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  1. Hans Marien, Henk Aarts & Ruud Custers (2013). Adaptive Control of Human Action: The Role of Outcome Representations and Reward Signals. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward signals work (...)
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  2. Ruud Custers, Baruch Eitam & John A. Bargh (2012). Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Goal Pursuit. In Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press.
     
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  3. Ruud Custers, Baruch Eitam & John A. Bargh (2012). I T is Hard to Miss That We Are Capable of Consciously Reflecting on Our Thoughts, Our Doings, and the World Around Us. When We Wake Up in the Morning. In Henk Aarts & Andrew J. Elliot (eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. Psychology Press. 231.
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  4. Myrthel Dogge, Marloes Schaap, Ruud Custers, Daniel M. Wegner & Henk Aarts (2012). When Moving Without Volition: Implied Self-Causation Enhances Binding Strength Between Involuntary Actions and Effects. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):501-506.
    The conscious awareness of voluntary action is associated with systematic changes in time perception: The interval between actions and outcomes is experienced as compressed in time. Although this temporal binding is thought to result from voluntary movement and provides a window to the sense of agency, recent studies challenge this idea by demonstrating binding in involuntary movement. We offer a potential account for these findings by proposing that binding between involuntary actions and effects can occur when self-causation is implied. Participants (...)
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  5. Ruud Custers (2011). Disentangling Attention and Awareness: The Case of Predictive Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):382-383.
    Custers and Aarts demonstrated that whether predictive relations between two events are stored in memory as unidirectional or bi-directional structures does not depend on awareness, but on attention. Here, the role of attention and top-down processes in producing these effects are investigated more closely.
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  6. Ruud Custers & Henk Aarts (2011). Learning of Predictive Relations Between Events Depends on Attention, Not on Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):368-378.
    It is generally assumed that storing predictive relations between two events in memory as bi-directional associations does not require conscious awareness of this relation, whereas the formation of unidirectional associations that capture the direction of the relation does. This study reports a set of experiments demonstrating that unidirectional associations can be formed even when awareness of the relation is actively prevented, if attention is “tuned” to process predictive relations. When participants engaged in predicting targets based on cues in an unrelated (...)
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  7. Erik Bijleveld, Ruud Custers & Henk Aarts (2010). Unconscious Reward Cues Increase Invested Effort, but Do Not Change Speed–Accuracy Tradeoffs. Cognition 115 (2):330-335.
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  8. Ran R. Hassin, Henk Aarts, Baruch Eitam, Ruud Custers & Tali Kleiman (2009). Non-Conscious Goal Pursuit and the Effortful Control of Behavior. In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
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  9. Henk Aarts, Ruud Custers & Daniel M. Wegner (2005). On the Inference of Personal Authorship: Enhancing Experienced Agency by Priming Effect Information☆. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):439-458.
    Three experiments examined whether the mere priming of potential action effects enhances people’s feeling of causing these effects when they occur. In a computer task, participants and the computer independently moved a rapidly moving square on a display. Participants had to press a key, thereby stopping the movement. However, the participant or the computer could have caused the square to stop on the observed position, and accordingly, the stopped position of the square could be conceived of as the potential effect (...)
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