22 found
Sort by:
Disambiguations:
Russell Powell [21]Russell A. Powell [1]
See also:
Profile: Russell Powell (Boston University)
  1. Russell Powell, Zakat: Drawing Insights for Legal Theory and Economic Policy From Islamic Jurisprudence.
    The rapid development of complex income taxation and welfare systems in the 20th century may give the impression that progressive wealth redistribution systems are uniquely modern. However, religious systems provided similar mechanisms for addressing economic injustice and poverty alleviation centuries earlier. Zakat is the obligation of almsgiving and is the third pillar of Islam--a requirement for all believers. In the early development of the Islamic community, zakat was collected as a tax by the state and the funds were distributed (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Russell Powell (forthcoming). The Nature of Species and the Moral Significance of Their Extinction. In Tom Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford Handbook on Ethics and Animals. Oxford University Press.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Russell Powell (2014). The Philosophy of Human Evolution: Contemporary Debates in Historical Context. Metascience 23 (2):285-291.
    What does human evolutionary theory reveal about the origins of human nature and the constraints it imposes on human cognition, behavior, and society? “The whole field of human evolution is pregnant with philosophical questions of great interest”, Michael Ruse concludes in the final passage of The Philosophy of Human Evolution. This engaging and eminently readable romp through the philosophical landscape of human evolution fills a significant niche in the existing literature. There are numerous scientific texts surveying historical and contemporary problems (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Russell Powell & Nicholas Shea (2014). Homology Across Inheritance Systems. Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):781-806.
    Recent work on inheritance systems can be divided into inclusive conceptions, according to which genetic and non-genetic inheritance are both involved in the development and transmission of nearly all animal behavioral traits, and more demanding conceptions of what it takes for non-genetic resources involved in development to qualify as a distinct inheritance system. It might be thought that, if a more stringent conception is adopted, homologies could not subsist across two distinct inheritance systems. Indeed, it is commonly assumed that homology (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Thomas Douglas, Russell Powell & Julian Savulescu (2013). Is the Creation of Artificial Life Morally Significant? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):688-696.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Sune Holm & Russell Powell (2013). Organism, Machine, Artifact: The Conceptual and Normative Challenges of Synthetic Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):627-631.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Tore Nielsen, Russell A. Powell & Don Kuiken (2013). Nightmare Frequency is Related to a Propensity for Mirror Behaviors. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1181-1188.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Russell Powell (2012). Beyond the Blueprint. Philosophy Now 91:18-19.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Russell Powell (2012). Convergent Evolution and the Limits of Natural Selection. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):355-373.
    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the “tape of life” would result in a radically different evolutionary outcome. Some biologists and philosophers, however, have pointed to convergent evolution as evidence for robust replicability in macroevolution. These authors interpret homoplasy, or the independent origination of similar biological forms, as evidence for the power of natural selection to guide form toward certain morphological attractors, notwithstanding the diversionary tendencies of drift and the constraints of phylogenetic inertia. In this paper, I consider the implications (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Russell Powell (2012). Human Nature and Respect for the Evolutionarily Given: A Comment on Lewens. Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):485-493.
    Any serious ethical discussion of the enhancement of human nature must begin with a reasonably accurate picture of the causal-historical structure of the living world. In this Comment, I show that even biologically sophisticated ethical discussions of the biomedical enhancement of species and speciel natures are susceptible to the kind of essentialistic thinking that Lewens cautions against. Furthermore, I argue that the same evolutionary and developmental considerations that compel Lewens to reject more plausible conceptions of human nature pose equally serious (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Russell Powell (2012). The Future of Human Evolution. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (1):145-175.
    There is a tendency in both scientific and humanistic disciplines to think of biological evolution in humans as significantly impeded if not completely overwhelmed by the robust cultural and technological capabilities of the species. The aim of this article is to make sense of and evaluate this claim. In Section 2 , I flesh out the argument that humans are ‘insulated’ from ordinary evolutionary mechanisms in terms of our contemporary biological understandings of phenotypic plasticity, niche construction, and cultural transmission. In (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Russell Powell, Steve Clarke & Julian Savulescu (2012). An Ethical and Prudential Argument for Prioritizing the Reduction of Parasite-Stress in the Allocation of Health Care Resources. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (2):90-91.
    The link between parasite-stress and complex psychological dispositions implies that the social, political, and economic benefits likely to flow from public health interventions that reduce rates of non-zoonotic infectious disease are far greater than have traditionally been thought. We sketch a prudential and ethical argument for increasing public health resources globally and redistributing these to focus on the alleviation of parasite-stress in human populations.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Russell Powell, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu (2012). Evolution, Genetic Engineering, and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):439-458.
    There are many ways that biological theory can inform ethical discussions of genetic engineering and biomedical enhancement. In this essay, we highlight some of these potential contributions, and along the way provide a synthetic overview of the papers that comprise this special issue. We begin by comparing and contrasting genetic engineering with programs of selective breeding that led to the domestication of plants and animals, and we consider how genetic engineering differs from other contemporary biotechnologies such as embryo selection. We (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Russell Powell & Allen Buchanan (2011). Breaking Evolution's Chains: The Prospect of Deliberate Genetic Modification in Humans. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):6-27.
    Many philosophers invoke the "wisdom of nature" in arguing for varying degrees of caution in the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies. Because they view natural selection as akin to a master engineer that creates functionally and morally optimal design, these authors tend to regard genetic intervention with suspicion. In Part II, we examine and ultimately reject the evolutionary assumptions that underlie the master engineer analogy (MEA). By highlighting the constraints on ordinary unassisted evolution, we show how intentional genetic (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Russell Powell (2010). What's the Harm? An Evolutionary Theoretical Critique of the Precautionary Principle. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):181-206.
    The precautionary principle (“the Principle”) has been widely embraced as the new paradigm for contending with biological and environmental risk in the context of emerging technologies. Increasingly, it is being incorporated into domestic, supranational, and international legal regimes as part of a general overhaul of health and environmental regulation.1 Codifications of the Principle typically are vague, with their content intentionally left for scholars to debate, decision makers to interpret, and the courts to flesh out through case law. Generally speaking, the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Russell Powell (2010). Review of Donald P. O'mathuna, Nanoethics: Big Ethical Issues with Small Technology. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Russell Powell (2010). The Evolutionary Biological Implications of Human Genetic Engineering. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (1):22.
    A common worry about the genetic engineering of human beings is that it will reduce human genetic diversity, creating a biological monoculture that could not only increase our susceptibility to disease but also hasten the extinction of our species. Thus far, however, the evolutionary implications of human genetic modification remain largely unexplored. In this paper, I consider whether the widespread use of genetic engineering technology is likely to narrow the present range of genetic variation, and if so, whether this would (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Simon Rippon, Pablo Stafforini, Katrien Devolder, Russell Powell & Thomas Douglas (2010). Resisting Sparrow's Sexy Reductio : Selection Principles and the Social Good. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):16-18.
    Principles of procreative beneficence (PPBs) hold that parents have good reasons to select the child with the best life prospects. Sparrow (2010) claims that PPBs imply that we should select only female children, unlesswe attach normative significance to “normal” human capacities. We argue that this claim fails on both empirical and logical grounds. Empirically, Sparrow’s argument for greater female wellbeing rests on a selective reading of the evidence and the incorrect assumption that an advantage for females would persist even when (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Russell Powell (2009). Contingency and Convergence in Macroevolution: A Reply to John Beatty. Journal of Philosophy 106 (7):390-403.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Allen Buchanan & Russell Powell (2008). Survey Article: Constitutional Democracy and the Rule of International Law: Are They Compatible? Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (3):326-349.
  21. Russell Powell (2007). Is Convergence More Than an Analogy? Homoplasy and its Implications for Macroevolutionary Predictability. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):565-578.
    A number of authors have pointed to “convergent evolution” as evidence for the central role of natural selection in shaping predictable trajectories of macroevolution. However, there are numerous conceptual and empirical difficulties that arise in broadly appealing to the frequency of homoplasy as evidence for a non-contingently constrained adaptational design space. Most important is the need to distinguish between convergent (externally constrained) and parallel (internally constrained) evolution, and to consider how the respective frequencies of these significantly different sources of homoplasy (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Russell Powell (2007). The Law and Philosophy of Preventive War: An Institution-Based Approach to Collective Self-Defense. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 32:67-89.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation