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  1. Cristina Brandão, Guilhermina Rego, Ivone Duarte & Rui Nunes (2013). Social Responsibility: A New Paradigm of Hospital Governance? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (4):390-402.
    Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance. The objective of this paper (...)
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  2. Rui Nunes & Guilhermina Rego (2013). Priority Setting in Health Care: A Complementary Approach. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis:1-12.
    Explicit forms of rationing have already been implemented in some countries, and many of these prioritization systems resort to Norman Daniels’ “accountability for reasonableness” methodology. However, a question still remains: is “accountability for reasonableness” not only legitimate but also fair? The objective of this paper is to try to adjust “accountability for reasonableness” to the World Health Organization’s holistic view of health and propose an evolutionary perspective in relation to the “normal” functioning standard proposed by Norman Daniels. To accomplish this (...)
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  3. Sofia Rt Nunes, Guilhermina Rego & Rui Nunes (2013). Awareness of Costs and Individual Accountability in Health Care. Nursing Ethics 20 (6):0969733012468464.
    Questions of social justice and health-care costs are some of the concerns of society. The cost caused by cardiovascular diseases can have an enormous impact, and it is important to know what patients think about illness costs when they are hospitalized. Two interviews were realized in a longitudinal study, in a sample of 106 patients submitted to expensive techniques in Cardiology (Portugal), to understand the patients’ perception about the health costs and behavior changes based on awareness. We can conclude that (...)
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  4. Rui Nunes, Cristina Brandão & Guilhermina Rego (2011). Public Accountability and Sunshine Healthcare Regulation. Health Care Analysis 19 (4):352-364.
    The lack of economic sustainability of most healthcare systems and a higher demand for quality and safety has contributed to the development of regulation as a decisive factor for modernisation, innovation and competitiveness in the health sector. The aim of this paper is to determine the importance of the principle of public accountability in healthcare regulation, stressing the fact that sunshine regulation—as a direct and transparent control over health activities—is vital for an effective regulatory activity, for an appropriate supervision of (...)
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  5. Rui Nunes, Guilhermina Rego & Cristina Brandão (2009). Healthcare Regulation as a Tool for Public Accountability. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):257-264.
    The increasing costs of healthcare delivery led to different political and administrative approaches trying to preserve the core values of the welfare state. This approach has well documented weaknesses namely with regard to healthcare rationing. The objective of this paper is to evaluate if independent healthcare regulation is an important tool with regard to the construction of fair processes for setting limits to healthcare. Methodologically the authors depart from Norman Daniels’ and James Sabin’s theory of accountability for reasonableness and try (...)
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  6. Rui Nunes, Guilhermina Rego & Cristina Brandão (2007). The Rise of Independent Regulation in Health Care. Health Care Analysis 15 (3):169-177.
    In all countries where health care access is considered a social right, regulation is both a tool of performance improvement as well as an instrument of social justice. Both social (equity in access) and economical (promoting competition) regulation are at stake due to the nature of the good itself. Different modalities of regulation do exist and usually new regulatory cycles include the creation of stronger regulatory agencies. Indeed, health care regulation is rising steadily in most developed countries as a consequence (...)
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  7. Rui Nunes (2006). A plataforma ética da Saúde. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 62 (1):185 - 205.
    O direito à proteçāo da saúde tende hoje a ser considerado como uma conquista civilizacional, o que faz com que a salvaguarda deste direito seja sobretudo uma responsabilidade da sociedade e das suas instituições democráticas. Tal como noutros países ocidentais, a existência em Portugal de um sistema público de proteçāo da saúde enquadra-se nesta dinâmica, sendo esse um factor decisivo para a melhoria sustentada dos indicadores de saúde da população portuguesa. Nessa medida, defende o autor do artigo, a política de (...)
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  8. Rui Nunes (2006). Deafness, Genetics and Dysgenics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (1):25-31.
    It has been argued by some authors that our reaction to deaf parents who choose deafness for their children ought to be compassion, not condemnation. Although I agree with the reasoning proposed I suggest that this practice could be regarded as unethical. In this article, I shall use the term “dysgenic” as a culturally imposed genetic selection not to achieve any improvement of the human person but to select genetic traits that are commonly accepted as a disabling condition by the (...)
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  9. Rui Nunes (2003). Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Tool for Resource Allocation? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):297-301.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscious, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The greater the level of evidence the greater the grade of recommendation. This pioneering explicit concept of EBM is embedded in a particular view of medical practice namely the singular nature of the patient-physician relation and the commitment of the latter towards a specific goal: the treatment and the well being of his or her client. Nevertheless, (...)
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  10. Guilhermina Rego, Cristina Brandão, Helena Melo & Rui Nunes (2002). Distributive Justice and the Introduction of Generic Medicines. Health Care Analysis 10 (2):221-229.
    Introduction: All countries face theissue of choice in healthcare. Allocation ofhealthcare resources is clearly associated withthe concept of distributive justice and to theexistence of a right to healthcare.Nevertheless, there is still the question ofwhether this right should include all types ofhealthcare services or if it should be limitedto selected types. It follows that choices mustbe made, priorities must be set and thatefficiency of healthcare services should bemaximum.
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  11. Helena Melo, Cristina Brandao, Guilhermina Rego & Rui Nunes (2001). Ethical and Legal Issues in Xenotransplantation. Bioethics 15 (5-6):427-442.
    In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation--defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings--is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. The (...)
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  12. Rui Nunes (2001). Ethical Dimension of Paediatric Cochlear Implantation. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (4):337-349.
    In congenitally or prelingually deaf childrencochlear implantation is open to seriousethical challenge. The ethical dimension ofthis technology is closely related to both asocial standard of quality of life and to theuncertainty of the overall results of cochlearimplantation. Uncertainty with regards theacquisition of oral communicative skills.However, in the western world, available datasuggest that deafness is associated with thelowest educational level and the lowest familyincome. Notwithstanding the existence of aDeaf-World, deafness should be considered as ahandicap. Therefore, society should provide themeans for the (...)
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