all pain bad in itself is an eternally true ethical principle. The common claim that some pleasure is not good, or some pain not bad, is mistaken. Strict particularism (ethical decisions must be made case by case; there are no sound universal normative principles) and relativism (all good and bad are relative to society) are among the ethical theories we may refute through an appeal to pleasure and pain. Daniel Dennett, Philippa Foot, R M (...) Hare, Gilbert Harman, Immanuel Kant, J. L. Mackie, and Jean-Paul Sartre are among the many philosophers addressed. (shrink)
Decades of empirical and theoretical research has produced an extensive literature on the ethical judgments construct. Given its importance to understanding people’s ethical choices, future research should explore the psychological processes that produce ethical judgments. In this paper, the authors discuss two steps needed to advance this effort. First, they note that the business ethics literature lacks a single, generally accepted definition of ethical judgments. After reviewing several extant definitions, the authors offer a definition of the construct and discuss its (...) advantages. Second, future ethical judgment research would benefit from greater integration between theories of ethical decision making and theories of social cognition. Drawing upon the Hunt–Vitell ( Journal of Macromarketing 6 (Spring), 5–15, 1986 ; In: N. C. Smith and J. A. Quelch (eds.), Ethics in Marketing . Irwin, Homewood, IL, pp. 775–784, 1992 ) model and the heuristic-systematic model (Chaiken, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39 (November), 752–766, 1980 ), the authors present a brief research agenda intended to stimulate research on the psychological processes behind ethical judgments. (shrink)