Search results for 'Rosária S. Justi' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rosária S. Justi & John K. Gilbert (2002). Philosophy of Chemistry in University Chemical Education: The Case of Models and Modelling. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):213-240.score: 870.0
    If chemistry is to be taught successfully, teachers must have a good subject matter knowledge (SK) of the ideas with which they are dealing, the nature of this falling within the orbit of philosophy of chemistry. They must also have a good pedagogic content knowledge (PCK), the ability to communicate SK to students, the nature of this falling within the philosophy and psychology of chemical education. Taking the case of models and modelling, important themes in the philosophy of chemistry, an (...)
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  2. Rosaria Justi & John Gilbert (1999). A Cause of Ahistorical Science Teaching: Use of Hybrid Models. Science Education 83 (2):163-177.score: 240.0
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  3. Rosária Justi & John K. Gilbert (1999). History and Philosophy of Science Through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics. Science and Education 8 (3):287-307.score: 240.0
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  4. John N. Williams, Moore's Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief and Conscious Belieftheo_1073 221..248.score: 126.0
    In this journal, Hamid Vahid argues against three families of explanation of Mooreparadoxicality. The first is the Wittgensteinian approach; I assert that p just in case I assert that I believe that p. So making a Moore-paradoxical assertion involves contradictory assertions. The second is the epistemic approach, one committed to: if I am justified in believing that p then I am justified in believing that I believe that p. So it is impossible to have a justified omissive Mooreparadoxical belief. The (...)
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  5. Leon Niemoczynski (2010). Phenomenology in the American Vein: Justus Buchler's Ordinal Naturalism and its Importance for the Justi?Cation of Epistemic Objects. Spontaneous Generations 3 (1):9-27.score: 126.0
    In this essay, I explore Justus Buchler’s ordinal naturalism with the goal of establishing how his phenomenological approach extends the range of human inquiry to include the many and varied traits of natural phenomena that are not “simply” the result of sensate experience or material functions. To achieve this goal I critically assess Buchler’s notion of “ontological parity”–the idea that abstract phenomena such as values, relations, ideals, and other mental contents are just as relevant as sense-data when one attempts to (...)
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  6. Clara Greed (2009). Most People Imagine Public Toilets to Be Dirty, Full of Germs and the Re-Mains of Other People's Unsavoury Habits (Greed 2003; Bichard, Hanson, and Greed 2007). Drawing on Ongoing Research, This Chapter Argues That People Are Justified in Their Assumptions About the Unhealthy State of British Toilets. Public Toilets Here Are Defined as Both the Traditional “on-Street” Public Toilets (Run by the Local Authority) and “Off-Street” Toi-Lets (Run by Private-Sector Providers) to Which the General Public has ... [REVIEW] In Olga Gershenson Barbara Penner (ed.), Ladies and Gents. 35.score: 120.0
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  7. Mari Mikkola (2011). Kant on Moral Agency and Women's Nature. Kantian Review 16 (1):89-111.score: 54.0
    Some commentators have condemned Kant’s moral project from a feminist perspective based on Kant’s apparently dim view of women as being innately morally deficient. Here I will argue that although his remarks concerning women are unsettling at first glance, a more detailed and closer examination shows that Kant’s view of women is actually far more complex and less unsettling than that attributed to him by various feminist critics. My argument, then, undercuts the justification for the severe feminist critique of Kant’s (...)
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  8. Kevin Kelly (2004). Justification as Truth-Finding Efficiency: How Ockham's Razor Works. Minds and Machines 14 (4):485-505.score: 54.0
    6 Abstract. I propose that empirical procedures, like computational procedures, are justified in 7 terms of truth-finding efficiency. I contrast the idea with more standard philosophies of science 8 and illustrate it by deriving Ockham’s razor from the aim of minimizing dramatic changes of 9 opinion en route to the truth.
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  9. Sheldon Goldstein, Boltzmann's Approach to Statistical Mechanics.score: 54.0
    In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Ludwig Boltzmann explained how irreversible macroscopic laws, in particular the second law of thermodynamics, originate in the time-reversible laws of microscopic physics. Boltzmann’s analysis, the essence of which I shall review here, is basically correct. The most famous criticisms of Boltzmann’s later work on the subject have little merit. Most twentieth century innovations – such as the identification of the state of a physical system with a probability distribution on its phase space, (...)
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  10. Christopher Manning, LFG Within King's Descriptive Formalism.score: 54.0
    The ontology of LFG. We need to get straight what is out there in the world and what our model objects are, what are denotations and what are descriptions that get interpreted. The title of Bresnan (1982a), The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations, seems more likely to confuse us than help us. But in the introduction, there are some fairly clear statements of how their model of human use of language is to be constructed. Kaplan & Bresnan (1982, p. 173) (...)
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  11. Michael J. Murray (2009). Scientific Explanations of Religion and the Justification of Religious Belief. In Michael J. Murray & Jeffrey Schloss (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press. 168.score: 36.0
    Accession Number: ATLA0001788486; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 168-178.; Language(s): English; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  12. R. S. Peters (forthcoming). The Justification of Education. The Philosophy of Education.score: 36.0
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  13. K. S. Shrader-Frechette (1989). Ecological Theories and Ethical Imperatives: Can Ecology Provide a Scientific Justification for the Ethics of Environmental Protection. In William R. Shea & Beat Sitter-Liver (eds.), Scientists and Their Responsibility. Watson Pub. International. 73--104.score: 36.0
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  14. Christina Starmans & Ori Friedman (2012). The Folk Conception of Knowledge. Cognition 124 (3):272-283.score: 28.0
    How do people decide which claims should be considered mere beliefs and which count as knowledge? Although little is known about how people attribute knowledge to others, philosophical debate about the nature of knowledge may provide a starting point. Traditionally, a belief that is both true and justified was thought to constitute knowledge. However, philosophers now agree that this account is inadequate, due largely to a class of counterexamples (termed ‘‘Gettier cases’’) in which a person’s justified belief is true, but (...)
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  15. David Hunter (1997). Understanding, Justification and the a Priori. Philosophical Studies 87 (2):119-141.score: 28.0
    What I wish to consider here is how understanding something is related to the justification of beliefs about what it means. Suppose, for instance, that S understands the name “Clinton” and has a justified belief that it names Clinton. How is S’s understanding related to that belief’s justification? Or suppose that S understands the sentence “Clinton is President”, or Jones’ assertive utterance of it, and has a justified belief that that sentence expresses the proposition that Clinton is President, or that (...)
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  16. Ross P. Cameron (2008). Turtles All the Way Down: Regress, Priority and Fundamentality. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):1-14.score: 24.0
    I address an intuition commonly endorsed by metaphysicians, that there must be a fundamental layer of reality, i.e., that chains of ontological dependence must terminate: there cannot be turtles all the way down. I discuss applications of this intuition with reference to Bradley’s regress, composition, realism about the mental and the cosmological argument. I discuss some arguments for the intui- tion, but argue that they are unconvincing. I conclude by making some suggestions for how the intuition should be argued for, (...)
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  17. Jeff McMahan (2004). The Ethics of Killing in War. Ethics 114 (4):693-733.score: 24.0
    The traditional theory of the just war comprises two sets of principles, one governing the resort to war ( jus ad bellum) and the other governing the conduct of war ( jus in bello). The two sets of principles are regarded, in Michael Walzer’s words, as “logically independent. It is perfectly possible for a just war to be fought unjustly and for an unjust war to be fought in strict accordance with the rules.”1 Let us say that those who fight (...)
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  18. Matt Farr (2012). On A- and B-Theoretic Elements of Branching Spacetimes. Synthese 188 (1):85-116.score: 24.0
    This paper assesses branching spacetime theories in light of metaphysical considerations concerning time. I present the A, B, and C series in terms of the temporal structure they impose on sets of events, and raise problems for two elements of extant branching spacetime theories—McCall’s ‘branch attrition’, and the ‘no backward branching’ feature of Belnap’s ‘branching space-time’—in terms of their respective A- and B-theoretic nature. I argue that McCall’s presentation of branch attrition can only be coherently formulated on a model with (...)
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  19. Jonathan Weisberg, Conditionalization Without Reflection.score: 24.0
    Conditionalization is an intuitive and popular epistemic principle. By contrast, the Reflection principle is well known to have some very unappealing consequences. But van Fraassen argues that Conditionalization entails Reflection, so that proponents of Conditionalization must accept Reflection and its consequences. Van Fraassen also argues that Reflection implies Conditionalization, thus offering a new justification for Conditionalization. I argue that neither principle entails the other, and thus neither can be used to motivate the other in the way van Fraassen says. I (...)
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  20. Barry Lam (forthcoming). The Dynamic Foundations of Epistemic Rationality. Philosophy.score: 24.0
    Classical theories of epistemic rationality take an agent\\textquoteright{}s individual beliefs to be the only things that are rational or irrational. For them, rationality is wholly static. Recent work in epistemology take sets of individual beliefs and also changes of belief over time to be rational or irrational. For these theories, rationality is both static and dynamic. However, for both groups, static rationality is fundamental. In my dissertation, I argue to the contrary that, in fact, all rationality is dynamic rationality. Epistemic (...)
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  21. Jeff McMahan (2006). Paradoxes of Abortion and Prenatal Injury. Ethics 116 (4):625-655.score: 24.0
    Many people who believe that abortion may often be justified by appeal to the pregnant woman’s interests also believe that a woman’s infliction of significant but nonlethal injury on her fetus can seldom be justified by appeal to her interests. Yet the second of these beliefs can seem to cast doubt on the first. For the view that the infliction of prenatal injury is seriously morally objectionable may seem to presuppose a view about the status of the fetus that challenges (...)
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  22. Richard Pettigrew (2012). Indispensability Arguments and Instrumental Nominalism. Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (4):687-709.score: 24.0
    In the philosophy of mathematics, indispensability arguments aim to show that we are justified in believing that abstract mathematical objects exist. I wish to defend a particular objection to such arguments that has become increasingly popular recently. It is called instrumental nominalism. I consider the recent versions of this view and conclude that it has yet to be given an adequate formulation. I provide such a formulation and show that it can be used to answer the indispensability arguments. -/- There (...)
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  23. Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (1991). Dynamic Predicate Logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 14 (1):39-100.score: 24.0
    This paper is devoted to the formulation and investigation of a dynamic semantic interpretation of the language of first-order predicate logic. The resulting system, which will be referred to as ‘dynamic predicate logic’, is intended as a first step towards a compositional, non-representational theory of discourse semantics. In the last decade, various theories of discourse semantics have emerged within the paradigm of model-theoretic semantics. A common feature of these theories is a tendency to do away with the principle of compositionality, (...)
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  24. Adam Elga, Why Neo Was Too Confident That He Had Escaped the Matrix.score: 24.0
    According to a typical skeptical hypothesis, the evidence of your senses has been massively deceptive. Venerable skeptical hypotheses include the hypotheses that you have been deceived by a powerful evil demon, that you are now having an incredibly detailed dream, and that you are a brain in a vat. It is obviously reasonable for you now to be confident that neither of the above hypotheses is true. Epistemologists have proposed many stories to explain why that is reasonable. One theory is (...)
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  25. Chris Bertram, Coercion of Foreigners, Territory and Compensation.score: 24.0
    Justifications for state authority are typically directed towards the good of those subject to that authority. But, because of their territorial nature, states exercise coercion not only towards insiders but also towards non-members. Such coercion can take the form of denying outsiders the right to enter a territory or to settle in it permanently, as well as various restraints on trade and association. When coercion is directed at insiders, it often comes packaged with various claims about distributive justice, including claims (...)
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  26. Penelope Rush (2012). Objectivities. Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (1):1-16.score: 24.0
    I argue that one in particular of CrispinWright’s attempts to capture our common or intuitive concepts of objectivity, warrant, and other associated notions, relies on an ambiguity between a given constructivist reading of the concepts and at least one other, arguablymore ‘ordinary’, version of the notions he tries to accommodate. I do this by focusing on one case in point, and concluding with a brief argument showing how this case generalises. I demonstrate why this ambiguity is unacceptable and also that (...)
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  27. Scott M. James (2007). Good Samaritans, Good Humanitarians. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (3):238–254.score: 24.0
    Duties of beneficence are not well understood. Peter Singer has argued that the scope of beneficence should not be restricted to those who are, in some sense, near us. According to Singer, refusing to contribute to humanitarian relief efforts is just as wrong as refusing to rescue a child drowning before you. Most people do not seem convinced by Singer’s arguments, yet no one has offered a plausible justification for restricting the scope of beneficence that doesn’t produce counterintuitive results elsewhere. (...)
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  28. Saul Smilansky (2003). Choice-Egalitarianism and the Paradox of the Baseline. Analysis 63 (278):146–151.score: 24.0
    Choice-egalitarianism (CE) is, broadly, a version of egalitarianism that gives free choice a pivotal role in justifying any inequality. The basic idea is this: we can morally evaluate equality and inequality in many respects, which we can call factors. Factors might be income, primary goods, wellbeing, how well someone’s life proceeds, and so on. But whatever the relevant factor may be, the baseline for egalitarianism is equality: we start, normatively, by assuming that everyone should receive the baseline, unless not receiving (...)
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  29. Philipp Keller, Disbelieving the Sceptics Without Proving Them Wrong.score: 24.0
    It is true of many truths that I do not believe them. It is equally true, however, that I cannot rationally assert of any such truth both that it is true and that I do not believe it. To explain why this is so, I will distinguish absence of belief from disbelief and argue that an assertion of “p, but I do not believe that p” is paradoxical because it is indefensible, i.e. for reasons internal to it unable to convince. (...)
     
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  30. Matthew Weiner (2005). Why Does Justification Matter? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (3):422–444.score: 24.0
    It has been claimed that justification, conceived traditionally in an internalist fashion, is not an epistemologically important property. I argue for the importance of a conception of justification that is completely dependent on the subject’s experience, using an analogy to advice. The epistemological importance of a property depends on two desiderata: the extent to which it guarantees the epistemic goal of attaining truth and avoiding falsehood, and the extent to which it depends only on the information available to the believer. (...)
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  31. Kenneth Simons (2005). Exploring the Intricacies of the Lesser Evils Defense. Law and Philosophy 24 (6):645-679.score: 24.0
    1. Comparing the weight of different evils is highly problematic; neither a positivist, interpretive account nor an exclusively aspirational account is satisfactory. 2. Alexander is correct that choosing a lesser evil is sometimes a mandate, not a mere permission, but the point has wider application than he indicates. 3. Is a choice of lesser but not least evil justifiable? Alexander’s affirmative answer is only partially convincing. 4. Alexander endorses a striking claim: the very notion of a reckless belief or reckless (...)
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  32. Mark Bedau, Dependence of Adaptability on Environmental Structure in a Simple Evolutionary Model.score: 24.0
    This paper concerns the relationship between the detectable and useful structure in an environment and the degree to which a population can adapt to that environment. We explore the hypothesis that adaptability will depend unimodally on environmental variety, and we measure this component of environmental structure using the information-theoretic uncertainty (Shannon entropy) of detectable environmental conditions. We de ne adaptability as the degree to which a certain kind of population successfully adapts to a certain kind of environment, and we measure (...)
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  33. Jacob Glazer & Ariel Rubinstein, A Study in the Pragmatics of Persuasion: A Game Theoretical Approach.score: 24.0
    A speaker wishes to persuade a listener to take a certain action. The conditions under which the request is justified, from the listener’s point of view, depend on the state of the world, which is known only to the speaker. Each state is characterized by a set of statements from which the speaker chooses. A persuasion rule specifies which statements the listener finds persuasive. We study persuasion rules that maximize the probability that the listener accepts the request if and only (...)
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  34. Neal Judisch (2005). Responsibility, Manipulation and Ownership: Reflections on the Fischer/Ravizza Program. Philosophical Explorations 8 (2):115-130.score: 24.0
    John Martin Fischer and Mark Ravizza have constructed a theory of moral responsibility according to which agents are responsible only if they take responsibility in a particular way. Crucial to taking responsibility is coming to adopt a certain set of beliefs about oneself, such as the belief that one is a legitimate target of attitudes like gratitude and resentment, praise and blame. Moreover, agents must come to adopt this belief in a way that is ‘appropriately based’ upon their evidence, if (...)
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  35. Arnon Avron, General Patterns for Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Basic Entailments to Plausible Relations.score: 24.0
    This paper has two goals. First, we develop frameworks for logical systems which are able to re ect not only nonmonotonic patterns of reasoning, but also paraconsistent reasoning. Our second goal is to have a better understanding of the conditions that a useful relation for nonmonotonic reasoning should satisfy. For this we consider a sequence of generalizations of the pioneering works of Gabbay, Kraus, Lehmann, Magidor and Makinson. These generalizations allow the use of monotonic nonclassical logics as the underlying logic (...)
     
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  36. Manuel Atienza (2010). A vueltas con la ponderación. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 44:43-59.score: 24.0
    E l auto r , a pa r ti r de l análisi s d e un a seri e d e ejemplo s d e ponderació n judicial , trat a de contesta r la s cuestione s centrale s de l debat e enta b lad o e n l a teorí a de l derech o contemporánea entr e pa r tidario s y crítico s d e est e pa r ticula r procedimient o a r (...)
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  37. Adrian Piper, The Rationality of Military Service (1981).score: 24.0
    The aim of this discussion is twofold.* First, I shall scrutinize certain prevailing rationales for enlisting for military service and show that these justifications are inadequate to meet the military’s recruiting needs. Larger numbers of enlistees who are fully equipped, both in technical skills and morale, for combat readiness are in great demand, but the arguments used to recruit potential enlistees are self-defeating. I shall show how and why they attract volunteers who are rendered singularly unfit to meet these demands (...)
     
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  38. Marylin Molinet (2013). Le premier musée d'art moderne, un monument englouti. Kronprinzenpalais, Berlin (1919-1933). le Portique 31.score: 24.0
    L’histoire du Kronprinzenpalais, dans sa lente émergence vers la reconnaissance de son existence, ainsi que du rôle majeur qu’il joua sur la scène muséale allemande, en tant que premier musée d’art moderne, demeure étroitement lié au sort de son unique conservateur, Ludwig Justi. Cet article s’attache à restituer les innovations didactiques et muséographiques menées par Justi, les très nombreuses expositions temporaires aussi bien que l’enrichissement des collections, de même que la fondation de la revue Museum der Gegenwart, lesquels (...)
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  39. Federico Arcos Ramírez (2012). Regla de la mayoría, democracia deliberativa E igualdad política. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 46:13-36.score: 24.0
    E l conflict o entr e l a democraci a a g r e gat iva (basad a e n e l v alo r igualitari o d e l a r e gla d e l a m a y oría ) y l a deliberat iva (centrad a e n l a fuerz a epistémic a de l mejo r a r gumento) constitu ye un a d e la s principale s tensione s d e l a (...)
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  40. Silvio Ricardo Gomes Carneiro (2011). Sobre a concepção totalitária da vida. Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 18:179-196.score: 24.0
    Following a Weltanschaaung that involves a concept of life, Hitler has organized one of central chapiters of his autobiography My Struggle, named “Nation and Race”. Three human groups – to know, the founders of culture, the bearers of culture, the destroyers of culture – would be organized as forms of life. These three groups cohabit in competition for the territory of living space. With Hitler´s interpretations, come up then a living economic, that justifies the Total State or the Total War. (...)
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  41. Miguel Ángel Presno Linera (2012). ¿Nos representan O no? Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 46:93-109.score: 24.0
    Un a d e la s proclama s má s escuchada s e n la s concentracione s de l 15- M e s qu e los ca r go s político s n o no s r ep r esentan . P ar a v eri f ca r s i es e reproch e est á justi f icado , e n este estudi o analizamo s primer o qu é deb e se r l a representació (...)
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