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Profile: Stephan Hartmann (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
  1. S. Hartmann, Generalized Dicke States.
    Here P is the density operator of the system under consideration, and σ ± and σ 3 are the usual Pauli matrices, acting on atom i whose states are |1 > or |0 >, representing, respectively, the atom being in an excited state or in the ground state. B and C are appropriate decay constants and s has been called the pumping parameter [1]. It varies from s = 0 for pure damping to s = 1 for full laser action. (...)
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  2. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann, Utilitarianism, Degressive Proportionality and the Constitution of a Federal Assembly.
    A federal assembly consists of a number of representatives for each of the nations (states, Länder, cantons,...) that make up the federation. How many representatives should each nation receive? What makes this issue worth quibbling about is that the model of representation that is instituted will have an impact on the welfare distribution over the nations in the federation that will ensue over due course. We will investigate what models of representation yield welfare distributions that score higher on a utilitarian (...)
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  3. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens, The Variety-of-Evidence Thesis and the Reliability of Instruments: A Bayesian-Network Approach.
    The variety of evidence thesis in confirmation theory states that more varied supporting evidence confirms a hypothesis to a greater degree than less varied evidence. Under a very plausible interpretation of this thesis, positive test results from multiple independent instruments confirm a hypothesis to a greater degree than positive test results from a single instrument. We invoke Bayesian Networks to model confirmation on grounds of evidence that is obtained from less than fully reliable instruments and show that the variety of (...)
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  4. Stephan Hartmann & Kristina Liefke, Montague Reduction, Confirmation, and the Syntax-Semantics Relation.
    Intertheoretic relations are an important topic in the philosophy of science. However, since their classical discussion by Ernest Nagel, such relations have mostly been restricted to relations between pairs of theories in the natural sciences. In this paper, we present a model of a new type of intertheoretic relation, called 'Montague Reduction', which is assumed in Montague's framework for the analysis and interpretation of natural language syntax. To motivate the adoption of our new model, we show that this model extends (...)
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  5. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Computersimulationen in der Angewandten Politischen Philosophie - Ein Beispiel. In Carl-Friedrich Gethmann (ed.), Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft. Meiner. 601ß634.
    In den vergangenen Jahren hat die Europäische Union (EU) wiederholt versucht, ihre Institutionen zu reformieren. Als der Entwurf für eine Europäische Verfassung und später der Vertrag von Lissabon ausgehandelt wurden, betraf einer der meistdiskutiertesten Streitpunkte die Frage, nach welcher Entscheidungsregel der EU-Ministerrat abstimmen sollte. Diese Frage ist eine genuin normative Frage. Deshalb sollten auch politische Philosophen und Ethiker etwas zu dieser Frage beitragen können. Im folgenden wollen wir uns dieser Herausforderung stellen und alternative Entscheidungsregeln für den EU-Ministerrat bewerten. Dabei erweisen (...)
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  6. Henk de Regt, Samir Okasha & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (forthcoming). Proceedings of EPSA09. Springer.
  7. Lefteris Farmakis & Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Book Review: Inference to the Best Explanation by P. Lipton. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  8. Dov Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Logic, Vol. 10: Inductive Logic. Elsevier.
  9. Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Imprecise Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics. In Colleen E. Crangle, Adolfo García de la Sienra & Helen E. Longino (eds.), Foundations and Methods from Mathematics to Neuroscience. CSLI Publications.
  10. Stephan Hartmann & Matteo Colombo (forthcoming). Bayesian Cognitive Science, Unification and Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    It is often claimed that the greatest value of the Bayesian framework in cognitive science consists in its unifying power. Several Bayesian cognitive scientists assume that unification is obviously linked to explanatory power. But this link is not obvious, as unification in science is a heterogeneous notion, which may have little to do with explanation. While a crucial feature of most adequate explanations in cognitive science is that they reveal aspects of the causal mechanism that produces the phenomenon to be (...)
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  11. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (forthcoming). Bayesian Epistemology. In Duncan Pritchard & Sven Bernecker (eds.), Routledge Companion to Epistemology. Routledge.
    Bayesian epistemology addresses epistemological problems with the help of the mathematical theory of probability. It turns out that the probability calculus is especially suited to represent degrees of belief (credences) and to deal with questions of belief change, confirmation, evidence, justification, and coherence. Compared to the informal discussions in traditional epistemology, Bayesian epis- temology allows for a more precise and fine-grained analysis which takes the gradual aspects of these central epistemological notions into account. Bayesian epistemology therefore complements traditional epistemology; it (...)
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  12. Stephan Hartmann, Marcel Weber, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Dennis Dieks & Thomas Uebe (eds.) (forthcoming). Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation: New Trends and Old Ones Reconsidered. Springer.
  13. Matteo Colombo, Stephan Hartmann & Robert van Iersel (2015). Models, Mechanisms, and Coherence. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (1):181-212.
    Life-science phenomena are often explained by specifying the mechanisms that bring them about. The new mechanistic philosophers have done much to substantiate this claim and to provide us with a better understanding of what mechanisms are and how they explain. Although there is disagreement among current mechanists on various issues, they share a common core position and a seeming commitment to some form of scientific realism. But is such a commitment necessary? Is it the best way to go about mechanistic (...)
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  14. Richard Dawid, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2015). The No Alternatives Argument. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (1):213-234.
    Scientific theories are hard to find, and once scientists have found a theory, H, they often believe that there are not many distinct alternatives to H. But is this belief justified? What should scientists believe about the number of alternatives to H, and how should they change these beliefs in the light of new evidence? These are some of the questions that we will address in this article. We also ask under which conditions failure to find an alternative to H (...)
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  15. Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra & Stephan Hartmann (2014). Why Are There Descriptive Norms? Because We Looked for Them. Synthese 191 (18):4409-4429.
    In this work, we present a mathematical model for the emergence of descriptive norms, where the individual decision problem is formalized with the standard Bayesian belief revision machinery. Previous work on the emergence of descriptive norms has relied on heuristic modeling. In this paper we show that with a Bayesian model we can provide a more general picture of the emergence of norms, which helps to motivate the assumptions made in heuristic models. In our model, the priors formalize the belief (...)
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  16. Ulrich Gähde, Stephan Hartmann & Jörn Henning Wolf (eds.) (2013). Models, Simulations, and the Reduction of Complexity. De Gruyter.
     
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  17. Stephan Hartmann, Chiara Lisciandra & Edouard Machery (2013). Editorial: Formal Epistemology Meets Experimental Philosophy. [REVIEW] Synthese 190 (8):1333-1335.
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  18. Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Cristina Bicchieri, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2013). On the Emergence of Descriptive Norms. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):1470594-12447791.
    A descriptive norm is a behavioral rule that individuals follow when their empirical expectations of others following the same rule are met. We aim to provide an account of the emergence of descriptive norms by first looking at a simple case, that of the standing ovation. We examine the structure of a standing ovation, and show it can be generalized to describe the emergence of a wide range of descriptive norms.
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  19. Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (2013). Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. de Gruyter.
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  20. D. Dieks, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.) (2012). Probabilities, Laws and Structure. Springer.
    This conception of natural kinds might be dubbed a 'structural kinds' view. It is the conception of kinds offered by ExtOSR within a Humean framework. To invoke structural kinds also means to invoke structural laws. For laws generalize over ...
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  21. Stephan Hartmann & Wouter Meijs (2012). Walter the Banker: The Conjunction Fallacy Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Synthese 184 (1):73-87.
    In a famous experiment by Tversky and Kahneman (Psychol Rev 90:293–315, 1983), featuring Linda the bank teller, the participants assign a higher probability to a conjunction of propositions than to one of the conjuncts, thereby seemingly committing a probabilistic fallacy. In this paper, we discuss a slightly different example featuring someone named Walter, who also happens to work at a bank, and argue that, in this example, it is rational to assign a higher probability to the conjunction of suitably chosen (...)
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  22. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2012). Judgment Aggregation and the Problem of Tracking the Truth. Synthese 187 (1):209-221.
    The aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on those propositions has recently drawn much attention. Seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective conclusion. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to that problem as the discursive dilemma. In this paper, we motivate that many groups do not only want to reach a factually right conclusion, but also want to correctly evaluate the reasons for that conclusion. In (...)
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  23. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2012). The Future of Philosophy of Science: Introduction. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (2):157-159.
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  24. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Introduction. In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oup Oxford.
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  25. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (2011). Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume is the first to provide a philosophical appraisal of probabilities in all of physics.
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  26. Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.) (2011). Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer.
    This volume, the second in the Springer series Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective, contains selected papers from the workshops organised by the ESF ...
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  27. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Confirmation and Reduction: A Bayesian Account. Synthese 179 (2):321 - 338.
    Various scientific theories stand in a reductive relation to each other. In a recent article, we have argued that a generalized version of the Nagel-Schaffner model (GNS) is the right account of this relation. In this article, we present a Bayesian analysis of how GNS impacts on confirmation. We formalize the relation between the reducing and the reduced theory before and after the reduction using Bayesian networks, and thereby show that, post-reduction, the two theories are confirmatory of each other. We (...)
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  28. Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert (2011). Preface. Synthese 180 (1):1-2.
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  29. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2011). Mathematics and Statistics in the Social Sciences. In Ian C. Jarvie & Jesus Zamora-Bonilla (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences. Sage Publications. 594-612.
  30. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Welfarist Evaluations of Decision Rules Under Interstate Utility Dependencies. Social Choice and Welfare 34 (2):315-344.
    We provide welfarist evaluations of decision rules for federations of states and consider models, under which the interests of people from different states are stochastically dependent. We concentrate on two welfarist standards; they require that the expected utility for the federation be maximized or that the expected utilities for people from different states be equal. We discuss an analytic result that characterizes the decision rule with maximum expected utility, set up a class of models that display interstate dependencies and run (...)
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  31. Mark Colyvan & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Reduction and the Special Sciences. Erkenntnis 73:3 (special issue).
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  32. Mark Colyvan & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Editorial to “Reduction and the Special Sciences”. Erkenntnis 73 (3):293-293.
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  33. Vincenzo Crupi & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Formal and Empirical Methods in Philosophy of Science. In Friedrich Stadler et al (ed.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 87--98.
    This essay addresses the methodology of philosophy of science and illustrates how formal and empirical methods can be fruitfully combined. Special emphasis is given to the application of experimental methods to confirmation theory and to recent work on the conjunction fallacy, a key topic in the rationality debate arising from research in cognitive psychology. Several other issue can be studied in this way. In the concluding section, a brief outline is provided of three further examples.
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  34. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Who's Afraid of Nagelian Reduction? Erkenntnis 73 (3):393-412.
    We reconsider the Nagelian theory of reduction and argue that, contrary to a widely held view, it is the right analysis of intertheoretic reduction, since the alleged difficulties of the theory either vanish upon closer inspection or turn out to be substantive philosophical questions rather than knock-down arguments.
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  35. Alan Hájek & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Bayesian Epistemology. In J. Dancy et al (ed.), A Companion to Epistemology. Blackwell.
    Bayesianism is our leading theory of uncertainty. Epistemology is defined as the theory of knowledge. So “Bayesian Epistemology” may sound like an oxymoron. Bayesianism, after all, studies the properties and dynamics of degrees of belief, understood to be probabilities. Traditional epistemology, on the other hand, places the singularly non-probabilistic notion of knowledge at centre stage, and to the extent that it traffics in belief, that notion does not come in degrees. So how can there be a Bayesian epistemology?
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  36. S. Hartmann & J. Schupbach (2010). M. Strevens: Depth: An Account of Scientific Explanation.(Review of the Book Depth: An Account of Scientific Explanation, M. Strevens, 2008, 9780674031838). [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 6 (38).
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  37. Sara Hartmann & Tania Mara Galli Fonseca (2010). Escrever uma vida: biografia e acontecimento. Aletheia 33:84-94.
    Este artigo discute a temática da escrita de vida, a partir de um campo de problematizações em que ela difere de uma ordenação dos signos que aparecem ao pesquisador. Integra a experiência de escrita com vidas de arquivo do projeto de pesquisa "Potência Clínica das Memórias da Loucura", cujo campo é..
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  38. Stephan Hartmann (2010). kohärent/Kohärenz; Kohärenz, explanatorische; Kohärenz, probabilistische. In J. Mittelstraß (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Wissenschaftsphilosophie und analytischen Philosophie vol. 4. Metzler. 250-258.
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  39. Stephan Hartmann (2010). Who's Afraid of Nagelian Reduction? Erkenntnis 73 (3):393 - 412.
    We reconsider the Nagelian theory of reduction and argue that, contrary to a widely held view, it is the right analysis of intertheoretic reduction. The alleged difficulties of the theory either vanish upon closer inspection or turn out to be substantive philosophical questions rather than knock-down arguments.
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  40. Stephan Hartmann & Daniela Bailer-Jones (2010). Modelle. In Hans Jörg Sandkühler & Others (eds.), Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner Verlag. 2--1627.
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  41. Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger (2010). Editorial. Logic Journal of the Igpl 18 (2):277-277.
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  42. Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger (eds.) (2010). Formal Modeling in Social Epistemology. [REVIEW] Logic Journal of the IGPL (special issue).
    Special issue. With contributions by Rogier De Langhe and Matthias Greiff, Igor Douven and Alexander Riegler, Stephan Hartmann and Jan Sprenger, Carl Wagner, Paul Weirich, and Jesús Zamora Bonilla.
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  43. Stephan Hartmann, Gabriella Pigozzi & Jan Sprenger (2010). Reliable Methods of Judgment Aggregation. Journal for Logic and Computation 20:603--617.
    The aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on the same propositions has recently drawn much attention. Seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective conclusion. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to such a problem as the \textit{discursive dilemma}. In this paper we assume that the decision which the group is trying to reach is factually right or wrong. Hence, we address the question of how good (...)
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  44. Stephan Hartmann & Jonah N. Schupbach (2010). Review of Michael Strevens, Depth: An Account of Scientific Explanation. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (6).
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  45. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2010). The Weight of Competence Under a Realistic Loss Function. Logic Journal of the Igpl 18 (2):346-352.
    In many scientific, economic and policy-related problems, pieces of information from different sources have to be aggregated. Typically, the sources are not equally competent. This raises the question of how the relative weights and competences should be related to arrive at an optimal final verdict. Our paper addresses this question under a more realistic perspective of measuring the practical loss implied by an inaccurate verdict.
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  46. Sebastian Lutz & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Conventional and Objective Invariance: Debs and Redhead on Symmetry. [REVIEW] Metascience 19:15-23.
    This review is a critical discussion of three main claims in Debs and Redhead’s thought-provoking book Objectivity, Invariance, and Convention. These claims are: (i) Social acts impinge upon formal aspects of scientific representation; (ii) symmetries introduce the need for conventional choice; (iii) perspectival symmetry is a necessary and sufficient condition for objectivity, while symmetry simpliciter fails to be necessary.
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  47. Antigone M. Nounou, Mauro Dorato, Sebastian Lutz, Stephan Hartmann, Talal A. Debs & Michael L. G. Redhead (2010). A New Perspective on Objectivity and Conventionalism. Metascience 19 (1):3-27.
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  48. F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.) (2010). The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer.
    This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the ...
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  49. Patrick Suppes & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Entanglement, Upper Probabilities and Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics. In M. Suaráz et al (ed.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer. 93--103.
    Quantum mechanical entangled configurations of particles that do not satisfy Bell’s inequalities, or equivalently, do not have a joint probability distribution, are familiar in the foundational literature of quantum mechanics. Nonexistence of a joint probability measure for the correlations predicted by quantum mechanics is itself equivalent to the nonexistence of local hidden variables that account for the correlations (for a proof of this equivalence, see Suppes and Zanotti, 1981). From a philosophical standpoint it is natural to ask what sort of (...)
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  50. Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Marcel Weber, Dennis Dieks & Friedrich Stadler (eds.) (2010). The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer.
    This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the ...
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