What new implications does the dynamical hypothesis have for cognitive science? The short answer is: None. The _Behavior and Brain Sciences _target article, “The dynamical hypothesis in cognitive science” by Tim Van Gelder is basically an attack on traditional symbolic AI and differs very little from prior connectionist criticisms of it. For the past ten years, the connectionist community has been well aware of the necessity of using (and understanding) dynamically evolving, recurrent network models of cognition.
Two categorization arguments pose particular problems for localist connectionist models. The internal representations of localist networks do not reflect the variability within categories in the environment, whereas networks with distributed internal representations do reflect this essential feature of categories. We provide a real biological example of perceptual categorization in the monkey that seems to require population coding (i.e., distributed internal representations).
This paper begins to explore how corporate social responsibility (CSR) has evolved in Mexico. It looks at Mexico's social and political history to see the values that shaped expectations about how Mexican firms should address the needs and desires of their stakeholders in various periods in the 20th century. Particular attention is given to firms in Monterrey because they pioneered a form of company paternalism that reflected early CSR initiatives. Finally the paper briefly examines some contemporary CSR practices by large (...) Mexican firms. The paper begins to fill a gap in the business-andsociety literature about CSR practices outside the U.S. and Western European countries, which have received most attention by business-and-society scholars. (shrink)
We use a result due to Rolin, Speissegger, and Wilkie to show that definable sets in certain o-minimal structures admit definable parameterizations by mild maps. We then use this parameterization to prove a result on the density of rational points on curves defined by restricted Pfaffian functions.
While the cancellation of a number of high-profile loans because of corruption concerns has made headline news, the World Bank's principal approach to poorly governed countries is lending in order to support reforms. Although designed to be an apolitical technocratic development financier, increasingly the Bank has focused its attention and resources on promoting good governance in its borrowers. Bank lawyers and presidents have attempted to hive of apolitical aspects of governance by arguing a distinction between the rule of law and (...) the political character of government, but this distinction is illusory. The Bank's inability to address the political embeddedness of poor governance in neo-patrimonial governments skews risk assessments and impedes the formation of effective strategies. Reform of the charter would not eliminate the Bank's bureaucratic and political constraints. (shrink)
A technique developed recently for in situ solid-state 1H NMR studies of adsorption processes has been used to probe hydration of the solid acid catalyst H-ZSM-5, yielding information on the interaction between the adsorbed water molecules and Br?nsted acid sites on the H-ZSM-5 host material. Quantitative analysis of the results from the in situ experiment allows the average size of water clusters associated with the Br?nsted acid sites to be determined directly, and suggests that there is a preference to form (...) clusters comprising five?six water molecules. The in situ 1H NMR data also provide insights into kinetic aspects of the adsorption process. (shrink)
Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical neglect tests fail to differentiate these subtypes. In line bisection tasks, for example, a marked rightward deviation can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions towards the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of both these impairments. To disentangle these components, we used a test consisting of a line (...) bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It is hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better in recognizing their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect, we found that patients are three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude towards the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were not related. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. (shrink)