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Profile: Shaun Gallagher (University of Memphis, University of Hertfordshire, University of Wollongong)
Profile: Stephen Gallagher (Loyola University, Chicago)
Profile: Sarah Gallagher (Napier University)
  1. Shaun Gallagher, Movement and Expression in the Development of Social Cognition.
    What kind of movement or behavior is involved in neonate imitation? What exactly is the newborn infant doing when it responds to seeing gestures on another person's face? This question is closely related to some other questions, such as whether neonate imitation is possible, and whether it is truly imitation. Piaget, of course, thought that this sort of "invisible imitation" was not possible for infants less than 8-12 months of age.
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  2. Shaun Gallagher (2014). Editorial Note on the Colombo, Hutto, Myin Exchange. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (2):239-240.
    The following response by Hutto and Myin to Colombo’s original paper, “Explaining social norm compliance. A plea for neural representations,” contains some inaccurate quotations attributed to Colombo. These inaccuracies are not the fault of the authors, but are due to editorial mistakes and to problems involved in publishing electronic versions online first. Hutto and Myin worked from and were quoting from an earlier draft of Colombo’s paper (dated 2012), which is different from the revised version that was first published online (...)
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  3. Shaun Gallagher (2014). The Cruel and Unusual Phenomenology of Solitary Confinement. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  4. Shaun Gallagher & Somogy Varga (2014). Social Constraints on the Direct Perception of Emotions and Intentions. Topoi 33 (1):185-199.
    In this paper, we first review recent arguments about the direct perception of the intentions and emotions of others, emphasizing the role of embodied interaction. We then consider a possible objection to the direct perception hypothesis from social psychology, related to phenomena like ‘dehumanization’ and ‘implicit racial bias’, which manifest themselves on a basic bodily level. On the background of such data, one might object that social perception cannot be direct since it depends on and can in fact be interrupted (...)
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  5. Matt Bower & Shaun Gallagher (2013). Bodily Affects as Prenoetic Elements in Enactive Perception. Phenomenology and Mind 4 (1):78-93.
    In this paper we attempt to advance the enactive discourse on perception by highlighting the role of bodily affects as prenoetic constraints on perceptual experience. Enactivists argue for an essential connection between perception and action, where action primarily means skillful bodily intervention in one’s surroundings. Analyses of sensory-motor contingencies (as in Noë 2004) are important contributions to the enactive account. Yet this is an incomplete story since sensory-motor contingencies are of no avail to the perceiving agent without motivational pull in (...)
     
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  6. Ezequiel A. Di Paolo, Hanne De Jaegher & Shaun Gallagher (2013). One Step Forward, Two Steps Back – Not the Tango: Comment on Gallotti and Frith. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (7):303-304.
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  7. Shaun Gallagher (2013). An Education in Narratives. Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-10.
    I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the ?starting problem? involved in the simulation approach. These discussions also relate directly to theories of empathy with special significance given to situational empathy.
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  8. Shaun Gallagher (2013). A Pattern Theory of Self. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (443):1-7.
    I argue for a pattern theory of self as a usefulway to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended, and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to (...)
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  9. Shaun Gallagher (2013). Intersubiectivity and Psychopathology. In K. W. M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. 258.
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  10. Shaun Gallagher (2013). Phronesis and Psychopathy: The Moral Frame Problem. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (4):345-348.
  11. Shaun Gallagher (2013). You and I, Robot. AI and Society 28 (4):455-460.
    I address a number of issues related to building an autonomous social robot. I review different approaches to social cognition and ask how these different approaches may inform the design of social robots. I argue that regardless of which theoretical approach to social cognition one favors, instantiating that approach in a workable robot will involve designing that robot on enactive principles.
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  12. Shaun Gallagher, Daniel D. Hutto, Jan Slaby & Jonathan Cole (2013). The Brain as Part of an Enactive System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):421-422.
    The notion of an enactive system requires thinking about the brain in a way that is different from the standard computational-representational models. In evolutionary terms, the brain does what it does and is the way that it is, across some scale of variations, because it is part of a living body with hands that can reach and grasp in certain limited ways, eyes structured to focus, an autonomic system, an upright posture, etc. coping with specific kinds of environments, and with (...)
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  13. Leon de Bruin & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Embodied Simulation, an Unproductive Explanation: Comment on Gallese and Sinigaglia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):98-99.
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  14. Anika Fiebich & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Joint Attention in Joint Action. Philosophical Psychology 26 (4):571-87.
    In this paper, we investigate the role of intention and joint attention in joint actions. Depending on the shared intentions the agents have, we distinguish between joint path-goal actions and joint final-goal actions. We propose an instrumental account of basic joint action analogous to a concept of basic action and argue that intentional joint attention is a basic joint action. Furthermore, we discuss the functional role of intentional joint attention for successful cooperation in complex joint actions. Anika Fiebich is PhD (...)
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  15. Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher (2012). Getting Interaction Theory (IT) Together: Integrating Developmental, Phenomenological, Enactive, and Dynamical Approaches to Social Interaction. Interaction Studies 13 (3):436-468.
    We argue that progress in our scientific understanding of the `social mind' is hampered by a number of unfounded assumptions. We single out the widely shared assumption that social behavior depends solely on the capacities of an individual agent. In contrast, both developmental and phenomenological studies suggest that the personal-level capacity for detached `social cognition' (conceived as a process of theorizing about and/or simulating another mind) is a secondary achievement that is dependent on more immediate processes of embodied social interaction. (...)
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  16. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Comment: Three Questions for Stueber. Emotion Review 4 (1):64-65.
    In response to Stueber’s “Varieties of Empathy, Neuroscience, and the Narrativist Challenge to the Contemporary Theory of Mind Debate,” I identify three areas for further discussion: the frame problem, diversity, and an altogether different variety of empathy.
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  17. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Empathy, Simulation, and Narrative. Science in Context 25 (3):355-381.
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  18. Shaun Gallagher (2012). First-Person Perspective and Immunity to Error Through Misidentification. In Miguens & Preyer (eds.), Consciousness and Subjectivity. Ontos Verlag. 47--245.
  19. Shaun Gallagher (2012). From the Transcendental to the Enactive. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (2):119-121.
  20. Shaun Gallagher (2012). In Defense of Phenomenological Approaches to Social Cognition: Interacting with the Critics. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):187-212.
    I clarify recently developed phenomenological approaches to social cognition. These are approaches that, drawing on developmental science, social neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, emphasize the involvement of embodied and enactive processes together with communicative and narrative practices in contexts of intersubjective understanding. I review some of the evidence that supports these approaches. I consider a variety of criticisms leveled against them, and defend the role of phenomenology in the explanation of social cognition. Finally, I show how these phenomenological approaches can (...)
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  21. Shaun Gallagher (2012). On the Possibility of Naturalizing Phenomenology. In Dan Zahavi (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  22. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Phenomenology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This new introduction by Shaun Gallagher gives students and philosophers not only an excellent concise overview of the state of the field and contemporary debates, but a novel way of addressing the subject by looking at the ways in which phenomenology is useful to the disciplines it applies to. Gallagher retrieves the central insights made by the classic phenomenological philosophers (Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and others), updates some of these insights in innovative ways, and shows how they directly relate to (...)
     
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  23. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Body in Social Context: Some Qualifications on the'Warmth and Intimacy'of Bodily Self-Consciousness. Grazer Philosophische Studien 84 (1):91-121.
  24. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Time, Emotion, and Depression. Emotion Review 4 (2):127-132.
    I examine several aspects of the experience of time in depression and in the experience of different emotions. Both phenomenological and experimental studies show that depressed subjects have a slowed experience of time flow and tend to overestimate time spans. In comparison to patients in control conditions, depressed patients tend to be preoccupied with past events, and less focused on present and future events. Recent empirical findings in studies of emotion perception show different degrees of over- or underestimation of time (...)
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  25. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Overextended Mind. Versus 113:57-68.
    Clark and Chalmers [1998] introduced the concept of the extended mind, in part to move beyond the standard Cartesian idea that cognition is something that happens in a private mental space, "in the head." In this paper I want to pursue a liberal interpretation of this idea, extending the mind to include processes that occur within social and cultural institutions. At the same time I want to address some concerns that have been raised about whether such..
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  26. Shaun Gallagher (2012). The Phenomenological Mind. Routledge.
    This volume introduces fundamental questions about the mind from the perspective of phenomenology.
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  27. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Three Questions to Stueber. Emotion Review 4 (1):64-65.
    In response to Stueber’s “Varieties of Empathy, Neuroscience, and the Narrativist Challenge to the Contemporary Theory of Mind Debate,” I identify three areas for further discussion: the frame problem, diversity, and an altogether different variety of empathy.
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  28. Shaun Gallagher (2012). Taking Stock of Phenomenology Futures. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):304-318.
    In this paper, I review recent contributions of phenomenology to a variety of disciplines, including the cognitive sciences and psychiatry, and explore (1) controversies about phenomenological methods and naturalization; (2) relations between phenomenology and the enactive and extended mind approaches; and (3) the promise of phenomenology for addressing a number of controversial philosophical issues.
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  29. Shaun Gallagher & Denis Francesconi (2012). Teaching Phenomenology to Qualitative Researchers, Cognitive Scientists, and Phenomenologists. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 12 (3):183-192.
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  30. Shaun Gallagher & Katsunori Miyahara (2012). Neo-Pragmatism and Enactive Intentionality. In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan.
     
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  31. Shaun Gallagher & Daniel J. Povinelli (2012). Enactive and Behavioral Abstraction Accounts of Social Understanding in Chimpanzees, Infants, and Adults. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):145-169.
    We argue against theory-of-mind interpretation of recent false-belief experiments with young infants and explore two other interpretations: enactive and behavioral abstraction approaches. We then discuss the differences between these alternatives.
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  32. J. S. Bedwell, S. Gallagher, S. N. Whitten & S. M. Fiore (2011). Linguistic Correlates of Self in Deceptive Oral Autobiographical Narratives. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):547-555.
  33. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Embodiment and Phenomenal Qualities: An Enactive Interpretation. Philosophical Topics 39 (1):1-14.
    I argue that an older debate in phenomenology concerning Husserl’s notion of hyletic data can throw some light on contemporary debates about qualia and phenomenal consciousness. Both debates tend to ignore important considerations about bodily experience and how specific kinds of bodily experience can shape one’s consciousness of the world. A revised and fully embodied conception of hyletic experience enriches the concept of enactive perception.
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  34. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Hermeneutyka i nauki kognitywne. Avant 2 (2):197 - 212.
    Philosophical hermeneutics, understood as the theory of nterpretation, investigates some questions that are also asked in the cognitive sciences. The nature of human understanding, the way that we gain and organize knowledge, the role played by language and memory in these considerations, the relations between conscious and unconscious knowledge, and how we understand other persons, are all good examples of issues that form the intersection of hermeneutics and the cognitive sciences. Although hermeneutics is most often contrasted with the natural sciences, (...)
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  35. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Somaesthetics and the Care of the Body. Metaphilosophy 42 (3):305-313.
    Abstract: This article poses a number of questions to Richard Shusterman concerning his concepts of somaesthetics and body consciousness in his book Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics. How do the concepts relate to the kind of forgetfulness of the body that can happen in expert performance? What is the nature of somatic reflection, and how is it different from pre-reflective awareness of the body? The article suggests that our immersed involvement and overt orientation toward things, and toward (...)
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  36. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Strong Interaction and Self-Agency. Humana.Mente 15:55-76.
    The interaction theory of social cognition contends that intersubjective interaction is characterized by both immersion and irreducibility. This motivates a question about autonomy and self-agency: If I am always caught up in processes of interaction, and interaction always goes beyond me and my ultimate control, is there any room for self-agency? I outline an answer to this question that points to the importance of communicative and narrative practices.
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  37. Shaun Gallagher (2011). Time in Action. In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oup Oxford.
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  38. Shaun Gallagher (ed.) (2011). The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of the Self is an interdisciplinary collection of essays that address questions in all of these areas.
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  39. Shaun Gallagher & Jonathan Cole (2011). Dissociation in Self-Narrative. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):149-155.
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  40. Kai Vogeley & Shaun Gallagher (2011). Self in the Brain. In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
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  41. Jonathan Cole, Marcelo Dascal, Shaun Gallagher & Christopher D. Frith (2010). Concluding Discussion. Pragmatics and Cognition 18 (3):553-559.
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  42. Anthony Crisafi & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Hegel and the Extended Mind. AI and Society 25 (1):123-129.
    We examine the theory of the extended mind, and especially the concept of the “parity principle” (Clark and Chalmers in Analysis 58.1:7–19, 1998), in light of Hegel’s notion of objective spirit. This unusual combination of theories raises the question of how far one can extend the notion of extended mind and whether cognitive processing can supervene on the operations of social practices and institutions. We raise some questions about putting this research to critical use.
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  43. Hanne de Jaegher, Ezequiel di Paolo & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Can Social Interaction Constitute Social Cognition? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):441-447.
    An important shift is taking place in social cognition research, away from a focus on the individual mind and toward embodied and participatory aspects of social understanding. Empirical results already imply that social cognition is not reducible to the workings of individual cognitive mechanisms. To galvanize this interactive turn, we provide an operational definition of social interaction and distinguish the different explanatory roles – contextual, enabling and constitutive – it can play in social cognition. We show that interactive processes are (...)
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  44. Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Phenomenology and Artificial Life: Toward a Technological Supplementation of Phenomenological Methodology. Husserl Studies 26 (2):83-106.
    The invention of the computer has revolutionized science. With respect to finding the essential structures of life, for example, it has enabled scientists not only to investigate empirical examples, but also to create and study novel hypothetical variations by means of simulation: ‘life as it could be’. We argue that this kind of research in the field of artificial life, namely the specification, implementation and evaluation of artificial systems, is akin to Husserl’s method of free imaginative variation as applied to (...)
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  45. S. Gallagher (2010). Reading Merleau-Ponty: On Phenomenology of Perception, Edited by Thomas Baldwin. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (472):1105-1111.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  46. Shaun Gallagher (2010). Defining Consciousness: The Importance of Non-Reflective Self-Awareness. Pragmatics and Cognition 18 (3):561-569.
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  47. Shaun Gallagher (2010). Multiple Aspects of Agency. New Ideas in Psychology.
    Recent significant research in a number of disciplines centers around the concept of the sense of agency. Because many of these studies cut across disciplinary lines there is good reason to seek a clear consensus on what ‘sense of agency’ means. In this paper I indicate some complexities that this consensus might have to deal with. I also highlight an important phenomenological distinction that needs to be considered in any discussion of the sense of agency, regardless of how it gets (...)
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  48. Shaun Gallagher (2010). Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception. [REVIEW] Topoi 29 (2):183-185.
    Issue Title: Logic, Meaning, and Truth-Making States of Affairs in Philosophical Semantics/Guest Edited by Dale Jacquette.
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  49. Shaun Gallagher & Francisco Varela (2010). Przerysować mapę i przestawić czas: fenomenologia i nauki kognitywne. Avant 1 (1).
    We argue that phenomenology can be of central and positive importance to the cognitive sciences, and that it can also learn from the empirical research conducted in those sciences. We discuss the project of naturalizing phenomenology and how this can be best accomplished. We provide several examples of how phenomenology and the cognitive sciences can integrate their research. Specifically, we consider issues related to embodied cognition and intersubjectivity. We provide a detailed analysis of issues related to time-consciousness, with reference to (...)
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  50. David McNeill, Susan Duncan, Jonathan Cole, Shaun Gallagher & Bennett Bertenthal (2010). Growth Points From the Very Beginning. In M. Arbib D. Bickerton (ed.), The Emergence of Protolanguage: Holophrasis Vs Compositionality. John Benjamins. 117-132.
    Did protolanguage users use discrete words that referred to objects, actions, locations, etc., and then, at some point, combine them; or on the contrary did they have words that globally indexed whole semantic complexes, and then come to divide them? Our answer is: early humans were forming language units consisting of global and discrete dimensions of semiosis in dynamic opposition. These units of thinking-for-speaking, or ‘growth points’ (GPs) were, jointly, analog imagery (visuo-spatio-motoric) and categorically-contrastive (-emic) linguistic encodings. This discrete-global duality (...)
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