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  1. Ryan B. Scott, Ludovico Minati, Zoltan Dienes, Hugo D. Critchley & Anil K. Seth (2011). Detecting Conscious Awareness From Involuntary Autonomic Responses. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):936-942.
    Can conscious awareness be ascertained from physiological responses alone? We evaluate a novel learning-based procedure permitting detection of conscious awareness without reliance on language comprehension or behavioural responses. The method exploits a situation whereby only consciously detected violations of an expectation alter skin conductance responses . Thirty participants listened to sequences of piano notes that, without their being told, predicted a pleasant fanfare or an aversive noise according to an abstract rule. Stimuli were presented without distraction , or while distracted (...)
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  2. Zoltán Dienes, Ryan B. Scott & Anil K. Seth (2010). Subjective Measures of Implicit Knowledge That Go Beyond Confidence: Reply to Overgaard Et Al.☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):685-686.
    Overgaard, Timmermans, Sandberg, and Cleeremans ask if the conscious experience of people in implicit learning experiments can be explored more fully than just confidence ratings allow. We show that confidence ratings play a vital role in such experiments, but are indeed incomplete in themselves: in addition, use of structural knowledge attributions and ratings of fringe feelings like familiarity are important in characterizing the phenomenology of the application of implicit knowledge.
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  3. Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars. Cognition 114 (3):372-388.
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  4. Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Knowledge Applied to New Domains: The Unconscious Succeeds Where the Conscious Fails. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):391-398.
    A common view holds that consciousness is needed for knowledge acquired in one domain to be applied in a novel domain. We present evidence for the opposite; where the transfer of knowledge is achieved only in the absence of conscious awareness. Knowledge of artificial grammars was examined where training and testing occurred in different vocabularies or modalities. In all conditions grammaticality judgments attributed to random selection showed above-chance accuracy , while those attributed to conscious decisions did not. Participants also rated (...)
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  5. Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Prior Familiarity with Components Enhances Unconscious Learning of Relations. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):413-418.
    The influence of prior familiarity with components on the implicit learning of relations was examined using artificial grammar learning. Prior to training on grammar strings, participants were familiarised with either the novel symbols used to construct the strings or with irrelevant geometric shapes. Participants familiarised with the relevant symbols showed greater accuracy when judging the correctness of new grammar strings. Familiarity with elemental components did not increase conscious awareness of the basis for discriminations but increased accuracy even in its absence. (...)
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