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Scott Soames [109]S. Soames [7]
  1. Scott Soames, Interpreting Legal Texts: What is, and What is Not, Special About the Law.
    To be presented at an International Conference on Law, Language, and Interpretation, at the University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland, April 1-2, 2007.
     
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  2. Scott Soames, The Unity of the Proposition.
     
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  3. Scott Soames, Philosophical Books.
    In answering “No” to his question “Does the descriptivist/antidescriptivist debate have any philosophical significance [beyond semantics]?” Lowe gives what at first sounds like an exciting answer to an interesting question – until one identifies his reason. That reason is the belief – now widely shared -- that a decisive resolution of this semantic debate would not allow one, using only secure non-philosophical knowledge, to establish interesting metaphysical principles, beyond philosophical doubt. Though this belief is widespread, the idea that its truth (...)
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  4. Scott Soames (unknown). Recenzie Filozofia. Filozofia 67 (6):507.
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  5. Scott Soames, Reply to Pincock.
    write to correct errors in Christopher Pincock’s review of my discussion of IRussell. First, according to Pincock, I attempt to “undermine Moore’s views on ethics in Part One, [and] Russell’s conception of analysis in Part Two” by charging them with a pre-Kripkean conflation of necessity with apriority and analyticity. Not so. Although I do show that such conflation had negative consequences for the views of several philosophers, Moore and Russell are not among them. Moore’s error—which marred the defence of his (...)
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  6. Scott Soames, Discussion — Soames on Empiricism.
    Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century by Scott Soames reminds me of nothing so much as Lectures on Literature by Vladimir Nabokov. Both are works that arose immediately out of the needs of undergraduate teaching, yet each manages to say much of significance to knowledgeable professionals. Each indirectly provides an outline of the history of its field, through a presentation of selected major works, taken in chronological order and including items that are generally recognized as marking decisive turning points. Yet (...)
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  7. Scott Soames, Kripke on Presupposition and Anaphora.
    The publication of Kripke (2009), originally delivered as a lecture at Princeton University in 1990, was long in coming. Widely circulated since then, some aspects of the original manuscript are now well known by many working on presupposition. The published paper differs from the manuscript in clarifying certain points, tying up loose ends, answering some previously open questions, and incorporating a modest revision or two. That would be reason enough to review it here. More important is an assessment of what (...)
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  8. Scott Soames, Propositions.
    believe, or know something to that which they assert believe, or know. A2. The things asserted, believed, and known are bearers of truth and falsity. A3. Propositions -- the things satisfying A1 and A2 -- are expressed by sentences. The..
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  9. Scott Soames, Précis.
    Understanding Truth aims to illuminate the notion of truth, and the role it plays in our ordinary thought, as well as in our logical, philosophical, and scientific theories. Part one is concerned with substantive background issues: the identification of the bearers of truth, the basis for distinguishing truth from other notions, like certainty, with which it is often confused, and the formulation of positive responses to well-known forms of philosophical skepticism about truth. Part two explicates the formal theories of Alfred (...)
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  10. Scott Soames, Reply to Critics of Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century:.
    Chris Pincock is offended that I presumed to write a historical overview of analytic philosophy without filling it with scholarly detail provided by specialists. Instead of relying on them, I simply read the works of leading philosophers and tried to figure out for myself what they were up to. Didn’t I know that this is impossible? I myself point out in the Epilogue that the history of philosophy is now a specialized discipline. How, Pincock wonders, could I have failed to (...)
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  11. Scott Soames, Soames on Quine and Davidson.
    Quine and Davidson are the topics of, respectively, parts five and six of volume II of Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century.1 In chapter 10, Soames examines Quine’s arguments in Word and Object for the indeterminacy of translation; chapter 11 is devoted to the radical consequences of this thesis and an assessment of it. In chapter 12, Soames turns to Davidson’s claim that theories of truth are theories of meaning; and in chapter 13, to his argument against alternative conceptual schemes. (...)
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  12. Scott Soames, Toward a Theory of Legal Interpretation.
    By “legal interpretation” I mean the legally authoritative resolution of questions about what the content of the law is in its application to particular cases. It is the interpretation of legal texts by legally authoritative actors. One aspect of it is epistemological and one is constitutive. The epistemological task is to ascertain the content of laws resulting from previous actions of other legally authoritative sources. The constitutive task is to render an authoritative judgment that itself plays a role in determining (...)
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  13. Scott Soames (forthcoming). David Lewis's Place in Analytic Philosophy. In Barry Loewer & Jonathan Schaffer (eds.), David Lewis. Wiley.
    By the early 1970s, and continuing through 2001, David Lewis and Saul Kripke had taken over W.V.O. Quine’s leadership in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic in the English-speaking world. Quine, in turn, had inherited his position in the early 1950s from Rudolf Carnap, who had been the leading logical positivist -- first in Europe, and, after 1935, in America. A renegade positivist himself, Quine eschewed apriority, necessity, and analyticity, while (for a time) adopting a holistic version of (...)
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  14. Scott Soames (forthcoming). The Place of Quine in Analytic Philosophy. In Gilbert Harman & Ernest Lepore (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine.
    Quine was born on June 25, 1908 in Akron Ohio. From 1926 to 1930 he attended Oberlin College, from which he graduated with a B.A. in mathematics that included reading in mathematical philosophy. He received his PhD from Harvard in 1932 with a dissertation on Principia Mathematica advised by Whitehead. The next year traveling on fellowship in Europe, where he interacted with Carnap, Tarski, Lesniewski, Lukasiewicz, Schlick, Hahn, Reichenbach, Gödel, and Ayer. He was back in Cambridge between 1933 and 1936 (...)
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  15. Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames & Jeff Speaks (2014). New Thinking About Propositions. Oup Oxford.
    Philosophy, science, and common sense all refer to propositions--things we believe and say, and things which are true or false. But there is no consensus on what sorts of things these entities are. Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames, and Jeff Speaks argue that commitment to propositions is indispensable, and each defend their own views on the debate.
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  16. Scott Soames (2014). Epistemic Intensions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (1):220-228.
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  17. Scott Soames (2013). Cognitive Propositions. Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):479-501.
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  18. Scott Soames (2012). Philosophy of Language. Princeton University Press.
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  19. Scott Soames (2012). The Law. In Marmor Andrei (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Law. Routledge. 95.
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  20. Scott Soames (2012). Vagueness in the Law. In Marmor Andrei (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Law. Routledge. 95.
  21. Scott Soames (2012). What is Meaning? Princeton University Press.
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  22. Andrei Marmor & Scott Soames (eds.) (2011). Philosophical Foundations of Language in the Law. Oxford University Press, Usa.
    Machine generated contents note: -- 1. The Value of Vagueness, Timothy Endicott -- 2. Vagueness and the Guidance of Action, Jeremy Waldron -- 3. What Vagueness and Inconsistency tell us about Interpretation, Scott Soames -- 4. Textualism and the Discovery of Rights, John Perry -- 5. The Intentionalism of Textualism, Stephen Neale -- 6. Can the Law Imply More than It Says? On some pragmatic aspects of Strategic Speech, Andrei Marmor -- 7. Modeling Legal Rules, Richard Holton -- 8. Trying (...)
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  23. Scott Soames (2011). Kripke on Epistemic and Metaphysical Possibility: Two Routes to the Necessary Aposteriori. In Alan Berger (ed.), Saul Kripke. Cambridge University Press.
    Saul Kripke’s discussion of the necessary aposteriori in Naming and Necessity and “Identity and Necessity” -- in which he lays the foundation for distinguishing epistemic from metaphysical possibility, and explaining the relationship between the two – is, in my opinion, one of the outstanding achievements of twentieth century philosophy.1 My aim in this essay is to extract the enduring lessons of his discussion, and disentangle them from certain difficulties which, alas, can also be found there. I will argue that there (...)
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  24. Scott Soames (2011). True At. [REVIEW] Analysis 71 (1):124 - 133.
    Cappelen and Hawthorne tell us that the most basic, explanatory notion of truth is a monadic property of propositions. Other notions of truth, including those applying to sentences, are to be explained in terms of it. Among them are those found in Kripkean, Montagovian, and Kaplanean semantic theories, and their descendants – to wit truth at a context, at a circumstance, and at a context-plus-circumstance. If these are to make sense, the authors correctly maintain, they must be explained in terms (...)
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  25. Scott Soames (2011). What Vagueness and Inconsistency Tell Us About Interpretation. In Andrei Marmor & Scott Soames (eds.), Philosophical Foundations of Language in the Law. Oxford University Press, Usa. 31--57.
    Two Kinds of Vagueness When signing up for insurance benefits at my job, I was asked, “Do you have children, and if so are they young enough to be included on your policy?” I replied that I had two children, both of whom were over 21. The benefits officer responded, “That’s too vague. In some circumstances children of covered employees are eligible for benefits up to their 26th birthday. I need their ages to determine whether they can be included on (...)
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  26. Scott Soames (2010). Beyond Rigidity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (1):169-178.
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  27. Scott Soames (2010). Coordination Problems. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):464 - 474.
    Although ‘Rxx’ and ‘Rxy’ are both applications of a two-place predicate to a pair of terms, ‘Rxx’ resembles a one-place predicate in that all one needs to evaluate it is an assignment to ‘x’. A similar point applies to the sequences ‘Fx’, ‘Gx’ and ‘Fx’, ‘Gy’ – even though neither is a one-place predicate. Kit Fine’s semantic relationalism aims to extract a common idea uniting these comparisons, and to use it to provide a Millian solution to Frege’s Puzzle.
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  28. Scott Soames (2010). The Possibility of Partial Definition. In Richard Dietz & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Cuts and Clouds: Vaguenesss, its Nature and its Logic. Oup Oxford.
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  29. Scott Soames (2009). Philosophical Essays: Natural Language: What It Means and How We Use It. Princeton University Press.
    The origins of these essays -- Introduction -- Presupposition -- A projection problem for speaker presupposition -- Language and linguistic competence -- Linguistics and psychology -- Semantics and psychology -- Semantics and semantic competence -- The necessity argument -- Truth, meaning, and understanding -- Truth and meaning in perspective -- Semantics and pragmatics -- Naming and asserting -- The gap between meaning and assertion : why what we literally say often differs from what our words literally mean -- Drawing the (...)
     
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  30. Scott Soames (2009). Philosophical Essays, Volume 2: The Philosophical Significance of Language. Princeton University Press.
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  31. Scott Soames (2009). Ontology, Analyticity, and Meaning : The Quine-Carnap Dispute. In David John Chalmers, David Manley & Ryan Wasserman (eds.), Metametaphysics: New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology. Oxford University Press. 424--43.
    In the middle of the twentieth century a dispute erupted between the chief architect of Logical Empiricism, Rudolf Carnap, and Logical Empiricism’s chief reformer, Willard van Orman Quine -- who was attempting to save what he took to be its main insights by recasting them in a more acceptable form. Though both eschewed metaphysics of the traditional apriori sort, and both were intent on making the investigation of science the center of philosophy, they disagreed about how to do so. Part (...)
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  32. Scott Soames (2008). Analytic Philosophy in America. In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  33. Scott Soames (2008). Drawing the Line Between Meaning and Implicature—and Relating Both to Assertion. Noûs 42 (3):440-465.
    Paul Grice’s theory of Conversational Implicature is, by all accounts, one of the great achievements of the past fifty years -- both of analytic philosophy and of the empirical study of language. Its guiding idea is that constraints on the use of sentences, and information conveyed by utterances of them, arise not only from their conventional meanings (the information they semantically encode) but also from the communicative uses to which they are put. In his view, the overriding goal of most (...)
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  34. Scott Soames (2008). No Class: Russell on Contextual Definition and the Elimination of Sets. Philosophical Studies 139 (2):213 - 218.
    The article rebutts Michael Kremer’s contention that Russell’s contextual definition of set-theoretic language in Principia Mathematica constituted the ontological achievement of eliminating commitment to classes. Although Russell’s higher-order quantifiers, used in the definition, need not range over classes, none of the plausible substitutes provide a solid basis for eliminating them. This point is used to defend the presentation, in The Dawn of Analysis, of Russell’s logicist reduction, using a first-order version of naive set theory.
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  35. Scott Soames (2008). Philosophical Essays, Volume 1: Natural Language: What It Means and How We Use It. Princeton University Press.
    A judicious collection of old and new, these volumes include sixteen essays published in the 1980s and 1990s, nine published since 2000, and six new essays.
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  36. Scott Soames (2008). Truthmakers? Philosophical Books 49 (4):317-327.
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  37. Scott Soames (2008). Truth and Meaning: In Perspective. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 32 (1):1-19.
    My topic is the attempt by Donald Davidson, and those inspired by him, to explain knowledge of meaning in terms of knowledge of truth conditions. For Davidsonians, these attempts take the form of rationales for treating theories of truth, constructed along Tarskian lines, as empirical theories of meaning. In earlier work1, I argued that Davidson’s two main rationales – one presented in “Truth and Meaning”2 and “Radical Interpretation,”3 and the other in his “Reply to Foster”4 – were unsuccessful. Here, (...)
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  38. Scott Soames (2008). Why Propositions Cannot Be Sets of Truth-Supporting Circumstances. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (3):267 - 276.
    No semantic theory satisfying certain natural constraints can identify the semantic contents of sentences (the propositions they express), with sets of circumstances in which the sentences are true–no matter how fine-grained the circumstances are taken to be. An objection to the proof is shown to fail by virtue of conflating model-theoretic consequence between sentences with truth-conditional consequence between the semantic contents of sentences. The error underlines the impotence of distinguishing semantics, in the sense of a truth-based theory of logical consequence, (...)
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  39. Scott Soames (2007). Actually. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 81 (1):251–277.
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  40. Scott Soames (2007). Actuality: Actually. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 81 (1):251-277.
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  41. Scott Soames (2007). Ambitious Two-Dimensionalism. In Matthew Davidson (ed.), On Sense and Direct Reference. 690--718.
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  42. Scott Soames (2007). Précis of Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 2, the Age of Meaning. Philosophical Studies 135 (3):425 - 428.
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  43. Scott Soames (2007). The Quine-Carnap Debate on Ontology and Analyticity. Soochow Journal of Philosophical Studies 16:17 - 32.
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  44. Scott Soames (2007). The Substance and Significance of the Dispute Over Two-Dimensionalism. Philosophical Books 48 (1):34-49.
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  45. Scott Soames (2007). What Are Natural Kinds? Philosophical Topics 35 (1-2):329-342.
    Though the question is ontological, I will approach it through another, partially linguistic, question. What must natural kinds be like, if the conventional wisdom about natural kind terms is correct? Although answering this question won’t tell us everything we want to know, it will, I think, be useful in narrowing the range of feasible ontological alternatives. I will therefore summarize what I take to be the contemporary linguistic wisdom, and then test different proposals about kinds against it. As we will (...)
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  46. Scott Soames (2007). What We Know Now That We Didn't Know Then: Reply to Critics of the Age of Meaning. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 135 (3):461 - 478.
    Author’s response to critical essays by Brian Weatherson, Alex Byrne, and Stephen Yablo on Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 2 The Age of Meaning.
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  47. S. Soames (2006). Review: Reply to Critics. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 128 (3):711 - 738.
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  48. S. Soames (2006). Reply to Critics. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 128 (3):711 - 738.
    Linsky’s central point is correct; Kripke’s distinction between rigid and nonrigid designators can be extended in a straightforward way from singular terms to general terms. In both cases, for an expression to rigidly designate its extension is for it to designate the same extension with respect to every possible world-state (in which it has an extension at all). On this account, simple natural kind terms like water, gold, electricity, blue, and tiger – as well as ordinary general terms like bachelor, (...)
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  49. S. Soames (2006). What is History For? Reply to Critics of the Dawn of Analysis. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 129 (3):645 - 665.
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  50. Scott Soames (2006). Descriptive Names Vs. Descriptive Anaphora. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):665 - 673.
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