Search results for 'S. Al-Eithan' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Srinivasa Chari & M. S. (1997). Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Āl̲vārs. Motilal Banarsidass.score: 360.0
    The Buddhist monk Upagupta, who preached and taught meditative practices in Northwest India over two thousand years ago, is venerated today by the laity in ...
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  2. T. J. S. & Lan C. Eggers (1967). Introduccion Historica Al Estudio de Platon. Journal of Hellenic Studies 87:166.score: 360.0
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  3. Edward Omar Moad (2007). Al-Ghazali's Reflections on the Metaphysics of Metaphor in the Mishkāt Al- Anwar. Sophia 46 (2):163-175.score: 156.0
    Mythological language is sometimes understood as a way of representing, by concrete imagery, more abstract notions. In this paper, we will pose some metaphysical questions about the possibility of such a representation. These questions will serve to motivate a brief tour of Mishkāt al-Anwār (Niche of Lights)—Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s commentary on the famous ayat al-nur (“verse of light”) of the Qur’an—wherein is discussed, among other things, how symbolic imagery is possible, and “the respect in which the spirits of the meanings (...)
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  4. Ahmad S. Dallal (1995). Ibn Al-Haytham's Universal Solution for Finding the Direction of the Qibla by Calculation. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 5 (02):145-.score: 150.0
    This paper presents an edition of al-Hasan ibn al-asan ibn al-Haytham's (d. 1040) treatise, Qawl fi samt al-qibla bi-al-isd al-K (15th century), some four centuries after the introduction of this method by Ibn al-Haytham. The present treatise represents an important juncture in the history of the development of mathematics of the qibla, and sheds more light on the contributions of one of the most important scientists of medieval Islam.
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  5. Inmaculada Camarero Castellano (2009). La ropa del quintero (jammas) según una fetua de al-Qawri (s. XV). Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 30 (2):447-465.score: 150.0
    Una fetua de al-Qawri (s. xv) recogida en al-Mi?yar de al-Wan�arisi responde a varias cuestiones relacionadas con el contrato de aparcería en tierra de secano (muzara?a) esttablecida entre el dueño de la tierra y el quintero (jammas). En una de ellas se pide la legalidad para que este aparcero sin reccursos exija una prenda de ropa (k-bb-�) a su «socio», tal y como en otras ocasiones se le ha permitido solicitar la yallabiyya y el salham/silham. Hasta la fecha, el término (...)
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  6. N. S. Kirabaev & M. Al-Janabi (2009). Faith and Reason in Al-Ghazali's Doctrine. In M. T. Stepani͡ant͡s (ed.), Knowledge and Belief in the Dialogue of Cultures. Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.score: 148.0
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  7. Teresa Garulo (2012). Erudition and Nostalgia. Al-Hanin Ila L-Awtan on Editing Al-Tanukhi's Al-Faraj Ba'd Al-Shidda. Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 33 (1):107 - 146.score: 146.0
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  8. Giuseppe Mandala (2012). A New Source for the History of Islamic Sicily: A Pasage of Ibn Hayyan's Al-Muqtabis V on the Revolt of Ahmad Ibn Qarhab (300-304/913-916). [REVIEW] Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 33 (2):343 - 374.score: 146.0
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  9. Mayte Penelas & Luis Molina (2011). Two Unpublished Fragments From Volume II of Ibn Hayyan's Al-Muqtabis. Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 32 (1):229 - 241.score: 146.0
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  10. Peter Adamson (2002). Before Essence and Existence: Al-Kindi's Conception of Being. Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):297-312.score: 144.0
    This paper studies the first metaphysical theory in Arabic philosophy, that of al-Kindi, as found in "On First Philosophy" and other of his works. Placing these works against the background of translations produced in al-Kindi's circle (the "Theology of Aristotle," which is the Arabic version of Plotinus, and the "Liber de Causis," the Arabic version of Proclus' "Elements of Theology"), it argues that al-Kindi has two conceptions of being: "simple" being, which excludes predication and derives from Neoplatonism, and "complex" being, (...)
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  11. Georgios Steiris (2012). Al-Farabi’s Ecumenical State and its Modern Connotations. Skepsis (iii):253-261.score: 144.0
    al-Fārābi was well aware that ecumenism can easily convert to tyranny if a certain city–state attempts to impose its laws outside its territory. State legislation depends on specific cultural and historical factors which deprives it from being universal because culture and history could not unite different nations in an ecumenical state. Legislation has to be built on universal premises, e.g. on philosophy, so as to serve the needs of a global state. Philosophy is the bond which unites humans and communities, (...)
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  12. Stephen Menn (2008). Al-Fārābī's Kitāb Al-Urūf and His Analysis of the Senses of Being. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 18 (1):59-97.score: 144.0
    Al-Fbb al-f, is apparently the first person to maintain that existence, in one of its senses, is a second-order concept [mal th]. As he interprets Metaphysics d] has two meanings, second-order being as truth'' (including existence as well as propositional truth), and first-order being as divided into the categories.'' The paronymous form of the Arabic word mawjd] distinct from their essences: for al-Kindd of all things. Against this, al-Fburr thinks that Greek more appropriately expressed many such concepts, including being, by (...)
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  13. Marwan Rashed (2008). Al-Fārābī's Lost Treatise on Changing Beings and the Possibility of a Demonstration of the Eternity of the World. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 18 (1):19-58.score: 144.0
    This article proposes a reconstitution of the philosophical tenor of al-Fb al-Mawdayyira). It is shown that this work is not only a response to book VI of John Philoponus' Contra Aristotelem, but that its real issues can only be grasped in the context of the author's metaphysical system. Although, for al-Fbī, genuine demonstrations proceed from the cause to the caused, thus following the order of being, it will be explained how he also admits a strictly physical proof of the simple (...)
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  14. Aytekin Özel (2008). Al-Ghazālī's Method of Doubt and its Epistemological and Logical Criticism. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:69-76.score: 144.0
    The method of doubt has been used in philosophy and theology by both philosophers and theologians, among them al-Ghazālī. Al-Ghazālī’s method conveys the process of how he was cured of his epistemological and existential crisis. This study analyzes each phase of the process in terms of epistemology and logic; it explains the problems and how they appeared to al-Ghazālī.
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  15. Mauro Zonta (2011). About Todros Todrosi's Medieval Hebrew Translation of Al-Fārābī's Lost Long Commentary/Gloss-Commentary On Aristotle's Topics, Book VIII. History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (1):37-45.score: 144.0
    Among the many logical works by Ab? Nasr Muhammad al-F?r?b? (870?950), there are two commentaries on particular books or points of Aristotle's Topics, whose original Arabic text has been apparently lost. A number of quotations of one or both of them, translated into Hebrew, has been recently found in a philosophical anthology by a fourteenth-century Provençal Jewish scholar, Todros Todrosi. In this article, a detailed list of these quotations is given, and a tentative short examination of the contents of each (...)
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  16. Scott F. Aikin, What is the Significance of Al Gore's Purported Hypocrisy?score: 144.0
    This paper is a survey of a variety of hypocrisy charges levied against Al Gore. Understood properly, these hypocrisy charges actually support Gore's case.
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  17. Bijan Vahabzadeh (2002). Al-Mahani's Commentary on the Concept of Ratio. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (1):9-52.score: 144.0
    The mathematician al-Mahani (9th century AD) is the author of one of the first commentaries on the fifth Book of Euclid's Elements which have been handed down to us. In this commentary, al-Mahani intends to justify Definitions V. 5 and V. 7 of the Elements, which deal with the identity of ratios and with greater ratio, by starting from an anthyphairetic conception of ratio, and by proving the equivalence of the Euclidean and the anthyphairetic points of view. We will try (...)
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  18. György Gergely & Gergely Csibra (2005). A Few Reasons Why We Don't Share Tomasello Et Al.'S Intuitions About Sharing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):701-702.score: 144.0
    Tomasello et al.'s two prerequisites, we argue, are not sufficient to explain the emergence of Joint Collaboration. An adequate account must include the human-specific capacity to communicate relevant information (that may have initially evolved to ensure efficient cultural learning). This, together with understanding intentional actions, does provide sufficient preconditions for Joint Collaboration without the need to postulate a primary human motive to share others' psychological states.
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  19. Khalid Bouzoubaâ Fennane (2003). Reflections on the Principle of Continuity on the Basis of Ibn Al-Haytham's Commentary on Proposition I.7 of Euclid's Elements. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 13 (1):101-136.score: 144.0
    After his refutation of the doubts concerning Proposition I.7 (in the Book of solving doubts), Ibn al-Haytham mentions three possible ways in which circles may intersect, submitting them to the following “intuitive” argument: one part of one of the two circles is situated inside of the other circle, and its other part is situated outside of it. One is therefore tempted to believe that the commentator accepts the principle of continuity in the case of circles, since his argument has the (...)
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  20. Franz Huber (2008). Reply to Crupi Et Al.'S "Bayesian Confirmation by Uncertain Evidence&Quot;. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (2):213 - 215.score: 144.0
    Crupi et al. ([2008]) propose a generalization of Bayesian confirmation theory that they claim to adequately deal with confirmation by uncertain evidence. Consider a series of points of time t0, . . . , ti, . . . , tn such that the agent’s subjective probability for an atomic proposition E changes from Pr0(E) at t0 to . . . to Pri(E) at ti to . . . to Prn(E) at tn. It is understood that the agent’s subjective probabilities change (...)
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  21. Amal Abou Aly (2000). A Few Notes on [Hdotu]Unayn's Translation and Ibn Al-Nafis' Commentary on the First Book of the Aphorisms. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 10 (1):139-150.score: 144.0
    The Hippocratic Aphorisms is a well-known treatise which was very popular throughout the ages. This paper studies the Arabic translation of [Hdotu]unayn ibn Ishaq, the renowned Arab translator, of the first book of the Aphorisms as well as the commentary of Ibn al-Nafis, the thirteenth-century Arab doctor, on the same book. This study highlights the difficulties that occasionally confronted the Arab commentator while commenting. The obscurity of a few Hippocratic sentences as well as [Hdotu]unayn's interpretation and alteration in meaning were (...)
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  22. Raul Corazzon, Ancient Catalogues of Aristotle's Works: Hesychius and Ptolemy Al- Garib.score: 144.0
    Aristotle's Definition of a Science of Being qua Being Selected Bibliography on the Meanings of Being in Aristotle The Place of Metaphysics in the Ancient Divisions of Philosophy The Peripatos after Aristotle's and the Origin of the Corpus Aristotelicum Bibliography on the Ancient Catalogues of Aristotle and the Corpus Aristotelicum Ancient Catalogues of Aristotle's Works: English studies Diogenes Laërtius, Lives, V 22-27 Hesychius of Miletus and Ptolemy al-Garib Listes Anciennes des Ouvrages d'Aristote: études en français Diogène Laërce, Vies V, 22-27 (...)
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  23. Ahmad Ighbariah (2012). Between Logic and Mathematics: Al-Kindī's Approach to the Aristotelian Categories. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 22 (1):51-68.score: 144.0
    What is the function of logic in al-Kind's theory of categories as it was presented in his epistle On the Number of Aristotle's Books (F treats the Categories as a logical book, but in a manner different from that of the classical Aristotelian tradition. He ascribes a special status to the categories Quantity (kammiyya) and Quality (kayfiyya), whereas the rest of the categories are thought to be no more than different combinations of these two categories with the category Substance. The (...)
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  24. Nader El-bizri (2007). In Defence of the Sovereignty of Philosophy: Al-Baghdadi's Critique of Ibn Al-Haytham's Geometrisation of Place. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 17 (1):57-80.score: 144.0
    This paper investigates the objections that were raised by the philosopher ‘Abd al-La[tdotu ]if al-Baghdadi (d. ca. 1231 CE) against al-[Hdotu ]asan ibn al-Haytham’s (Alhazen; d. after 1041 CE) geometrisation of place. In this line of enquiry, I contrast the philosophical propositions that were advanced by al-Baghdadi in his tract: Fi al-Radd ‘ala Ibn al-Haytham fi al-makan (A refutation of Ibn al-Haytham’s place), with the geometrical demonstrations that Ibn al-Haytham presented in his groundbreaking treatise: Qawl fi al-Makan (Discourse on place). (...)
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  25. Lisa Farooque (2008). About Celestial Circulation: Averroes' Tahafūt Al-Tahafūt and Aristotle's De Caelo. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:21-38.score: 144.0
    For Averroes, celestial circulation is evidence of a divinely mandated rational universe. This paper follows Averroes’ account on cosmic contact between the eternal and the temporal, in Tahafūt al-tahafūt contra al-Ghazālī. It argues that the polemical perspective of the Tahafūt al-tahafūt frames Averroes’ appeal to Aristotle’s account of cosmic motion. Consequently, Averroes’ exceptional account of the universe contrasts Aristotle’s exemplary account of the mutual participation of intellect and nature. Their accounts of celestial circulation implicate the status of human nature conditioned (...)
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  26. Sadik Türker (2007). The Arabico-Islamic Background of Al-Fārābī's Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 28 (3):183-255.score: 144.0
    This paper examines al-F?r?b?'s logical thought within its Arabico-Islamic historical background and attempts to conceptualize what this background contributes to his logic. After a brief exposition of al-F?r?b?'s main problems and goals, I shall attempt to reformulate the formal structure of Arabic linguistics (AL) in terms of the ontological and formal characteristics that Arabic logic is built upon. Having discussed the competence of al-F?r?b? in the history of AL, I will further propose three interrelated theses about al-F?r?b?'s logic, in terms (...)
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  27. Roshdi Rashed (1993). Al-Kindī's Commentary on Archimedes' 'The Measurement of the Circle'. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 3 (01):7-.score: 144.0
    The author examines the relationship between mathematics and philosophy in the works of al-Kind on the approximation of 's knowledge of mathematics, and on the history of the transmission of The Measurement of the Circle of Archimedes. The author shows that al-Kind M, and that it was one of the sources of the Florence Versions, the Latin commentary on the same proposition.
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  28. Muhammad Abul Quasem (1993). Al-Ghaz Li's Evaluation of Abu Yazid Al-Bist Mi and His Disapproval of the Mystical Concepts of Union and Fusion. Asian Philosophy 3 (2):143 – 164.score: 144.0
    Abstract Ab? Yazid al?Bist?mi (d. 874 AD) was a renowned early s?fi who exerted a tremendous influence upon the doctrinal formulation of the sufism of medieval times. A highly controversial figure, he is venerated by some as a top?ranking saint and s?fi, condemned by others as a notorious heretic, and there are still others who suspend judgement on him. More than 200 years after him al?Ghaz?li (1058?1111 AD) flourished as the greatest s?fi of all times; he examined and evaluated the (...)
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  29. George Saliba (1993). Al-Qushjī's Reform of the Ptolemaic Model for Mercury. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 3 (02):161-.score: 144.0
    In this article the author analyzes a fifteenth-century Arabic reform of the Ptolemaic model for Mercury. The author of the reform was the Central Asian Al al-D (d. 1474 A.D.) who, in his youth, had been instructed in the mathematical sciences by none other than the famous Central Asian monarch Ulugh Beg (1394 has been yet identified to have produced a theoretical text devoted to the criticism, let alone the reform, of the Ptolemaic mathematical planetary models. The present article on (...)
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  30. U. Deichmann (2004). Early Responses to Avery Et Al.'S Paper on DNA as Hereditary Material. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 34 (2):207-232.score: 144.0
    Avery’s et al. ’s 1944 paper provides the first direct evidence of DNA having gene-like properties and marks the beginning of a new phase in early molecular genetics (with a strong focus on chemistry and DNA). The study of its reception shows that on the whole, Avery’s results were immediately appreciated and motivated new research on transformation, the chemical nature of DNA’s biological specificity and bacteria genetics. It shows, too, that initial problems of transferring transformation to other systems and prominent (...)
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  31. Chaim Meir Neria (2013). Al-Fārābī's Lost Commentary on the Ethics: New Textual Evidence. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 23 (1):69-99.score: 144.0
    Al-Fbsifa. In part, this is because the commentary was in some respects a scandal, and scholars accordingly believe it may hold the key to resolving present-day disagreements on how to interpret al-Fbr's most shocking or scandalous statement is that preserved by the Hispano-Muslim philosophers Ibn Bufayl, and Ibn Rushd. According to them al-Fb generally considered the highest goal of human existence by the philosophers r's commentary is still lost, I have discovered two quotations of it in Hebrew manuscripts. As I (...)
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  32. Marko Ahteensuu & Susanna Lehvävirta (2014). Assisted Migration, Risks and Scientific Uncertainty, and Ethics: A Comment on Albrecht Et Al.'S Review Paper. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (3):471-477.score: 144.0
    In response to Albrecht et al.’s (J Agric Environ Ethics 26(4):827–845, 2013) discussion on the ethics of assisted migration, we emphasize the issues of risk and scientific uncertainty as an inextricable part of a comprehensive ethical evaluation. Insisting on a separation of risk and ethical considerations, although arguably common in many policy contexts, is at best misguided and at worst damaging.
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  33. Donald R. Hill (1985). Al-Bīrūnī's Mechanical Calendar. Annals of Science 42 (2):139-163.score: 144.0
    Summary This paper is concerned with a mechanical calendar described by the great scientist al-B?r?n?, who died in 440/1048. The description occurs in a book devoted to the construction of various types of astrolabe and related instruments. The Arabic text presented in this paper was prepared from three manuscripts. This is preceded by a brief introduction which gives a sketch of the life and works of al-B?r?n? together with information about the provenance and contents of the three manuscripts. The text (...)
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  34. Elvira Wakelnig (2013). Al-Anṭākī's Use of the Lost Arabic Version of Philoponus'contra Proclum. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 23 (2):291-317.score: 144.0
    Ibn al-Fa's Kitmin, the Book of the Delight of the Believer preserves, in the first part, in at least three of its 100 philosophical and theological problems, passages from the hitherto lost Arabic version of Philoponus' De Aeternitate mundi contra Proclum. All quotations are taken from the refutation of the first proof, one of them from the beginning which is also lost in Greek. For this latter passage a parallel is found in al-Isfiz who draws on the same Philoponus source (...)
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  35. Alfred L. Ivry (1974). Al-Kindi's Metaphysics: A Translation of Ya'qub Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi's Treatise "on First Philosophy". State University of New York Press.score: 144.0
    A translation and commentary on al-Kindi's “On First Philosophy,” a seminal work of early Islamic thought.
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  36. Sherman A. Jackson (2002). On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghāzalīʼs Fayṣal Al-Tafriqa Bayna Al-Islam Wa Al-Zandaqa. Oxford University Press.score: 144.0
    Abu Hamid al Ghazali, one of the most famous intellectuals in the history of Islam, developed a definition of Unbelief (kufr) to serve as the basis for determining who, in theological terms, should be considered a Muslim and who should not. Jackson's annotated translation is preceded by an introduction that reconstructs the historical and theoretical context of the Faysal and discusses its relevance for contemporary thought and practice.
     
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  37. Leigh N. Chipman & Efraim Lev (2008). Take a Lame and Decrepit Female Hyena_…: A Genizah Study of Two Additional Fragments of Sābūr Ibn Sahl's _al-Aqrābādhīn Al-Saghīr. Early Science and Medicine 13 (4):361-383.score: 140.0
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  38. Efraim Lev & Leigh Chipman (2008). Take a Lame and Decrepit Female Hyena…: A Genizah Study of Two Additional Fragments of Sābūr Ibn Sahl's Al-Aqrābādhīn Al-Saghīr. Early Science and Medicine 13 (4):361-383.score: 140.0
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  39. Omar Moad (2012). Behind the Good, the Bad, and the Obligatory in Al-Ghazālī's Al-Mustaṣfā Min Al-Uṣūl. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 8:79-93.score: 140.0
  40. Hermenegildo Fernandes (2006). O Leão E o Borracho Ou a História Contemporânea Entre a Memória E o TaqlīdLion and the Pigeon or the Contemporary History Between Memory and the Taqlīd: On Ibn Ṣāḥib Al-Salāt's Al-Mann Bil-Imama. Cultura:259-272.score: 140.0
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  41. Barnabas Hughes (1986). Gerard of Cremona's Translation of Al-Khwārizmī's Al-Jabr. A Critical Edition. Mediaeval Studies 48 (1):211-263.score: 140.0
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  42. Michael Mahoney (1992). Robert of Chester, Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of Al-Khwārizmī's “Al-Jabr,” Ed. Barnabas B. Hughes.(Boethius, 14.) Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1989. Paper. Pp. 67; 6 Black-and-White Facsimile Plates. DM 38. [REVIEW] Speculum 67 (2):471-472.score: 140.0
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  43. David C. Reisman (2002). The Making of the Avicennan Tradition: The Transmission, Contents, and Structure of Ibn Sīnā's Al-Mubāḥat̲āt (the Discussions). Brill.score: 140.0
  44. Houssem Eddine Bedoui & Walid Mansour (forthcoming). Performance and Maqasid Al-Shari'ah's Pentagon-Shaped Ethical Measurement. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-22.score: 138.0
    Business performance is traditionally viewed from the one-dimensional financial angle. This paper develops a new approach that links performance to the ethical vision of Islam based on maqasid al-shari’ah (i.e., the objectives of Islamic law). The approach involves a Pentagon-shaped performance scheme structure via five pillars, namely wealth, posterity, intellect, faith, and human self. Such a scheme ensures that any firm or organization can ethically contribute to the promotion of human welfare, prevent corruption, and enhance social and economic stability and (...)
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  45. C. Ulises Moulines (2010). Review of S. Nuccetelli Et Al. Blackwell Companion to Latin American Philosophy. [REVIEW] Metascience (19):457-460.score: 132.0
    This volume contains the most extensive exposition of Latin American philosophy to date. I know of no other comparable anthology on the subject in any language. The width of its scope is quite impressive. At least for this reason, and whatever its shortcomings might be (to some of them I’ll come to speak below), it is a welcome collective work.
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  46. A. I. Sabra (2007). The "Commentary" That Saved the Text. The Hazardous Journey of Ibn Al-Haytham's Arabic Optics. Early Science and Medicine 12 (2):117-133.score: 132.0
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  47. Josep Puig Montada (2007). Ibn Al-Muqaffa's Pride in His. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 24:85-94.score: 132.0
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  48. Salman H. Bashier (2004). Ibn Al-ʻarabī's Barzakh: The Concept of the Limit and the Relationship Between God and the World. State University of New York Press.score: 126.0
    This book explores how Iban al-'Arabi (1165-1240) used the concept of barzakh (the Limit) to deal with the philosophical problem of the relationship between God ...
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  49. Sophia Vasalou (2003). Equal Before the Law: The Evilness of Human and Divine Lies ‘Abd Al-Gabbar's Rational Ethics. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 13 (2):243-268.score: 126.0
    This paper sets out to chart the fortunes of one of the most significant moral propositions in Mu'tazilite moral theory — namely, that it is evil to lie, and it is evil irrespective of the consequences of so doing. The reasons which promote this principle to significance relate to the broader context of Mu'tazilite theological orientation, which aims to vindicate God's justice through demonstrating that moral value does not derive from revelation. Yet this principle suffers the difficulties which commonly afflict (...)
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  50. Elvira Wakelnig (2009). A New Version of Miskawayh's Book of Triumph : An Alternative Recension of Al-Fawz Al-a Ghar or the Lost Fawz Al-Akbar ? Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 19 (1):83-119.score: 126.0
    Textual evidence preserved in two still unpublished manuscripts strongly suggests that there once existed an alternative version of Miskawayhghar, the Minor Book of Triumph. The article discusses possible explanations for why Miskawayh may have composed two recensions of his Fawz and compares structure and content of the alternative version with the edited standard version. The one passage which is contained in the alternative Fawz only is presented in Arabic with an English translation. Part of this additional material is parallel to (...)
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