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Profile: Shaun Gallagher (University of Memphis, University of Hertfordshire, University of Wollongong)
Profile: Stephen Gallagher (Loyola University, Chicago)
Profile: Sarah Gallagher (Napier University)
  1. Shaun Gallagher, Movement and Expression in the Development of Social Cognition.
    What kind of movement or behavior is involved in neonate imitation? What exactly is the newborn infant doing when it responds to seeing gestures on another person's face? This question is closely related to some other questions, such as whether neonate imitation is possible, and whether it is truly imitation. Piaget, of course, thought that this sort of "invisible imitation" was not possible for infants less than 8-12 months of age.
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  2. Shaun Gallagher (forthcoming). Relations Between Agency and Ownership in the Case of Schizophrenic Thought Insertion and Delusions of Control. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-15.
    This article addresses questions about the sense of agency and its distinction from the sense of ownership in the context of understanding schizophrenic thought insertion. In contrast to “standard” approaches that identify problems with the sense of agency as central to thought insertion, two recent proposals argue that it is more correct to think that the problem concerns the subject’s sense of ownership. This view involves a “more demanding” concept of the sense of ownership that, I will argue, ultimately depends (...)
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  3. J. Slaby & S. Gallagher (forthcoming). Critical Neuroscience and Socially Extended Minds. Theory, Culture and Society.
  4. Shaun Gallagher (2015). Seeing Without an I: Another Look at Immunity to Error Through Misidentification. In Annalisa Coliva, Volker Munz & Danièle Moyal-Sharrock (eds.), Mind, Language and Action: Proceedings of the 36th International Wittgenstein Symposium. De Gruyter. 549-568.
  5. Shaun Gallagher (2014). Editorial Note on the Colombo, Hutto, Myin Exchange. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (2):239-240.
    The following response by Hutto and Myin to Colombo’s original paper, “Explaining social norm compliance. A plea for neural representations,” contains some inaccurate quotations attributed to Colombo. These inaccuracies are not the fault of the authors, but are due to editorial mistakes and to problems involved in publishing electronic versions online first. Hutto and Myin worked from and were quoting from an earlier draft of Colombo’s paper (dated 2012), which is different from the revised version that was first published online (...)
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  6. Shaun Gallagher (2014). Pragmatic Interventions Into Enactive and Extended Conceptions of Cognition. Philosophical Issues 24 (1):110-126.
    Clear statements of both extended and enactive conceptions of cognition can be found in John Dewey and other pragmatists. In this paper I'll argue that we can find resources in the pragmatists to address two ongoing debates: in contrast to recent disagreements between proponents of extended vs enactive cognition, pragmatism supports a more integrative view—an enactive conception of extended cognition, and pragmatist views suggest ways to answer the main objections raised against extended and enactive conceptions—specifically objections focused on constitution versus (...)
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  7. Shaun Gallagher & Matthew Bower (2014). Making Enactivism Even More Embodied. Avant (2):232-247.
    The full scope of enactivist approaches to cognition includes not only a focus on sensory-motor contingencies and physical affordances for action, but also an emphasis on affective factors of embodiment and intersubjective affordances for social interaction. This strong conception of embodied cognition calls for a new way to think about the role of the brain in the larger system of brain-body-environment. We ask whether recent work on predictive coding offers a way to think about brain function in an enactive system, (...)
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  8. Shaun Gallagher & Somogy Varga (2014). Social Constraints on the Direct Perception of Emotions and Intentions. Topoi 33 (1):185-199.
    In this paper, we first review recent arguments about the direct perception of the intentions and emotions of others, emphasizing the role of embodied interaction. We then consider a possible objection to the direct perception hypothesis from social psychology, related to phenomena like ‘dehumanization’ and ‘implicit racial bias’, which manifest themselves on a basic bodily level. On the background of such data, one might object that social perception cannot be direct since it depends on and can in fact be interrupted (...)
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  9. Matt Bower & Shaun Gallagher (2013). Bodily Affects as Prenoetic Elements in Enactive Perception. Phenomenology and Mind 4 (1):78-93.
    In this paper we attempt to advance the enactive discourse on perception by highlighting the role of bodily affects as prenoetic constraints on perceptual experience. Enactivists argue for an essential connection between perception and action, where action primarily means skillful bodily intervention in one’s surroundings. Analyses of sensory-motor contingencies (as in Noë 2004) are important contributions to the enactive account. Yet this is an incomplete story since sensory-motor contingencies are of no avail to the perceiving agent without motivational pull in (...)
     
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  10. Ezequiel A. Di Paolo, Hanne De Jaegher & Shaun Gallagher (2013). One Step Forward, Two Steps Back – Not the Tango: Comment on Gallotti and Frith. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (7):303-304.
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  11. Shaun Gallagher (2013). An Education in Narratives. Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-10.
    I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the ?starting problem? involved in the simulation approach. These discussions also relate directly to theories of empathy with special significance given to situational empathy.
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  12. Shaun Gallagher, Exploring Inner Space in Outer Space.
    Shaun Gallagher, Lillian and Morrie Moss Professor of Excellence in Philosophy at the University of Memphis, discusses the results of a neurophenomenological study in which a research team used simulation to replicate experiences of astronauts during space travel. Many astronauts described deeply aesthetic, spiritual, or religious experiences of awe and wonder. Gallagher also discusses how using an approach that incorporated neuroscience, hermeneutics, phenomenology, psychology, heart rate, and phenomenological interviews allowed him to replicate the specific experiences in a significant number of (...)
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  13. Shaun Gallagher (2013). Intersubiectivity and Psychopathology. In K. W. M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. 258.
  14. Shaun Gallagher (2013). Phronesis and Psychopathy: The Moral Frame Problem. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (4):345-348.
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  15. Shaun Gallagher (2013). You and I, Robot. AI and Society 28 (4):455-460.
    I address a number of issues related to building an autonomous social robot. I review different approaches to social cognition and ask how these different approaches may inform the design of social robots. I argue that regardless of which theoretical approach to social cognition one favors, instantiating that approach in a workable robot will involve designing that robot on enactive principles.
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  16. Shaun Gallagher, Daniel D. Hutto, Jan Slaby & Jonathan Cole (2013). The Brain as Part of an Enactive System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):421-422.
    The notion of an enactive system requires thinking about the brain in a way that is different from the standard computational-representational models. In evolutionary terms, the brain does what it does and is the way that it is, across some scale of variations, because it is part of a living body with hands that can reach and grasp in certain limited ways, eyes structured to focus, an autonomic system, an upright posture, etc. coping with specific kinds of environments, and with (...)
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  17. Lauren Reinerman-Jones, Brandon Sollins, Shaun Gallagher & Bruce Janz (2013). Neurophenomenology: An Integrated Approach to Exploring Awe and Wonder. South African Journal of Philosophy 32 (4):295-309.
    Astronauts often report experiences of awe and wonder while traveling in space. This paper addresses the question of whether awe and wonder can be scientifically investigated in a simulated space travel scenario using a neurophenomenological method. To answer this question, we created a mixed-reality simulation similar to the environment of the International Space Station. Portals opened to display simulations of Earth or Deep Space. However, the challenge still remained of how to best capture the resulting experience of participants. We could (...)
     
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  18. Leon de Bruin & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Embodied Simulation, an Unproductive Explanation: Comment on Gallese and Sinigaglia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):98-99.
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  19. Anika Fiebich & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Joint Attention in Joint Action. Philosophical Psychology 26 (4):571-87.
    In this paper, we investigate the role of intention and joint attention in joint actions. Depending on the shared intentions the agents have, we distinguish between joint path-goal actions and joint final-goal actions. We propose an instrumental account of basic joint action analogous to a concept of basic action and argue that intentional joint attention is a basic joint action. Furthermore, we discuss the functional role of intentional joint attention for successful cooperation in complex joint actions. Anika Fiebich is PhD (...)
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  20. Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Getting Interaction Theory (IT) Together: Integrating Developmental, Phenomenological, Enactive, and Dynamical Approaches to Social Interaction. Interaction Studies 13 (3):436-468.
    We argue that progress in our scientific understanding of the `social mind' is hampered by a number of unfounded assumptions. We single out the widely shared assumption that social behavior depends solely on the capacities of an individual agent. In contrast, both developmental and phenomenological studies suggest that the personal-level capacity for detached `social cognition' (conceived as a process of theorizing about and/or simulating another mind) is a secondary achievement that is dependent on more immediate processes of embodied social interaction. (...)
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  21. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Comment: Three Questions for Stueber. Emotion Review 4 (1):64-65.
    In response to Stueber’s “Varieties of Empathy, Neuroscience, and the Narrativist Challenge to the Contemporary Theory of Mind Debate,” I identify three areas for further discussion: the frame problem, diversity, and an altogether different variety of empathy.
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  22. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Empathy, Simulation, and Narrative. Science in Context 25 (3):355-381.
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  23. Shaun Gallagher (2012). First-Person Perspective and Immunity to Error Through Misidentification. In Miguens & Preyer (eds.), Consciousness and Subjectivity. Ontos Verlag. 47--245.
  24. Shaun Gallagher (2012). From the Transcendental to the Enactive. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (2):119-121.
  25. Shaun Gallagher (2012). In Defense of Phenomenological Approaches to Social Cognition: Interacting with the Critics. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):187-212.
    I clarify recently developed phenomenological approaches to social cognition. These are approaches that, drawing on developmental science, social neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, emphasize the involvement of embodied and enactive processes together with communicative and narrative practices in contexts of intersubjective understanding. I review some of the evidence that supports these approaches. I consider a variety of criticisms leveled against them, and defend the role of phenomenology in the explanation of social cognition. Finally, I show how these phenomenological approaches can (...)
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  26. Shaun Gallagher (2012). On the Possibility of Naturalizing Phenomenology. In Dan Zahavi (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology. Oxford University Press.
  27. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Phenomenology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This new introduction by Shaun Gallagher gives students and philosophers not only an excellent concise overview of the state of the field and contemporary debates, but a novel way of addressing the subject by looking at the ways in which phenomenology is useful to the disciplines it applies to. Gallagher retrieves the central insights made by the classic phenomenological philosophers (Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and others), updates some of these insights in innovative ways, and shows how they directly relate to (...)
     
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  28. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Body in Social Context: Some Qualifications on the'Warmth and Intimacy'of Bodily Self-Consciousness. Grazer Philosophische Studien 84 (1):91-121.
  29. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Time, Emotion, and Depression. Emotion Review 4 (2):127-132.
    I examine several aspects of the experience of time in depression and in the experience of different emotions. Both phenomenological and experimental studies show that depressed subjects have a slowed experience of time flow and tend to overestimate time spans. In comparison to patients in control conditions, depressed patients tend to be preoccupied with past events, and less focused on present and future events. Recent empirical findings in studies of emotion perception show different degrees of over- or underestimation of time (...)
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  30. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Overextended Mind. Versus 113:57-68.
    Clark and Chalmers [1998] introduced the concept of the extended mind, in part to move beyond the standard Cartesian idea that cognition is something that happens in a private mental space, "in the head." In this paper I want to pursue a liberal interpretation of this idea, extending the mind to include processes that occur within social and cultural institutions. At the same time I want to address some concerns that have been raised about whether such..
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  31. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Phenomenological Mind. Routledge.
    This volume introduces fundamental questions about the mind from the perspective of phenomenology.
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  32. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Three Questions to Stueber. Emotion Review 4 (1):64-65.
    In response to Stueber’s “Varieties of Empathy, Neuroscience, and the Narrativist Challenge to the Contemporary Theory of Mind Debate,” I identify three areas for further discussion: the frame problem, diversity, and an altogether different variety of empathy.
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  33. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Taking Stock of Phenomenology Futures. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):304-318.
    In this paper, I review recent contributions of phenomenology to a variety of disciplines, including the cognitive sciences and psychiatry, and explore (1) controversies about phenomenological methods and naturalization; (2) relations between phenomenology and the enactive and extended mind approaches; and (3) the promise of phenomenology for addressing a number of controversial philosophical issues.
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  34. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Why the Body is Not in the Brain. In Alex Arteaga, Marion Lauschke & Horst Bredekamp (eds.), Bodies in Action and Symbolic Forms: Zwei Seiten der Verkörperungstheorie. Akademie Verlag. 273-288.
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  35. Shaun Gallagher & Denis Francesconi (2012). Teaching Phenomenology to Qualitative Researchers, Cognitive Scientists, and Phenomenologists. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 12 (3):183-192.
    The authors examine several issues in teaching phenomenology to advanced researchers who are doing qualitative research using phenomenological interview methods in disciplines such as psychology, nursing, or education, and to advanced researchers in the cognitive neurosciences. In these contexts, the term "teaching" needs to be taken in a general and non-didactic way. In the case of the first group, it involves guiding doctoral students in their conception and design of a qualitative methodology that is properly phenomenological. In the case of (...)
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  36. Shaun Gallagher & Katsunori Miyahara (2012). Neo-Pragmatism and Enactive Intentionality. In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan.
  37. Shaun Gallagher & Daniel J. Povinelli (2012). Enactive and Behavioral Abstraction Accounts of Social Understanding in Chimpanzees, Infants, and Adults. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):145-169.
    We argue against theory-of-mind interpretation of recent false-belief experiments with young infants and explore two other interpretations: enactive and behavioral abstraction approaches. We then discuss the differences between these alternatives.
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  38. J. S. Bedwell, S. Gallagher, S. N. Whitten & S. M. Fiore (2011). Linguistic Correlates of Self in Deceptive Oral Autobiographical Narratives. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):547-555.
    The current study collected orally-delivered autobiographical narratives from a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to produce both deceptive and non-deceptive versions of their narrative to two specific autobiographical question prompts while standing in front of a video camera. Narratives were then analyzed with Coh-Metrix software on 33 indices of linguistic cohesion. Following a Bonferroni correction for the large number of linguistic variables , results indicated that the deceptive narratives contained more explicit action verbs, less linguistic complexity, and (...)
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  39. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Embodiment and Phenomenal Qualities: An Enactive Interpretation. Philosophical Topics 39 (1):1-14.
    I argue that an older debate in phenomenology concerning Husserl’s notion of hyletic data can throw some light on contemporary debates about qualia and phenomenal consciousness. Both debates tend to ignore important considerations about bodily experience and how specific kinds of bodily experience can shape one’s consciousness of the world. A revised and fully embodied conception of hyletic experience enriches the concept of enactive perception.
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  40. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Hermeneutyka i nauki kognitywne. Avant 2 (2):197 - 212.
    Philosophical hermeneutics, understood as the theory of nterpretation, investigates some questions that are also asked in the cognitive sciences. The nature of human understanding, the way that we gain and organize knowledge, the role played by language and memory in these considerations, the relations between conscious and unconscious knowledge, and how we understand other persons, are all good examples of issues that form the intersection of hermeneutics and the cognitive sciences. Although hermeneutics is most often contrasted with the natural sciences, (...)
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  41. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Somaesthetics and the Care of the Body. Metaphilosophy 42 (3):305-313.
    Abstract: This article poses a number of questions to Richard Shusterman concerning his concepts of somaesthetics and body consciousness in his book Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics. How do the concepts relate to the kind of forgetfulness of the body that can happen in expert performance? What is the nature of somatic reflection, and how is it different from pre-reflective awareness of the body? The article suggests that our immersed involvement and overt orientation toward things, and toward (...)
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  42. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Strong Interaction and Self-Agency. Humana.Mente 15:55-76.
    The interaction theory of social cognition contends that intersubjective interaction is characterized by both immersion and irreducibility. This motivates a question about autonomy and self-agency: If I am always caught up in processes of interaction, and interaction always goes beyond me and my ultimate control, is there any room for self-agency? I outline an answer to this question that points to the importance of communicative and narrative practices.
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  43. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Time in Action. In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oup Oxford.
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  44. Shaun Gallagher (ed.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of the Self is an interdisciplinary collection of essays that address questions in all of these areas.
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  45. Shaun Gallagher & Jonathan Cole (2011). Dissociation in Self-Narrative. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):149-155.
    We review different analytic approaches to narratives by those with psychopathological conditions, and we suggest that the interpretation of such narratives are complicated by a variety of phenomenological and hermeneutical considerations. We summarize an empirical study of narrative distance in narratives by non-pathological subjects, and discuss how the results can be interpreted in two different ways with regard to the issue of dissociation.
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  46. Stephen Gallagher (2011). Plato’s Ancient Error Leads to Modern Tragedy. Free Inquiry 31:41-47.
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  47. Kai Vogeley & Shaun Gallagher (2011). Self in the Brain. In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
     
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  48. Jonathan Cole, Marcelo Dascal, Shaun Gallagher & Christopher D. Frith (2010). Concluding Discussion. Pragmatics and Cognition 18 (3):553-559.
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  49. Anthony Crisafi & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Hegel and the Extended Mind. AI and Society 25 (1):123-129.
    We examine the theory of the extended mind, and especially the concept of the “parity principle” (Clark and Chalmers in Analysis 58.1:7–19, 1998), in light of Hegel’s notion of objective spirit. This unusual combination of theories raises the question of how far one can extend the notion of extended mind and whether cognitive processing can supervene on the operations of social practices and institutions. We raise some questions about putting this research to critical use.
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  50. Hanne de Jaegher, Ezequiel di Paolo & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Can Social Interaction Constitute Social Cognition? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):441-447.
    An important shift is taking place in social cognition research, away from a focus on the individual mind and toward embodied and participatory aspects of social understanding. Empirical results already imply that social cognition is not reducible to the workings of individual cognitive mechanisms. To galvanize this interactive turn, we provide an operational definition of social interaction and distinguish the different explanatory roles – contextual, enabling and constitutive – it can play in social cognition. We show that interactive processes are (...)
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