No one denies the importance of applying knowledge to actions. But claiming identity (unity) of knowledge and action is quite another thing. There seem to be two problems with the claim: (1) the identity claim implies that the sole cause for one to fail to act on what one judges to be right is ignorance, but it is obviously false that the sole cause of failure in moral actions is ignorance. (2) The identity statement implies non-separation of knowledge and action. (...) But knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. However, the identity of knowledge and action is what a famous Ming Confucian scholar, W ang Yang-ming, proposed and the concept became the central doctrine of his teaching. Though there are several major interpretations of Wang’s doctrine in contemporary literature, it is not clear to me how they deal with the above mentioned difficulties. In this article, I will discuss these interpretations of the doctrine and propose a new interpretation. My purpose is to give an interpretation of Wang’s doctrine that has the capacity of dealing with these challenges to the doctrine and also captures the essence of his teaching. (shrink)
Song, Hongbing 宋洪兵, New Studies of han Feizi’s Political Thought 韓非子政治思想再硏究 Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11712-012-9265-2 Authors Soon-ja Yang, Inha University, 253 Yonghyeon 4-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, South Korea 402-751 Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009.
Dynamic deformation of copper single crystals, especially of fatigued copper single crystals with different orientations, was conducted on a split-Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus. The strain rates were in the range 2???9???103?s?1. After dynamic deformation, the adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) were examined in a light microscope and SEM. The width and spacing of ASBs formed under different strain rates in a fatigued copper single crystal were measured and the spacing of ASBs is one-order of magnitude smaller than the theoretical predictions. The (...) possible reasons for the discrepancy were discussed. The critical strains for the ASB formation in four different orientated single crystals at stain rate of about 4???103?s?1 were determined by examining the post-deformation specimens and dynamic stress?strain curves. It is clearly indicated that the critical strains for the ASB formation are orientation-dependent in copper single crystals. A simple microscopic mechanism for ASB formation in fatigued single crystals was proposed. (shrink)
In 2002, Dvurečenskij extended Mundici’s equivalence between unital abelian l -groups and MV-algebras to the non-commutative case. We analyse the relationship to Bosbach’s cone algebras and clarify the rôle of the corresponding pair of L -algebras. As a consequence, it follows that one of the two L -algebra axioms can be dropped.
In explaining the relationship between hypotheses and images in the Line of Plato’s Republic VI, I first focus on Plato’s elucidation of the nature of mathematics as the mathematician himself understands it. I go on to criticize traditional interpretations of the relationship above based on the doubtful assumption that mathematics concerns Platonic Forms. To formulate my view of that relationship I exploit the notion of “structure.” I show how “hypotheses” as principles of proof can determine the structures of “images” by (...) which the corresponding intelligible ones of mathematical objects become known.En expliquant la relation entre hypothèses et images dans l’analogie de la ligne du livre VI de la République de Platon, je m’attarde d’abord sur l’élucidation platonicienne de la nature des mathématiques teile que la conçoit le mathématicien lui-même. Je poursuis avec une critique des interprétations traditionnelles de cette relation, qui partent de l’assomption douteuse que les mathématiques s’occupent desFormes platoniciennes. Pour formuler mon point de vue sur cette relation, j’exploite la notion de «structure». Je montre comment les «hypothèses» comme principes de preuve peuvent déterminer les structures des «images» par lesquelles les structures intelligibles correspondantes des objets mathématiques en viennent à être connues. (shrink)
China is a country that has undertaken a great transformation since the late 1970' s, and among these changes, has seen a massive growth in the advertising industry with the influx of foreign advertisers, and the development of regional and global media, such as satellite television and the Internet. This has resulted in the Chinese people of all ages having a greater opportunity of exposure to different types of advertising, including the advertising of potentially controversial products, which could clash with (...) traditional Chinese values. Using a stakeholder theory approach, this study analyzes the responses of 630 Chinese respondents to discover who is offended by controversial advertisements and determine ways potentially offensive advertising messages can be reduced, thereby assisting marketers in being more socially responsible in their advertising messages. (shrink)
Karl Marx's philosophy includes three dimensions of critique. The first is the critique of metaphysics, which is also the major premise on the basis of which Marx turns his philosophical viewpoint to the analysis of social life and its cultural logic. The second is the capital logic and totality, the core of Marx's philosophy, according to which Marx exposes the totality and contradictions inherent in the capital logic. The third is the theory of social critique that is the realistic end (...) of his philosophy. (shrink)
We draw an analogy between Hilbert's program (HP) for mathematics and Newell's program (NP) for cognitive modeling. The analogy reveals that NP, like HP before it, is fundamentally flawed. The only alternative is a program anchored by an admission that cognition is more than computation.
Feizi 韓非子 in terms of the concept of shi 勢 (circumstantial advantage, power, or authority). This argument is based on the A Critique of Circumstantial Advantage (Nanshi 難勢) chapter of the Hanfeizi, where Han Feizi advances his own idea of shi after criticizing both Shen Dao and an anonymous Confucian. However, there are other primary sources to contain Shen Dao’s thought, namely, seven incomplete Shenzi 慎子 chapters of the Essentials on Government from the Assemblage of Books (Qunshu zhi yao 群書治要) (...) and other fragments preserved in other Chinese texts. This article examines the Shenzi fragments in order to ask whether Shen Dao stresses the concept of shi. (shrink)
: Feng Qi is widely acknowledged in mainland China as one of the few consummate and most original thinkers to have emerged there since 1949. The essence of Feng's thought is to provide a solution to the time-honored problem of the confrontation between fact and value, between a positivistic/ scientific approach and a humanistic/metaphysical approach. Feng tries to solve this conflict by constructing what he calls "epistemology in a broader sense," at the core of which is his theory of the (...) "transformation of knowledge into wisdom.". (shrink)
The distribution of variants and three-dimensional (3D) configurations of the heterogeneously formed S (Al2CuMg) precipitates at dislocations, grain boundaries and the Al20Cu2Mn3 dispersoid/Al interfaces were studied in this research. By means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we systematically investigated the orientation relationships (ORs) between these heterogeneously formed S precipitates and the Al matrix, and further unraveled that the preferred orientation of S variants at grain boundaries and at dispersoid/Al interfaces are respectively associated with the OR between the precipitate habit (...) plane and the grain boundary plane, and the OR between the precipitate habit plane and the interface plane. The inherent characteristic of the crystal structure of the S phase, i.e. the symmetry of the pentagonal subunit, was considered to be the fundamental factor determining the preference of the variant pair. By using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography, we successively obtained the 3D reconstruction of the S precipitates at these defects. Both the morphology of an individual S precipitate and the overall configuration of the S precipitates nucleated at these defects can be clearly observed without misunderstandings induced by the overlap and projection effects of the conventional two-dimensional methods. (shrink)
The ordering tendency in binary f-Ti solid solution containing 3sp or 4sp simple-metal (SM) or 3d transition-metal (TM) solute is investigated systematically by the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method within the atomic sphere approximation (ASA). We demonstrated that the effective pairwise interaction (EPI) energy in a solid solution is equal to half the solute-solute interaction energies and can be evaluated by a supercell total energy approach. The calculations of EPI energy both with and without volume relaxation of the supercells and (...) local density of states (LDOS) show that the EPI energies of Ti-SM and Ti-TM solutions are dominated by different factors. For Ti-SM solutions, the EPI energies are of large absolute values with a negative sign, indicating strong ordering tendency in these solutions. The volume relaxation does not alter the EPI energy substantially. The calculated LDOS shows that the ordering tendency in Ti-SM solutions may be related to the hybridization between the electrons of the SM atoms when they are close to each other. For most Ti-TM solutions, if calculated without relaxation, the absolute EPI energies are very small; however, if calculated with relaxation, they are of relatively large positive values, indicating a clustering tendency in these solutions. By combining the calculated EPI energy and Flinn's model for short-range order (SRO) strengthening, the increase in critical shear stress ?sro due to SRO is estimated for Ti-SM alloys, and the results qualitatively agree with experiment. (shrink)
The Young's modulus of ZnO nanobelts was measured using an atomic force microscope following the modulated nanoindentation method. The nanobelts have a rectangular cross-section, with width-to-thickness ratios ranging 1?10 and lengths up to a few millimetres. The Young's modulus of two nanobelts with width-to-thickness ratio of 2.2 and 1.3 was measured at 55 and 108?GPa, respectively, indicating a size dependence of the elastic properties of the nanobelts.
This paper addresses the question how to analyze multimodal public discourse in such a way that the resulting reconstruction of the rhetor’s accountability either obliges the rhetor to acknowledge the argumentative reconstruction as valid or to refute its validity in a meta-discussion. This is a challenge for discourse theory as well as for argument theory because multimodal discourse seems far removed from the ‘standard’ propositional format of an argument. We argue that multimodal discourse should be analyzed as a coherent and (...) relevant discourse, assuming the possibility of instant interactions between all modes. We introduce a method that allows us to account for an argumentative reconstruction in a systematic way. We illustrate our method by analyzing the ABC news item titled Hu Jintao Visit: Economics and Panda Bears of January 20, 2011, holding ABC news as a rhetor accountable for several far reaching standpoints that are implied in the multimodal format. (shrink)
From a perspective of multiculturalism, this paper aims to analyze Ang Lee’s Wedding Banquet and Brokeback Mountain by elaborating on the issues of sex/gender/identity in the hope of exploring the process and problematics of cultural formations in the era of globalization characterized by multiculturalism. Based on Judith Buthler’s deconstructive/postmodernist view of sex/gender/identity, the first part of this essay evaluates simultaneously both the positive and negative aspects of these two films; whereas Deleuze’s literary aesthetics of minor literature offers me a subtle (...) perspective on Ang Lee’s extraordinary achievement in creating a minoritarian artistic work that exposes the complexity of human psyche/desire, which constitutes the second part of this essay. In addition, both parts intend to reexamine, from a perspective of multiculturalism, how Ang Lee’s special micropolitics/aesthetics enables him to rewrite successfully Annie Proulx’s short story for the screen so as to create a globally popular American love story that not only distinguishes him from the mediocre Hollywood commercial romance film makers but also simultaneously brings him fame and profit. (shrink)
Anomalous perception has been investigated extensively in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether these impairments are specific to schizophrenia or extend to other psychotic disorders. Recent studies of visual context processing in schizophrenia (Tibber et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2013) point to circumscribed, task-specific abnormalities. Here we examined visual contextual processing across a comprehensive set of visual tasks in individuals with bipolar disorder and compared their performance with that of our previously published results from schizophrenia and healthy participants (...) tested on those same tasks. We quantified the degree to which the surrounding visual context alters a center stimulus’ appearance for brightness, size, contrast, orientation and motion. Across these tasks, healthy participants showed robust contextual effects, as indicated by pronounced misperceptions of the center stimuli. Participants with bipolar disorder showed contextual effects similar in magnitude to those found in healthy participants on all tasks. This result differs from what we found in schizophrenia participants (Yang et al., 2013) who showed weakened contextual modulations of contrast but intact contextual modulations of perceived luminance and size. Yet in schizophrenia participants, the magnitude of the contrast illusion did not correlate with symptom measures. Performance on the contrast task by the bipolar disorder group also could not be distinguished from that of the schizophrenia group, and this may be attributed to the result that bipolar patients who presented with greater manic symptoms showed weaker contrast modulation. Thus, contrast gain control may be modulated by clinical state in bipolar disorder. Stronger motion and orientation context effects correlated with worse clinical symptoms across both patient groups and especially in schizophrenia participants. These results highlight the complexity of visual context processing in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (shrink)
Governing boards utilize executive compensation contracts in an attempt to align executive actions with corporate goals. The objective is to ensure that executive performance provides value to the organization in terms of successful outcomes. A key performance criteria typically specified in CEO compensation contracts is earnings targets. However, using earnings as a performance evaluation may be problematic because some firms exhibit robust and sustained earnings over time (high earnings persistence), and other firms, such as high growth oriented firms, exhibit weak (...) or sometimes negative earnings over time (low earnings persistence). Our study reveals that the effect of high earnings persistence results in firms that focus more heavily on cash compensation (salary and bonus) rather than on equity compensation (stock options, etc.) to compensate executive performance. Additionally, for firms characterized by low earnings persistence, our study indicates that cash flows from operations act as a supplementary performance measure to accounting earnings, and become increasingly important as a means to justify executive cash compensation. (shrink)
Following postmodernism, post-colonialism reflects modernity from a new perspective-the cultural perspective. Post-colonialism interprets colonialism contained in modernity, deconstructs orientalism and cultural hegemonism, and turns western reflection of modernity into an inquiry about the global relationship between the East and the West. Post-colonialism brings forward a new theoretical domain, that is, the colonizational relationship between the East and the West in the process of modernization. This interpretation expresses a strong tendency of anti-western centrality and shares some ideas with Marxism. This article (...) discusses the essence, characteristics, and limitation of post-colonialism from the viewpoint of Marxism, expecting to further the study of post-colonialism and its relationship with Marxism. (shrink)
The structural and magnetic properties of Y(Fe1-xMnx)12 compounds and their nitrides (x = 0.2 and 0.4) have been studied by using X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is found that the lattice parameters increase, while the saturation magnetization and Curie temperature decrease with Mn content increment in Y(Fe1-xMnx12 compounds. Y(Fe0.8Mn0.2)12 compound shows a weak easy-c axis magnetization direction, but Y(Fe0.6Mn0.4)12 compound is in a paramagnetic state at room temperature. Upon nitrogenation, the lattice parameters, Curie temperature are notably increased and the (...) saturation magnetization is greatly increased by about 50%. The easy magnetization direction for both compound nitrides all lies in the basal plane at room temperature. (shrink)
Here, we recognize the growing significance of miniaturized devices as medical diagnostic tools and highlight the need to provide a convenient means of powering such instruments when implanted into the body. One of the most promising approaches to this end involves using a light-collection facility to absorb incident white light and transfer the photonic energy to a tiny semiconductor embedded on the device. Although fluorescent organic molecules offer strong potential as modules for such solar collectors, we emphasize the promise offered (...) by transition metal complexes. Thus, an extended series of binuclear Ru(II)/Os(II) poly(pyridine) complexes has been shown to be highly promising sensitizers for amorphous silicon solar cells. These materials absorb a high fraction of visible light while the Ru(II)-based units possess triplet energies that are comparable to those of the naphthalene-based bridge. The metal complex injects a triplet exciton into the bridge and this, in turn, is trapped by the Os(II)-based terminal. The result is extremely efficacious triplet-energy transfer; at room temperature the rate of energy transfer is independent of distance over some 6 nm and only weakly dependent on temperature. (shrink)
The influence that philosophy of science has had on scientific practice is as controversial as it is undeniable, especially in the case of biology. The dynamic between philosophy and biology as disciplines has developed along two different lines that can be characterized as 'paternal', on the one hand, and more 'fraternal', on the other. The role Popperian principles of demarcation and falsifiability have played in both the systematics community as well as the ongoing evolution-creation debates illustrate these contrasting forms of (...) interdisciplinary engagement, underscoring the influence philosophy of science in shaping our contemporary understanding of biology in the North American context. However, a strict disciplinary distinction between philosophy and science may itself be a false dichotomy that risks hampering future development of the biological sciences. By actively engaging with philosophical considerations as an integral part of their scientific practice, nineteenth-century biologists offer an interesting counterpoint to current trends of overspecialization and provide a model of scientists who avoided extremes of antagonism with, or subservience to, philosophy. (shrink)
Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials.
The present study is a cross-sectional survey that investigates ethical practices among Chinese psychotherapists from the perspective of a large representative sample of Chinese clients (N?=?1,100). In reports from clients, we found that psychotherapists did poorly in providing informed consent and had other ethical difficulties in the therapeutic setting and with dual relationships. We conclude that Chinese culture, especially Confucianism, had significant impact on the attitudes toward the psychotherapists' ethical practices, which complicated ethical dilemmas. It is important for cross-cultural psychotherapists (...) to become sensitive to the influences of traditional Chinese culture when counseling Chinese clients. (shrink)
An ultra-low carbon austenitic stainless steel was successfully pressed from one to eight passes by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature. By using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the microstructural evolution during ECAP was investigated to reveal the formation mechanism of strain-induced nanostructures. The refinement mechanism involved the formation of shear bands and deformation twins, followed by the fragmentation of twin lamellae, as well as successive martensite transformation from parent austenitic grains with sizes ranging from (...) microns to nanometres through the processes ?(fcc)???ε(hcp)???α?(bcc). After pressing for eight passes, two types of nanocrystalline grains were achieved: (a) nanocrystalline austenite with a mean grain size of ?31?nm and (b) strain-induced nanocrystalline α?-martensite with a size of ?74?nm. The formation mechanisms are discussed in terms of microstructural subdivision via deformation twinning and martensite transformation. (shrink)
We show evidence that a structural martensitic transition is related to significant changes in the electronic structure, as revealed in thermodynamic measurements made in high magnetic fields. The effect of the magnetic field is considered unusual as many influential investigations of martensitic transitions have emphasized that the structural transitions are primarily lattice dynamical and are driven by the entropy due to the phonons. We provide a theoretical framework, which can be used to describe the effect of the magnetic field on (...) the lattice dynamics in which the field dependence originates from the dielectric constant. (shrink)
Luo Congyan put forward the idea that benevolence is the substance while righteousness is its function, which placed the intrinsic value of human beings on a more fundamental position and affirmed the unity of benevolent principle and universal norms from the perspective of the relationship between substance and function. The unity of benevolence and righteousness involves the connection between value and norms, and the latter relate to the relationship between morality and law in the broader sense. On the basis of (...) the idea of using both benevolence and righteousness, Luo Congyan examined the relationship between morality and law. Corresponding to the emphasis on the role of both law and political power, Luo Congyan concerned himself with how to establish rational interpersonal relationships in various ways. Furthermore, Luo Congyan emphasized the significance of behavior in everyday life, while he affirmed that the universal principle should be followed. In this way, he developed the earlier Confucian thought. (shrink)
The flow rate of powder in an open vertical capillary subject to transverse acoustic vibration is predicted using an explicit equation by considering the intermittent arrest and stasis of particles subject to acceleration in a field. The analysis rests solely on physical quantities that are easily measured by experiment. The calculation is supported by measured flow rate and by direct observation using high speed photography. Increasing the horizontal component of acceleration of a particle should not influence rate of descent but (...) the overall time of flight is increased both by re-initiation of descent after collision at the wall and by fixed stationary periods on each cycle. Since flow stops when acoustic vibration stops, the vibrating tube is a valve that provides computer-controlled powder flow metering, mixing and dispensing. The valve is capable of adjusting the flow rate with a ratio of minimum to maximum flow rate of 0.1. It is being used to make three-dimensional functional gradients by solid freeforming operations, notably selective laser sintering. (shrink)
Angle-resolved photoemission experiments have been performed on USb2, and very narrow quasiparticle peaks have been observed in a band, which local spin-density approximation (LSDA) predicts to osculate the Fermi energy. The observed band is found to be depressed by 17 meV below the Fermi energy. Furthermore, the inferred quasiparticle dispersion relation for this band exhibits a kink at an energy of about 23 meV below the Fermi energy. The kink is not found in LSDA calculations and, therefore, is attributable to (...) a change in the quasiparticle mass renormalization by a factor of approximately 2. The existence of a kink in the quasiparticle dispersion relation of a band that does not cross the Fermi energy is unprecedented. The kink in the quasiparticle dispersion relation is attributed to the effect of the interband self-energy, involving transitions from the osculating band into a band that does cross the Fermi energy. (shrink)
The authors have discovered a systematic, intelligent and potentially automatic method to detect errors in handbooks and stop their transmission using unrecognised relationships between materials properties. The scientific community relies on the veracity of scientific data in handbooks and databases, some of which have a long pedigree covering several decades. Although various outlier-detection procedures are employed to detect and, where appropriate, remove contaminated data, errors, which had not been discovered by established methods, were easily detected by our artificial neural network (...) in tables of properties of the elements. We started using neural networks to discover unrecognised relationships between materials properties and quickly found that they were very good at finding inconsistencies in groups of data. They reveal variations from 10 to 900% in tables of property data for the elements and point out those that are most probably correct. Compared with the statistical method adopted by Ashby and co-workers [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 454 (1998) p. 1301, 1323], this method locates more inconsistencies and could be embedded in database software for automatic self-checking. We anticipate that our suggestion will be a starting point to deal with this basic problem that affects researchers in every field. The authors believe it may eventually moderate the current expectation that data field error rates will persist at between 1 and 5%. (shrink)
We try to find a possible origin of the holographic principle in the Lorentz-covariant Yang’s quantized space-time algebra (YSTA). YSTA, which is intrinsically equipped with short- and long-scale parameters, λ and R, gives a finite number of spatial degrees of freedom for any bounded spatial region, providing a basis for divergence-free quantum field theory. Furthermore, it gives a definite kinematical reduction of spatial degrees of freedom, compared with the ordinary lattice space. On account of the latter fact, we find (...) a certain kind of kinematical holographic relation in YSTA, which may be regarded as a primordial form of the holographic principle suggested so far in the framework of the present quantum theory that appears now in the contraction limit of YSTA, λ→0 and R→∞. (shrink)
William Vallicella poses a dilemma for continuous-creation accounts of conservation, which he attempts to solve by conjoining presentism and four-dimensionalism. I claim that presentist four-dimensionalism fails to appreciate the real problem behind continuous creation and persistence, which is a presumption of the discontinuity of time. I will argue that if we assume that time is discontinuous, then, (1) presentist four-dimensionalism cannot alone account for persistence, and (2) created entities are also not in clear need of conservation in Vallicella’s solution. Lastly, (...) I conclude by suggesting that the worry over persistence for continuous creation is a problem only if persistence requires causal continuity. (shrink)
Both psychoanalysis and modern detective fiction evolved into their modern form around the turn of 20th century. In several ways, their development reflected the turbulent time period: an era that saw increasing doubt over logic and reason as ways to govern the world and that questioned humanity's ability to redeem itself through progress and knowledge. Detective fiction was an attempt to solve the unexpected through logic and reasoning, while psychoanalysis was a way to make coherence out of a fragmented presentation. (...) The preceding period had marked a growing public concern over crime in urban areas that was fed into public consciousness by the burgeoning print industry. After the establishment of the world's .. (shrink)
Kant has argued that moral requirements are categorical. Kant's claim has been challenged by some contemporary philosophers; this article defends Kant's doctrine. I argue that Kant's claim captures the unique feature of moral requirements. The main arguments against Kant's claim focus on one condition that a categorical imperative must meet: to be independent of desires. I argue that there is another important, but often ignored, condition that a categorical imperative must meet, and this second condition is crucial to understanding why (...) moral requirements are not hypothetical. I also argue that the claim that moral requirements are not categorical because they depend on desires for motivation is beside the point. The issue of whether moral requirements are categorical is not an issue about whether moral desires or feelings are necessary for moral motivation but are rather an issue about the ground of moral desires or moral feelings. Moral requirements are categorical because they are requirements of reason, and reason makes moral desires or feelings possible. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to identify China’s indigenous conceptual dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and to increase the knowledge and comprehension about CSR in specific context. We conducted an inductive analysis of CSR in China based on an open-ended survey of 630 CEOs and business owners in 12 provinces (municipalities) in China. In the survey, we collected CSR sample responses. After examining the qualitative data, we identified nine dimensions of CSR, among which six dimensions are similar to (...) their western counterparts; however, the other three dimensions were never mentioned in previous literature, which mostly study the cases in the western world. In addition, two of the widely accepted CSR dimensions in the western world have no embodiments in China. A comparative study of CSR between China and western countries also unveiled some unique dimensions of CSR in China. In conclusion, CSR manifested in China is different from that in western countries, and China’s CSR is closely related to its social and cultural background. (shrink)
Obesity is a particularly vexing public health challenge, since it not only underlies much disease and health spending but also largely stems from repeated personal behavioral choices. The newly enacted comprehensive health reform law contains a number of provisions to address obesity. For example, insurance companies are required to provide coverage for preventive-health services, which include obesity screening and nutritional counseling. In addition, employers will soon be able to offer premium discounts to workers who participate in wellness programs that emphasize (...) behavioral choices. These policies presume that government intervention to reduce obesity is necessary and justified. Some people, however, argue that individuals have a compelling interest to pursue their own health and happiness as they see fit, and therefore any government intervention in these areas is an unwarranted intrusion into privacy and one's freedom to eat, drink, and exercise as much or as little as one wants. This paper clarifies the overlapping individual, employer, and social interest in each person's health generally to avoid obesity and its myriad costs in particular. The paper also explores recent evidence on the impact of government interventions on obesity through case studies on food labeling and employer-based anti-obesity interventions. Our analysis suggests a positive role for government intervention to reduce and prevent obesity. At the same time, we discuss criteria that can be used to draw lines between government, employer, and individual responsibility for health, and to derive principles that should guide and limit government interventions on obesity as health reform's various elements (e.g., exchanges, insurance market reforms) are implemented in the coming years. (shrink)