89 found
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  1.  3
    Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd (2013). Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
    The Office for Human Research Protections was correct in determining that the consent forms for the National Institutes of Health -sponsored SUPPORT study were seriously flawed. Several articles defended the consent forms and criticized the OHRP's actions. Disagreement focuses on three central issues: how risks and benefits should be described in informed consent documents; the meaning and application of the concept of “standard of care” in the context of research; and the proper role of OHRP. Examination of the consent forms (...)
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  2.  99
    Ruth Macklin (1999). Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural diversity: the physician-patient (...)
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  3.  26
    Ruth Macklin (forthcoming). The Paradoxical Case of Payment as Benefit to Research Subjects. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  4.  54
    Ruth Macklin (2003). Bioethics, Vulnerability, and Protection. Bioethics 17 (5-6):472--486.
    What makes individuals, groups, or even entire countries vulnerable? And why is vulnerability a concern in bioethics? A simple answer to both questions is that vulnerable individuals and groups are subject to exploitation, and exploitation is morally wrong. This analysis is limited to two areas. First is the context of multinational research, in which vulnerable people can be exploited even if they are not harmed, and harmed even if they are not exploited. Second is the situation of women, who are (...)
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  5.  20
    Ruth Macklin (2001). After Helsinki: Unresolved Issues in International Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (1):17-36.
    : Following a long process of revision, a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki was approved by the World Medical Association in 2000. Two provisions of the Declaration address ongoing international controversies regarding research sponsored by industrialized countries and conducted in developing countries. Despite the issuance of the final version of the Declaration, opponents remain locked in debate. Moreover, the Declaration remained silent on other prominent controversies concerning international research. An analysis of these current controversies reveals reasons why they (...)
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  6.  45
    Ruth Macklin (2006). The New Conservatives in Bioethics: Who Are They and What Do They Seek? Hastings Center Report 36 (1):34-43.
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  7.  37
    Ruth Macklin (1984). Commentary. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 3 (3/4):111-118.
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  8. Ruth Macklin (1969). Action, Causality, and Teleology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (4):301-316.
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  9. Ruth Macklin (1977). Moral Progress. Ethics 87 (4):370-382.
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  10. Ruth Macklin (1972). Mental Health and Mental Illness: Some Problems of Definition and Concept Formation. Philosophy of Science 39 (3):341-365.
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  11. Ruth Macklin (1998). Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):1-22.
    : The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect all (...)
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  12.  17
    Ruth Macklin (2011). Ethical Challenges in HIV Microbicide Research: What Protections Do Women Need? International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):124-143.
    As the HIV epidemic continues unabated, among the people most at risk are women and girls in developing countries. Condom distribution, adopted as a public health measure early in the epidemic, has had only marginal success. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “Young girls and women are regularly and repeatedly denied information about, and access to, condoms. Often they do not have the power to negotiate the use of condoms. In many social contexts, men are resistant (...)
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  13. Ruth Macklin (1977). Moral Issues in Human Genetics: Counseling or Control? Dialogue 16 (3):375-396.
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  14.  11
    Ruth Macklin (2010). Fair Benefits in Developing Countries: Maximin as a Good Start. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):36-37.
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  15.  4
    Ruth Macklin (2006). Changing the Presumption: Providing ART to Vaccine Research Participants. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W1-W5.
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  16.  73
    Ruth Macklin (1988). Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
  17.  4
    Ruth Macklin (2012). Good in Theory: Can It Work in Practice? American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):55-56.
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  18.  18
    Ruth Macklin (2005). Some Questionable Premises About Research Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):29 – 31.
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  19.  6
    Ruth Macklin (2001). Bioethics and Public Policy in the Next Millennium: Presidential Address. Bioethics 15 (5-6):373-381.
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  20.  64
    Ruth Macklin (1969). Explanation and Action: Recent Issues and Controversies. Synthese 20 (October):388-415.
  21.  20
    Ruth Macklin (2001). Four Forward-Looking Guidance Points. Developing World Bioethics 1 (2):121–134.
    Four key guidance points in the UNAIDS guidance document, Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research, are compared wit.
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  22.  27
    Ruth Macklin (2012). A Global Ethics Approach to Vulnerability. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):64-81.
    In exploring the concept of vulnerability, we do not begin with a blank slate. In research involving human subjects, ethics guidelines typically provide a rough definition of the concept. For example, the commentary on Guideline 13 in the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), says that "vulnerable persons are those who are relatively (or absolutely) incapable of protecting their own interests. More formally, they may have insufficient (...)
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  23.  50
    Ruth Macklin (2010). The Death of Bioethics (as We Once Knew It). Bioethics 24 (5):211-217.
    Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. (...)
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  24. Ruth Macklin (1987). Mortal Choices: Ethical Dilemmas in Modern Medicine. Houghton Mifflin.
     
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  25.  11
    Ruth Macklin (1998). A Defense of Fundamental Principles and Human Rights: A Reply to Robert Baker. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):403-422.
  26.  1
    Ruth Macklin (2016). NIDA's Pharmacologic Calvinism. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (4):48-49.
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  27.  4
    Ruth Macklin (1993). Enemies of Patients. Oxford University Press.
    A young man, terminally ill and in extreme suffering, asks to be removed from life support, requesting morphine first so he'll be asleep when the machine stops. His physician agrees, but the hospital's chief administrator intervenes, arguing that the morphine might itself cause death, leaving the physician open to criminal indictment for murder. To placate the administrator, the doctor and patient reach a grim compromise: life support will be disconnected first, and only after manifest signs of suffering appear will the (...)
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  28. Ruth Macklin (2008). How Independent Are IRBs? IRB: Ethics & Human Research 30 (3).
    What does it mean to say that ethics committees that provide prospective review of research involving human beings should be “independent”? In the United States, IRBs—which are typically located within and review research protocols at the institution for which most of their members work—cannot really be considered independent. Yet separating the IRB from the research institution may in turn mean less independence from a trial’s sponsors, as this kind of IRB is commercially motivated and paid directly by the sponsor. One (...)
     
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  29.  11
    Ruth Macklin (1991). Artificial Means of Reproduction and Our Understanding of the Family. Hastings Center Report 21 (1):5-11.
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  30.  2
    Ruth Macklin (1994). Splitting Embryos on the Slippery Slope: Ethics and Public Policy. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (3):209-225.
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  31.  3
    Ruth Macklin (2006). No Shortage of Dilemmas: Comment on “They Call It 'Patient Selection' in Khayelitsha”. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (3):313-321.
    Any program seeking to provide antiretroviral treatment to the many patients in need is bound to confront ethical dilemmas. Dilemmas, as we know, are situations in which decisionmakers are faced with a choice between equally unsatisfactory alternatives. Yet those in charge must make a decision or establish a policy that takes one pathway to the exclusion of another. Reasonable people may disagree over the choice, arguing that an alternative selection would have been ethically superior.
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  32.  5
    Ruth Macklin (2005). Reproductive Rights and Health in the Developing World. In Arthur W. Galston & Christiana Z. Peppard (eds.), Expanding Horizons in Bioethics. Springer 87--101.
  33.  9
    Ruth Macklin (1985). Equal Access to Professional Services. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 4 (3/4):1-12.
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  34. Ruth Macklin & Willard Gaylin (1981). Mental Retardation and Sterilization a Problem of Competency and Paternalism. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  35.  2
    Ruth Macklin (1993). Teaching Bioethics to Future Health Professionals: A Case-Based Clinical Model. Bioethics 7 (2-3):200-206.
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  36.  2
    Ruth Macklin (1988). Making Policy by Committee. Hastings Center Report 18 (4):26-26.
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  37.  14
    Ruth Macklin (2009). Global Inequalities in Women's Health. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):93-108.
    Empirical evidence confirms the existence of health inequalities between women and men in developing countries, with women experiencing poorer health status than men, as well as less access to vital health services. These disparities have different sources and take different forms, some of which result from cultural factors, others from discriminatory laws and practices, and still others from the biological fact that only women undergo pregnancy and childbirth, a major cause of maternal mortality. The injustice lies in the fact that (...)
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  38.  1
    Ruth Macklin (1988). The Inner Workings of an Ethics Committee: Latest Battle Over Jehovah's Witnesses. Hastings Center Report 18 (1):15-20.
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  39.  15
    Ruth Macklin (1978). Man's "Animal Brains" and Animal Nature: Some Implications of a Psychophysiological Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (2):155-181.
  40.  16
    Ruth Macklin (1972). Reasons Vs. Causes in Explanation of Action. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (1):78-89.
    It has been argued that 'causes' of action and 'reasons' for acting represent incompatible conceptual categories. This paper examines the alleged incompatibility between these concepts and attempts to show that not only are 'reason' explanations compatible with causal explanations but also that it is plausible to construe the former as a species of the latter. Providing reasons often aids in the search for relevant causal factors, And causal explanations are more systematic than corresponding reason explanations.
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  41.  21
    Ruth Macklin (1983). Philosophical Conceptions of Rationality and Psychiatric Notions of Competency. Synthese 57 (2):205 - 224.
    Psychiatrists are frequently called upon to make assessments of the rationality or irrationality of persons for a variety of medical-legal purposes. A key category is that of evaluations of a patient's capacity to grant informed consent for a medical procedure. A diagnosis of mental illness is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a finding of incompetence. The notion of competency to grant consent, which is a mixed psychiatric-legal concept, shares some features with philosophical conceptions of rationality, but differs (...)
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  42.  17
    Ruth Macklin (2010). Ethical Rules, Policies, or Guidance? American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):1-2.
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  43. Ruth Macklin (2001). Which Way Down the Slippery Slope? Nazi Medical Killing and Euthanaisa Today. In John Harris (ed.), Bioethics. OUP Oxford
     
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  44.  18
    Cheryl Macpherson & Ruth Macklin (2010). Standards and Practices in a Diverse World: An Investigation Into Shared Values. Developing World Bioethics 10 (1):30-33.
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  45.  14
    Ruth Macklin (1967). Actions, Consequences and Ethical Theory. Journal of Value Inquiry 1 (1):72-80.
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  46.  1
    Ruth Macklin (1984). Man, Mind and Morality: The Ethics of Behavior Control. Philosophical Review 93 (1):104-106.
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  47.  17
    Ruth Macklin (1996). Disagreement, Consensus, and Moral Integrity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 6 (3):289-311.
    : The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments experienced some disagreements among its members in the course of its work. An epistemological controversy over the nature and degree of evidence required to draw ethical conclusions pervaded the committee's deliberations. Other disagreements involved the proper role of a governmental advisory committee and the question of when it is appropriate to notify people that they were unknowing subjects of radiation experiments. In the end, the Committee was able to reach consensus on almost (...)
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  48.  2
    Burton M. Leiser, James E. Doughton & Ruth Macklin (1984). Advertising Professional Success Rates [with Commentaries]. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 3 (3/4):31 - 60.
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  49.  2
    Ruth Macklin (1976). Ethics, Sex Research, and Sex Therapy. Hastings Center Report 6 (2):5-7.
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  50.  2
    Ruth Macklin (1976). Moral Concerns and Appeals to Rights and Duties. Hastings Center Report 6 (5):31-38.
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