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Shalom Lappin [47]S. Lappin [2]Siobhan Lappin [1]
  1. Shalom Lappin, Classifying Non-Sentential Utterances in Dialogue: A Machine Learning Approach.
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  2. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Achieving Expressive Completeness and Computational Efficiency for Underspecified Scope Representations.
    The tension between expressive power and computational tractability poses an acute problem for theories of underspecified semantic representation. In previous work we have presented an account of underspecified scope representations within Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order theory for natural language semantics. Here we show how filters applied to the underspecified-scope terms of PTCT permit both expressive completeness and the reduction of computational complexity in a significant class of non-worst case scenarios.
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  3. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous type-theoretic analyses (...)
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  4. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Briefly Noted.
    Intensional logic (IL) and its application to natural language, which the present monograph addresses, was first developed by Richard Montague in the late 1960s (e.g., Montague 1970a, 1970b). Through the efforts of (especially) Barbara Partee (e.g., Partee 1975, 1976), and Richmond Thomason, who edited the posthumous collection of Montague’s works (Thomason 1974), this became the main framework for those who aspired to a formal semantic theory for natural language, and these included computational linguists as early as Jerry Hobbs in the (...)
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  5. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Doing Natural Language Semantics in an Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing.
    A BSTRACT. We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a typetheoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous (...)
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  6. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Expressiveness and Complexity in Underspecified Semantics.
    In this paper we address an important issue in the development of an adequate formal theory of underspecified semantics. The tension between expressive power and computational tractability poses an acute problem for any such theory. Generating the full set of resolved scope readings from an underspecified representation produces a combinatorial explosion that undermines the efficiency of these representations. Moreover, Ebert (2005) shows that most current theories of underspecified semantic representation suffer from expressive incompleteness. In previous work we present an account (...)
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  7. Chris Fox, Shalom Lappin & Carl Pollard, First-Order, Curry-Typed Logic for Natural Language Semantics.
    The paper presents Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT) where the language of terms and well-formed formulæ are joined by a language of types. In addition to supporting fine-grained intensionality, the basic theory is essentially first-order, so that implementations using the theory can apply standard first-order theorem proving techniques. The paper sketches a system of tableau rules that implement the theory. Some extensions to the type theory are discussed, including type polymorphism, which provides a useful analysis of conjunctive terms. (...)
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  8. Jonathan Ginzburg & Shalom Lappin, Using Machine Learning for Non-Sentential Utterance Classification.
    In this paper we investigate the use of machine learning techniques to classify a wide range of non-sentential utterance types in dialogue, a necessary first step in the interpretation of such fragments. We train different learners on a set of contextual features that can be extracted from PoS information. Our results achieve an 87% weighted f-score—a 25% improvement over a simple rule-based algorithm baseline.
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  9. Gianluca Giorgolo, Shalom Lappin & Alexander Clark, Towards a Statistical Model of Grammaticality.
    The question of whether it is possible to characterise grammatical knowledge in probabilistic terms is central to determining the relationship of linguistic representation to other cognitive domains. We present a statistical model of grammaticality which maps the probabilities of a statistical model for sentences in parts of the British National Corpus (BNC) into grammaticality scores, using various functions of the parameters of the model. We test this approach with a classifier on test sets containing different levels of syntactic infelicity. With (...)
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  10. Alex Clark & Shalom Lappin, Unsupervised Learning and Grammar Induction.
    In this chapter we consider unsupervised learning from two perspectives. First, we briefly look at its advantages and disadvantages as an engineering technique applied to large corpora in natural language processing. While supervised learning generally achieves greater accuracy with less data, unsupervised learning offers significant savings in the intensive labour required for annotating text. Second, we discuss the possible relevance of unsupervised learning to debates on the cognitive basis of human language acquisition. In this context we explore the implications of (...)
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  11. Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin, Another Look at Indirect Negative Evidence.
    Indirect negative evidence is clearly an important way for learners to constrain overgeneralisation, and yet a good learning theoretic analysis has yet to be provided for this, whether in a PAC or a probabilistic identification in the limit framework. In this paper we suggest a theoretical analysis of indirect negative evidence that allows the presence of ungrammatical strings in the input and also accounts for the relationship between grammaticality/acceptability and probability. Given independently justified assumptions about lower bounds on the probabilities (...)
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  12. Shalom Lappin, Achieving Expressive Completeness and Computational Efficiency for Underspecified Scope Representations.
    In Fox and Lappin (2005a) we propose Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT) as a formal framework for the semantics of natural language. PTCT allows finegrained distinctions of meaning without recourse to modal notions like (im)possible worlds. It also supports a unified dynamic treatment of pronominal anaphora and VP ellipsis, as well as related phenomena such as gapping and pseudo-gapping.
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  13. Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous type-theoretic analyses of (...)
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  14. Shalom Lappin, Classifying Ellipsis in Dialogue: A Machine Learning Approach.
    Raquel FERN ´ ANDEZ, Jonathan GINZBURG and Shalom LAPPIN Department of Computer Science King’s College London Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK {raquel,ginzburg,lappin}@dcs.kcl.ac.uk..
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  15. Shalom Lappin, First-Order, Curry-Typed Logic for Natural Language Semantics.
    The paper presents Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT) where the language of terms and well-formed formulæ are joined by a language of types. In addition to supporting fine-grained intensionality, the basic theory is essentially first-order, so that implementations using the theory can apply standard first-order theorem proving techniques. The paper sketches a system of tableau rules that implement the theory. Some extensions to the type theory are discussed, including type polymorphism, which provides a useful analysis of conjunctive terms. Such (...)
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  16. Shalom Lappin, Full Paraphrase Generation for Fragments in Dialogue.
    Much previous work on generation has focused on the general problem of producing lexical strings from abstract semantic representations. We consider generation in the context of a particular task, creating full sentential paraphrases of fragments in dialogue. When the syntactic, semantic and phonological information provided by a dialogue fragment resolution system is made accessible to a generation component, much of the indeterminacy of lexical selection is eliminated.
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  17. Shalom Lappin, Machine Learning Theory and Practice as a Source of Insight Into Universal Grammar.
    In this paper, we explore the possibility that machine learning approaches to naturallanguage processing being developed in engineering-oriented computational linguistics may be able to provide specific scientific insights into the nature of human language. We argue that, in principle, machine learning results could inform basic debates about language, in one area at least, and that in practice, existing results may offer initial tentative support for this prospect. Further, results from computational learning theory can inform arguments carried on within linguistic theory (...)
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  18. Shalom Lappin, Shards: Fragment Resolution in Dialogue.
    A major challenge for any grammar-driven text understanding system is the resolution of fragments. Basic examples include bare NP answers (1a), where the bare NP John is resolved as the assertion John saw Mary, and sluicing (1b), where the wh-phrase who is interpreted as the question Which student saw John.
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  19. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin (forthcoming). Type-Theoretic Logic with an Operational Account of Intensionality. Synthese:1-22.
    We formulate a Curry-typed logic with fine-grained intensionality within Turner’s typed predicate logic. This allows for an elegant presentation of a theory that corresponds to Fox and Lappin’s property theory with curry typing, but without the need for a federation of languages. We then consider how the fine-grained intensionality of this theory can be given an operational interpretation. This interpretation suggests itself as expressions in the theory can be viewed as terms in the untyped lambda-calculus, which provides a model of (...)
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  20. S. Lappin & N. Francez (forthcoming). E-Type Pronouns, I-Sums, and Donkey Anaphora, Ms., STOAS London, to Appear In. Linguistics and Philosophy.
     
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  21. Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin (2013). Complexity in Language Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. (...)
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  22. Siobhan Lappin (2009). It's Getting Hot in Here! So Let's Get Sustainable! Ethos 17 (2):22.
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  23. Shalom Lappin, Machine Learning and the Cognitive Basis of Natural Language.
    Machine learning and statistical methods have yielded impressive results in a wide variety of natural language processing tasks. These advances have generally been regarded as engineering achievements. In fact it is possible to argue that the success of machine learning methods is significant for our understanding of the cognitive basis of language acquisition and processing. Recent work in unsupervised grammar induction is particularly relevant to this issue. It suggests that knowledge of language can be achieved through general learning procedures, and (...)
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  24. Shalom Lappin, R. Fernandez & J. Ginzburg, Using Machine Learning for Non-Sentential Utterance Classification.
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  25. Shalom Lappin & C. Fox, An Expressive First-Order Logic for Natural Language Semantics.
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  26. Shalom Lappin & C. Fox, A Type-Theoretic Approach to Anaphora and Ellipsis Resolution.
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  27. Shalom Lappin & C. Fox, Doing Natural Language Semantics in an Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing.
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  28. Shalom Lappin & C. Fox, Underspecified Interpretations in a Curry-Typed Representation Language.
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  29. Shalom Lappin, C. Fox & C. Pollard, A Higher-Order Fine-Grained Logic for Intensional Semantics.
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  30. Kent Bach, Shalom Lappin, Martin Stokhof, Daniel Buring, Peter Lasersohn, Thomas Ede, Paul Dekker Beth Levin Zimmermann, Julie Sedivy & Ben Russell (2005). Pauline Jacobson. Linguistics and Philosophy 28:781-782.
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  31. Kent Bach, Daniel Buring, Paul Dekker, Shalom Lappin, Peter Lasersohn, Beth Levin, Julie Sedivy, Martin Stokhof, Thomas Ede & Ian Lyons (2004). Pauline Jacobson. Linguistics and Philosophy 27:777-778.
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  32. Shalom Lappin (2000). An Intensional Parametric Semantics for Vague Quantifiers. Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (6):599-620.
  33. David Johnson & Shalom Lappin (1997). A Critique of the Minimalist Program. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (3):273-333.
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  34. S. Lappin (1996). Generalized Quantifiers, Exception Phrases, and Logicality. Journal of Semantics 13 (3):197-220.
    On the Fregean view of NPs, quantified NPs are represented as operator-variable structures, while proper names are constants appearing in argument position. The Generalized Quantifier (GQ) approach characterizes quantified NPs as elements of a unified syntactic category and semantic type. According to the Logicality Thesis (May 1991), the distinction between quantified NPs, which undergo and operation of quantifier raising to yield operator-variable structures at Logical Form (LF), and non-quantified NPS, which appear in situ at LF, corresponds to a difference in (...)
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  35. Shalom Lappin (ed.) (1996). The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell Reference.
    1. Formal semantics in linguistics -- 2. Generalized quantifier theory -- 3. The interface between syntax and semantics -- 4. Anaphora, discourse, and modality -- 5. Focus, presupposition, and negation -- 6. Tense -- 7. Questions -- 8. Plurals -- 9. Computational semantics -- 10. Lexical semantics -- 11. Semantics and related domains.
     
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  36. Shalom Lappin (1996). The Interpretatin of Ellipsis. In , The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. 145--176.
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  37. Angelika Kratzer, Manfred Krifka, Bill Ladusaw, Shalom Lappin, Young-Suk Lee, Harold Levin, Godehard Link, Jan Tore LCnning, Peter Ludlow & Bill Lycan (1995). 680 ACKNOWLEDGMENT King, Jeff Klein, Elaine Kobes, Bernie. Linguistics and Philosophy 17:679-680.
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  38. Shalom Lappin & Nissim Francez (1994). E-Type Pronouns, I-Sums, and Donkey Anaphora. Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (4):391 - 428.
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  39. Shalom Lappin (1991). Concepts of Logical Form in Linguistics and Philosophy. In Aka Kasher (ed.), The Chomskyan Turn. Basil Blackwell. 300--333.
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  40. Shalom Lappin (1983). The Theta-Criterion and Pronomial Binding. Proceedings of the Nels 13:121--8.
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  41. Shalom Lappin (1982). On the Pragmatics of Mood. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4):559 - 578.
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  42. Shalom Lappin (1981). Sorts, Ontology, and Metaphor: The Semantics of Sortal Structure. W. De Gruyter.
    Sortally incorrect sentences have traditionally been referred to as "category mistakes" (Ryle ()) or "type crossings" (Drange ()). Sortal incorrectness is a ...
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  43. Shalom Lappin (1976). Goodman and Katz on Synonymy. Philosophical Studies 29 (4):279 - 281.
  44. Baruch Brody, R. G. Swinburne, Alex C. Michalos, Gershon Weiler, Geoffrey Sampson, Marcelo Dascal, Shalom Lappin, Yehuda Melzer, Joseph Horovitz, Haim Marantz, Marcelo Dascal, M. Magidor & Michael Katz (1974). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 4 (2-3):279-281.
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  45. Shalom Lappin (1971). Analytical Philosophy Knowledge. Philosophia 1 (1-2):117-128.
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  46. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, A Type-Theoretic Approach to Anaphora and Ellipsis Resolution.
    We present an approach to anaphora and ellipsis resolution in which pronouns and elided structures are interpreted by the dynamic identification in discourse of type constraints on their semantic representations. The content of these conditions is recovered in context from an antecedent expression. The constraints define separation types (sub-types) in Property Theory with <span class='Hi'>Curry</span> Typing (PTCT), an expressive first-order logic with <span class='Hi'>Curry</span> typing that we have proposed as a formal framework for natural language semantics.
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  47. Shalom Lappin, Automatic Bare Sluice Disambiguation in Dialogue.
    The capacity to recognise and interpret sluices—bare wh-phrases that exhibit a sentential meaning—is essential to maintaining cohesive interaction between human users and a machine interlocutor in a dialogue system. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to sluice disambiguation in dialogue. Our experiments, based on solid theoretical considerations, show that applying machine learning techniques using a compact set of features that can be automatically identified from PoS markings in a corpus can be an efficient tool to disambiguate between (...)
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  48. Shalom Lappin, A Sequenced Model of Anaphora and Ellipsis Resolution.
    I compare several types of knowledge-based and knowledge-poor approaches to anaphora and ellipsis resolution. The former are able to capture fine-grained distinctions that depend on lexical meaning and real world knowledge, but they are generally not robust. The latter show considerable promise for yielding wide coverage systems. However, they consistently miss a small but significant subset of cases that are not accessible to rough-grained techniques of intepretation. I propose a sequenced model which first applies the most computationally efficient and inexpensive (...)
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  49. Shalom Lappin, Intensional First-Order Logic with Types.
    The paper presents Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT) where the language of terms and well-formed formulæ are joined by a language of types. In addition to supporting fine-grained intensionality, the basic theory is essentially first-order, so that implementations using the theory can apply standard first-order theorem proving techniques. Some extensions to the type theory are discussed, type polymorphism, and enriching the system with sufficient number theory to account for quantifiers of proportion, such as “most.”.
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  50. Jey Han Lau, Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin, Measuring Gradience in Speakers' Grammaticality Judgements.
    The question of whether grammaticality is a binary categorical or a gradient property has been the subject of ongoing debate in linguistics and psychology for many years. Linguists have tended to use constructed examples to test speakers’ judgements on specific sorts of constraint violation. We applied machine translation to randomly selected subsets of the British National Corpus (BNC) to generate a large test set which contains well-formed English source sentences, and sentences that exhibit a wide variety of grammatical infelicities. We (...)
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