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Ruth Macklin [75]Ruth R. Macklin [1]
  1. Ruth Macklin (forthcoming). The Paradoxical Case of Payment as Benefit to Research Subjects. Irb.
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  2. Pamela Valera, Stephanie Cook, Ruth Macklin & Yvonne Chang (2014). Conducting Health Disparities Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Examining Research, Ethics, and Participation. Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):164-174.
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  3. Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd (2013). Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
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  4. Ruth Macklin (2012). Aesthetic Enhancement? Or Human Rights Violation? Hastings Center Report 42 (6):28-29.
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  5. Ruth Macklin (2012). A Global Ethics Approach to Vulnerability. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):64-81.
    In exploring the concept of vulnerability, we do not begin with a blank slate. In research involving human subjects, ethics guidelines typically provide a rough definition of the concept. For example, the commentary on Guideline 13 in the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), says that "vulnerable persons are those who are relatively (or absolutely) incapable of protecting their own interests. More formally, they may have insufficient (...)
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  6. Ruth Macklin (2012). Ethics in HIV Prevention Research: Clarifying the Complexities. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):31-32.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 6, Page 31-32, June 2012.
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  7. Ruth Macklin (2012). Good in Theory: Can It Work in Practice? American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):55-56.
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  8. Ruth Macklin (2012). Ruthless? Hastings Center Report 42 (6):6-6.
     
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  9. Ruth Macklin (2011). Ethical Challenges in HIV Microbicide Research: What Protections Do Women Need? International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):124-143.
    As the HIV epidemic continues unabated, among the people most at risk are women and girls in developing countries. Condom distribution, adopted as a public health measure early in the epidemic, has had only marginal success. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “Young girls and women are regularly and repeatedly denied information about, and access to, condoms. Often they do not have the power to negotiate the use of condoms. In many social contexts, men are resistant (...)
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  10. Ruth Macklin (2010). Ethical Rules, Policies, or Guidance? American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):1-2.
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  11. Ruth Macklin (2010). Fair Benefits in Developing Countries: Maximin as a Good Start. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):36-37.
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  12. Ruth Macklin (2010). The Death of Bioethics (as We Once Knew It). Bioethics 24 (5):211-217.
    Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. (...)
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  13. Cheryl Macpherson & Ruth Macklin (2010). Standards and Practices in a Diverse World: An Investigation Into Shared Values. Developing World Bioethics 10 (1):30-33.
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  14. Ruth Macklin (2009). Global Health. In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oup Oxford.
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  15. Ruth Macklin (2009). Global Inequalities in Women's Health. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):93-108.
    Empirical evidence confirms the existence of health inequalities between women and men in developing countries, with women experiencing poorer health status than men, as well as less access to vital health services. These disparities have different sources and take different forms, some of which result from cultural factors, others from discriminatory laws and practices, and still others from the biological fact that only women undergo pregnancy and childbirth, a major cause of maternal mortality. The injustice lies in the fact that (...)
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  16. Laurie J. Bauman, Jamie Heather Sclafane, Marni LoIacono, Ken Wilson & Ruth Macklin (2008). Ethical Issues in HIV/STD Prevention Research with High Risk Youth: Providing Help, Preserving Validity. Ethics and Behavior 18 (2 & 3):247 – 265.
    Many preventive intervention studies with adolescents address high-risk behaviors such as drug and alcohol use, and unprotected sex. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are the gold standard methodology used to test the effectiveness of these behavioral interventions. Interventions outside the rigidly described protocol are prohibited. However, there are ethical challenges to implementing inflexible intervention protocols, especially when the target population is young, experiences many stressful events, and lives in a resource-poor environment. Teens who are at high risk for substance use or (...)
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  17. Ruth Macklin (2008). Global Justice, Human Rights, and Health. In Ronald Michael Green, Aine Donovan & Steven A. Jauss (eds.), Global Bioethics: Issues of Conscience for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press.
     
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  18. Ruth Macklin (2006). Bioethics with Blinders-Reply. Hastings Center Report 36 (5):4-5.
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  19. Ruth Macklin (2006). Changing the Presumption: Providing ART to Vaccine Research Participants. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W1-W5.
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  20. Ruth Macklin (2006). The New Conservatives in Bioethics: Who Are They and What Do They Seek? Hastings Center Report 36 (1):34-43.
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  21. Ruth Macklin (2006). No Shortage of Dilemmas: Comment on “They Call It 'Patient Selection' in Khayelitsha”. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (03):313-321.
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  22. Ruth Macklin (2005). Reproductive Rights and Health in the Developing World. In. In Arthur W. Galston & Christiana Z. Peppard (eds.), Expanding Horizons in Bioethics. Springer. 87--101.
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  23. Ruth Macklin (2005). Some Questionable Premises About Research Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):29 – 31.
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  24. Ruth Macklin (2005). Yet Another Guideline? The Unesco Draft Declaration. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):244–250.
    Some people might argue that there are already too many different documents, guidelines, and regulations in bioethics. Some overlap w.
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  25. Ruth Macklin (2003). Bioethics, Vulnerability, and Protection. Bioethics 17 (5-6):472--486.
    What makes individuals, groups, or even entire countries vulnerable? And why is vulnerability a concern in bioethics? A simple answer to both questions is that vulnerable individuals and groups are subject to exploitation, and exploitation is morally wrong. This analysis is limited to two areas. First is the context of multinational research, in which vulnerable people can be exploited even if they are not harmed, and harmed even if they are not exploited. Second is the situation of women, who are (...)
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  26. Susan Douglas Kelley, Sondra Crosby, Michael A. Grodin, Ruth Macklin, Simon Shimshon Rubin, Fern Brunger & Charles Weijer (2002). The Forum. Ethics and Behavior 12 (4):371 – 387.
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  27. Ruth Macklin (2001). After Helsinki: Unresolved Issues in International Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (1):17-36.
    : Following a long process of revision, a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki was approved by the World Medical Association in 2000. Two provisions of the Declaration address ongoing international controversies regarding research sponsored by industrialized countries and conducted in developing countries. Despite the issuance of the final version of the Declaration, opponents remain locked in debate. Moreover, the Declaration remained silent on other prominent controversies concerning international research. An analysis of these current controversies reveals reasons why they (...)
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  28. Ruth Macklin (2001). Bioethics and Public Policy in the Next Millennium: Presidential Address. Bioethics 15 (5-6):373-381.
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  29. Ruth Macklin (2001). Four Forward-Looking Guidance Points. Developing World Bioethics 1 (2):121–134.
    Four key guidance points in the UNAIDS guidance document, Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research, are compared wit.
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  30. Ruth Macklin (2001). Which Way Down the Slippery Slope? Nazi Medical Killing and Euthanaisa Today. In John Harris (ed.), Bioethics. Oup Oxford.
     
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  31. Ruth Macklin (1999). Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural diversity: the physician-patient (...)
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  32. Ruth Macklin (1998). A Defense of Fundamental Principles and Human Rights: A Reply to Robert Baker. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):403-422.
  33. Ruth Macklin (1998). Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):1-22.
    : The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect all (...)
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  34. Ruth Macklin (1997). The Twelve Methods of Bioethics. Hastings Center Report 27 (1):50-50.
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  35. Ruth Macklin (1996). [Book Review] Surrogates & Other Mothers, the Debates Over Assisted Reproduction. [REVIEW] Ethics 106:476-477.
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  36. Ruth Macklin (1996). Disagreement, Consensus, and Moral Integrity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 6 (3):289-311.
    : The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments experienced some disagreements among its members in the course of its work. An epistemological controversy over the nature and degree of evidence required to draw ethical conclusions pervaded the committee's deliberations. Other disagreements involved the proper role of a governmental advisory committee and the question of when it is appropriate to notify people that they were unknowing subjects of radiation experiments. In the end, the Committee was able to reach consensus on almost (...)
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  37. Ruth Macklin & Florencia Luna (1996). Bioethics in Argentina: A Country Report. Bioethics 10 (2):140-153.
  38. Ruth Macklin (1995). Bioethics Perspective. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):114 – 116.
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  39. Ruth Macklin (1995). Cloning Without Prior Approval: A Response to Recent Disclosures of Noncompliance. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 5 (1):57-60.
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  40. Ruth Macklin (1995). Reproductive Technologies in Developing Countries. Bioethics 9 (3):276–282.
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  41. Ruth Macklin (1994). Splitting Embryos on the Slippery Slope: Ethics and Public Policy. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (3):209-225.
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  42. Ruth Macklin, George Annas, Daniel Callahan, Leon Kass & LeRoy Walters (1994). David A. J. Richards. In Peter Singer (ed.), Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  43. Ruth Macklin (1993). Enemies of Patients. Oxford University Press.
    A young man, terminally ill and in extreme suffering, asks to be removed from life support, requesting morphine first so he'll be asleep when the machine stops. His physician agrees, but the hospital's chief administrator intervenes, arguing that the morphine might itself cause death, leaving the physician open to criminal indictment for murder. To placate the administrator, the doctor and patient reach a grim compromise: life support will be disconnected first, and only after manifest signs of suffering appear will the (...)
     
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  44. Ruth Macklin (1993). Teaching Bioethics to Future Health Professionals: A Case-Based Clinical Model. Bioethics 7 (2-3):200-206.
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  45. Ruth Macklin (1993). Women's Health: An Ethical Perspective. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (1):23-29.
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  46. Ruth Macklin (1992). Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical Issues. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (3):215-219.
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  47. Ruth Macklin (1991). Artificial Means of Reproduction and Our Understanding of the Family. Hastings Center Report 21 (1):5-11.
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  48. Ruth Macklin (1991). HIV-Infected Psychiatric Patients: Beyond Confidentiality. Ethics and Behavior 1 (1):3 – 20.
    The AIDS epidemic calls for an ethical analysis of conflicting obligations surrounding HIV-infected psychiatric patients and confidentiality, as well as issues that go beyond confidentiality. Although laws pertaining to HIV infection have been enacted in a number of states, these statutes leave much discretion to health professionals. The ethical principle known as "the harm principle" can permit disclosure of confidential information and detention or isolation of psychiatric patients who pose a threat of infecting other patients. From an ethical point of (...)
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  49. Ruth Macklin (1988). Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
  50. Ruth Macklin (1988). Making Policy by Committee. Hastings Center Report 18 (4):26-26.
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