Search results for 'SJ Hanson' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stevan Harnad & SJ Hanson, Categorical Perception and the Evolution of Supervised Learning in Neural Nets.score: 240.0
    Some of the features of animal and human categorical perception (CP) for color, pitch and speech are exhibited by neural net simulations of CP with one-dimensional inputs: When a backprop net is trained to discriminate and then categorize a set of stimuli, the second task is accomplished by "warping" the similarity space (compressing within-category distances and expanding between-category distances). This natural side-effect also occurs in humans and animals. Such CP categories, consisting of named, bounded regions of similarity space, may be (...)
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  2. Robin Hanson (2007). The Hanson-Hughes Debate on “The Crack of a Future Dawn.”. Journal of Evolution and Technology 16 (1):99-126.score: 180.0
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  3. R. Hanson (1995). Hanson's Gambling Save Science?: Reply. Social Epistemology 9:45-45.score: 180.0
     
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  4. Norwood Russell Hanson (1958). Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press.score: 60.0
    In this 1958 book, Professor Hanson turns to an equally important but comparatively neglected subject, the philosophical aspects of research and discovery.
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  5. William H. Hanson (2014). Logical Truth in Modal Languages: Reply to Nelson and Zalta. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 167 (2):327-339.score: 60.0
    Does general validity or real world validity better represent the intuitive notion of logical truth for sentential modal languages with an actuality connective? In (Philosophical Studies 130:436–459, 2006) I argued in favor of general validity, and I criticized the arguments of Zalta (Journal of Philosophy 85:57–74, 1988) for real world validity. But in Nelson and Zalta (Philosophical Studies 157:153–162, 2012) Michael Nelson and Edward Zalta criticize my arguments and claim to have established the superiority of real world validity. Section 1 (...)
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  6. Robin Hanson, Combinatorial Information Market Design.score: 60.0
    Department of Economics, George Mason University, MSN 1D3, Carow Hall, Fairfax VA 22030, USA E-mail: rhanson@gmu.edu (http://hanson.gmu.edu).
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  7. Robin Hanson, Reply to Comments on Could Gambling Save Science?score: 60.0
    Arthur Diamond comments that "it is not clear how a donor distributes money through Hanson's market". Let me try again to be clear. Imagine David Levy were to seek funding for the regression he suggests in his comments, on the relative impact of sports versus science spending on aggregate productivity. Consider what might happen under three different funding institutions.
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  8. Robin Hanson (2003). When Worlds Collide: Quantum Probability From Observer Selection? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (7):1129-1150.score: 30.0
    In Everett's many worlds interpretation, quantum measurements are considered to be decoherence events. If so, then inexact decoherence may allow large worlds to mangle the memory of observers in small worlds, creating a cutoff in observable world size. Smaller world are mangled and so not observed. If this cutoff is much closer to the median measure size than to the median world size, the distribution of outcomes seen in unmangled worlds follows the Born rule. Thus deviations from exact decoherence can (...)
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  9. Robin Hanson, If Uploads Come First.score: 30.0
    What if we someday learn how to model small brain units, and so can "upload" ourselves into new computer brains? What if this happens before we learn how to make human-level artificial intelligences? The result could be a sharp transition to an upload-dominated world, with many dramatic consequences. In particular, fast and cheap replication may once again make Darwinian evolution of human values a powerful force in human history. With evolved values, most uploads would value life even when life is (...)
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  10. Robin Hanson, Burning the Cosmic Commons: Evolutionary Strategies for Interstellar Colonization.score: 30.0
    Attempts to model interstellar colonization may seem hopelessly compromised by uncertainties regarding the technologies and preferences of advanced civilizations. If light speed limits travel speeds, however, then a selection effect may eventually determine frontier behavior. Making weak assumptions about colonization technology, we use this selection effect to predict colonists’ behavior, including which oases they colonize, how long they stay there, how many seeds they then launch, how fast and far those seeds fly, and how behavior changes with increasing congestion. This (...)
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  11. Robin Hanson, Why Meat is Moral, and Veggies Are Immoral.score: 30.0
    You are in a grocery store, and thinking of buying some meat. You think you know what buying and eating this meat would mean for your taste buds, your nutrition, and your pocketbook, and let's assume that on those grounds it looks like a good deal. But now you want to think about the..
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  12. Philip P. Hanson & Edwin Levy (1982). Book Review:The Scientific Image Bas C. Van Fraassen. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 49 (2):290-.score: 30.0
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  13. Philip P. Hanson (1993). McGinn's Cognitive Closure. Dialogue 32 (3):579-85.score: 30.0
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  14. Louise Hanson (2009). Is Concrete Poetry Literature? Midwest Studies in Philosophy 33 (1):78-106.score: 30.0
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  15. William H. Hanson (2006). Actuality, Necessity, and Logical Truth. Philosophical Studies 130 (3):437 - 459.score: 30.0
    The traditional view that all logical truths are metaphysically necessary has come under attack in recent years. The contrary claim is prominent in David Kaplan’s work on demonstratives, and Edward Zalta has argued that logical truths that are not necessary appear in modal languages supplemented only with some device for making reference to the actual world (and thus independently of whether demonstratives like ‘I’, ‘here’, and ‘now’ are present). If this latter claim can be sustained, it strikes close to the (...)
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  16. Norwood Russell Hanson (1967). An Anatomy of Discovery. Journal of Philosophy 64 (11):321-352.score: 30.0
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  17. Robin Hanson (2001). How to Live in a Simulation. Journal of Evolution and Technology 7 (1).score: 30.0
  18. Robin Hanson, Drift–Diffusion in Mangled Worlds Quantum Mechanics.score: 30.0
    In Everett’s many-worlds interpretation, where quantum measurements are seen as decoherence events, inexact decoherence may let large worlds mangle the memories of observers in small worlds, creating a cutoff in observable world measure. I solve a growth–drift–diffusion–absorption model of such a mangled worlds scenario, and show that it reproduces the Born probability rule closely, though not exactly. Thus, inexact decoherence may allow the Born rule to be derived in a many-worlds approach via world counting, using a finite number of worlds (...)
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  19. Norwood Russell Hanson (1958). The Logic of Discovery. Journal of Philosophy 55 (25):1073-1089.score: 30.0
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  20. Norwood Russell Hanson (1960). Is There a Logic of Scientific Discovery? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):91 – 106.score: 30.0
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  21. R. P. C. Hanson (1956). Thorleif Boman: Das hebräische Denken im Vergleich mit dem griechischen. Pp. 186. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1954. Paper, DM. 9.80. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 6 (01):81-82.score: 30.0
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  22. Norwood Russell Hanson (1972). What I Do Not Believe. Dordrecht,Reidel.score: 30.0
    1 A PICTURE THEORY OF THEORY-MEANING Perplexities concerning Scientific Theories persist because the usual 'singled valued' philosophical analyses cannot do ...
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  23. Robin Hanson, Is a Singularity Just Around the Corner?score: 30.0
    Economic growth is determined by the supply and demand of investment capital; technology determines the demand for capital, while human nature determines the supply. The supply curve has two distinct parts, giving the world economy two distinct modes. In the familiar slow growth mode, rates of return are limited by human discount rates. In the fast growth mode, investment is limited by the world's wealth. Historical trends suggest that we may transition to the fast mode in roughly another century and (...)
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  24. Robin Hanson, Logarithmic Market Scoring Rules for Modular Combinatorial Information Aggregation.score: 30.0
    In practice, scoring rules elicit good probability estimates from individuals, while betting markets elicit good consensus estimates from groups. Market scoring rules combine these features, eliciting estimates from individuals or groups, with groups costing no more than individuals. Regarding a bet on one event given another event, only logarithmic versions preserve the probability of the given event. Logarithmic versions also preserve the conditional probabilities of other events, and so preserve conditional independence relations. Given logarithmic rules that elicit relative probabilities of (...)
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  25. Norwood Russell Hanson (1962). The Irrelevance of History of Science to Philosophy of Science to Philosophy of Science. Journal of Philosophy 59 (21):574-586.score: 30.0
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  26. Robin Hanson, Fear of Death and Muddled Thinking – It Is So Much Worse Than You Think.score: 30.0
    Humans clearly have trouble thinking about death. This trouble is often used to explain behavior like delay in writing wills or buying life insurance, or interest in odd medical and religious beliefs. But the problem is far worse than most people imagine. Fear of death makes us spend fifteen percent of our income on medicine, from which we get little or no health benefit, while we neglect things like exercise, which offer large health benefits.
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  27. William H. Hanson (1999). Ray on Tarski on Logical Consequence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (6):605-616.score: 30.0
    In "Logical consequence: A defense of Tarski" (Journal of Philosophical Logic, vol. 25, 1996, pp. 617-677), Greg Ray defends Tarski's account of logical consequence against the criticisms of John Etchemendy. While Ray's defense of Tarski is largely successful, his attempt to give a general proof that Tarskian consequence preserves truth fails. Analysis of this failure shows that de facto truth preservation is a very weak criterion of adequacy for a theory of logical consequence and should be replaced by a stronger (...)
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  28. William H. Hanson (1997). The Concept of Logical Consequence. Philosophical Review 106 (3):365-409.score: 30.0
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  29. Jeffrey Hanson (2010). Returning (to) the Gift of Death: Violence and History in Derrida and Levinas. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 67 (1):1 - 15.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this paper is to establish a proper context for reading Jacques Derrida's The Gift of Death, which, I contend, can only be understood fully against the backdrop of "Violence and Metaphysics." The later work cannot be fully understood unless the reader appreciates the fact that Derrida returns to "a certain Abraham" not only in the name of Kierkegaard but also in the name of Levinas himself. The hypothesis of the reading that follows therefore would be that Derrida (...)
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  30. Norwood Russell Hanson (1960). On Having the Same Visual Experiences. Mind 69 (July):340-350.score: 30.0
  31. F. Allan Hanson (2009). Beyond the Skin Bag: On the Moral Responsibility of Extended Agencies. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):91-99.score: 30.0
    The growing prominence of computers in contemporary life, often seemingly with minds of their own, invites rethinking the question of moral responsibility. If the moral responsibility for an act lies with the subject that carried it out, it follows that different concepts of the subject generate different views of moral responsibility. Some recent theorists have argued that actions are produced by composite, fluid subjects understood as extended agencies (cyborgs, actor networks). This view of the subject contrasts with methodological individualism: the (...)
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  32. William H. Hanson (1990). Second-Order Logic and Logicism. Mind 99 (393):91-99.score: 30.0
    Some widely accepted arguments in the philosophy of mathematics are fallacious because they rest on results that are provable only by using assumptions that the con- clusions of these arguments seek to undercut. These results take the form of bicon- ditionals linking statements of logic with statements of mathematics. George Boolos has given an argument of this kind in support of the claim that certain facts about second-order logic support logicism, the view that mathematics—or at least part of it—reduces to (...)
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  33. Karen Hanson (1990). Dressing Down Dressing Up -- The Philosophic Fear of Fashion. Hypatia 5 (2):107 - 121.score: 30.0
    There is, to all appearances, a philosophic hostility to fashionable dress. Studying this contempt, this paper examines likely sources in philosophy's suspicion of change; anxiety about surfaces and the inessential; failures in the face of death; and the philosophic disdain for, denial of, the human body and human passivity. If there are feminist concerns about fashion, they should be radically different from those of traditional philosophy. Whatever our ineluctable worries about desire and death, whatever our appropriate anger and impatience with (...)
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  34. Norwood Russell Hanson (1952). Professor Ryle's "Mind". Philosophical Quarterly 2 (July):246-48.score: 30.0
  35. Robin Hanson, The Great Filter - Are We Almost Past It?score: 30.0
    Humanity seems to have a bright future, i.e., a non-trivial chance of expanding to fill the universe with lasting life. But the fact that space near us seems dead now tells us that any given piece of dead matter faces an astronomically low chance of begating such a future. There thus exists a great filter between death and expanding lasting life, and humanity faces the ominous question: how far along this filter are we?
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  36. Francis J. Pelletier, Renée Elio & Philip Hanson (2008). Is Logic All in Our Heads? From Naturalism to Psychologism. Studia Logica 88 (1):3 - 66.score: 30.0
    Psychologism in logic is the doctrine that the semantic content of logical terms is in some way a feature of human psychology. We consider the historically influential version of the doctrine, Psychological Individualism, and the many counter-arguments to it. We then propose and assess various modifications to the doctrine that might allow it to avoid the classical objections. We call these Psychological Descriptivism, Teleological Cognitive Architecture, and Ideal Cognizers. These characterizations give some order to the wide range of modern views (...)
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  37. Norwood Russell Hanson (1962). The Dematerialization of Matter. Philosophy of Science 29 (1):27-38.score: 30.0
    1. The philosophical version of the primary-secondary distinction concerns (a) the 'real' properties of matter, (b) the epistemology of sensation, and (c) a contrast challenged by Berkely as illusory. The scientific version of the primary-secondary distinction concerns (a') the physical properties of matter, (b') a contrast essential within the history of atomism, and (c') a contrast challenged by 20th century microphysics as de facto untenable. 2. The primary-secondary distinction within physics can be interpreted in two ways: a. it can refer (...)
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  38. Norwood Russell Hanson (1965). The Idea of a Logic of Discovery. Dialogue 4 (01):48-61.score: 30.0
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  39. William H. Hanson (1991). Indicative Conditionals Are Truth-Functional. Mind 100 (1):53-72.score: 30.0
  40. William H. Hanson (1971). Mechanism and Godel's Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (February):9-16.score: 30.0
  41. Norwood Russell Hanson (1963). Equivalence: The Paradox of Theoretical Analysis. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):217 – 232.score: 30.0
  42. Robin Hanson, Was Cypher Right?: Why We Stay In Our Matrix.score: 30.0
    The Matrix is a story of AIs who keep humans as slaves, by keeping them in a dream world, and of rebels who fight to teach people this truth and destroy this dream world. But we humans are today slaves to alien hyper-rational entities who care little about us, and who distract us with a dream world. We do not want to know this truth, and if anything fight to preserve our dream world. Go figure.
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  43. Norwood Russell Hanson (1965). A Note On Kuhn's Method. Dialogue 4 (03):371-375.score: 30.0
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  44. Norwood Russell Hanson (1962). The Very Idea of a Synthetic-Apriori. Mind 71 (284):521-524.score: 30.0
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  45. Robin Hanson, Making Sense of Medical Paternalism.score: 30.0
    Why do we regulate the substances we can ingest, the advisors we can hear, and the products we can buy far more than similarly-important non-health choices? I review many possible arguments for such paternalistic policies, as well many possible holes in such arguments. I argue we should either be clearer about what justifies our paternalism, or we should back off and be less paternalistic.
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  46. Norwood Russell Hanson (1963). The Law of Inertia: A Philosopher's Touchstone. Philosophy of Science 30 (2):107-121.score: 30.0
    The conceptual excitement of science often seems geared only to work in contemporary physics. Thus, philosophers regularly discuss current cosmology, relativity, or the foundations of microphysics. In these areas one's philosophy is stretched and strained far beyond what our ancestors might have anticipated. Historians of science have also focused attention on past events by remarking their analogies and similarities with perplexities in physics today. But there are statements, hypotheses and theories of the past which are rewarding in themselves, without having (...)
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  47. William H. Hanson & James Hawthorne (1985). Validity in Intensional Languages: A New Approach. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (1):9-35.score: 30.0
    Although the use of possible worlds in semantics has been very fruitful and is now widely accepted, there is a puzzle about the standard definition of validity in possible-worlds semantics that has received little notice and virtually no comment. A sentence of an intensional language is typically said to be valid just in case it is true at every world under every model on every model structure of the language. Each model structure contains a set of possible worlds, and models (...)
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  48. N. R. Hanson (1955). Causal Chains. Mind 64 (255):289-311.score: 30.0
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  49. Robin Hanson, Book Orders for Market Scoring Rules.score: 30.0
    This explains how to smoothly integrate booked orders with a combinatorial market maker, all for the general case of bets on E[x|A] for arbitrary random variables x and sets A.
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  50. Robin Hanson, Economic Growth Given Machine Intelligence.score: 30.0
    A simple exogenous growth model gives conservative estimates of the economic implications of machine intelligence. Machines complement human labor when they become more productive at the jobs they perform, but machines also substitute for human labor by taking over human jobs. At first, expensive hardware and software does only the few jobs where computers have the strongest advantage over humans. Eventually, computers do most jobs. At first, complementary effects dominate, and human wages rise with computer productivity. But eventually substitution can (...)
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