Search results for 'Salience' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Benjamin A. Neville, Simon J. Bell & Gregory J. Whitwell (2011). Stakeholder Salience Revisited: Refining, Redefining, and Refueling an Underdeveloped Conceptual Tool. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3):357-378.
    This article revisits and further develops Mitchell et al.’s (Acad Manag Rev 22(4):853–886, 1997 ) theory of stakeholder identification and salience. Stakeholder salience holds considerable unrealized potential for understanding how organizations may best manage multiple stakeholder relationships. While the salience framework has been cited numerous times, attempts to develop it further have been relatively limited. We begin by reviewing the key contributions of other researchers. We then identify and seek to resolve three residual weaknesses in Mitchell et (...)
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  2. Ruth Beatson, Stephen Loughnan & Michael Halloran (2009). Attitudes Toward Animals: The Effect of Priming Thoughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals. Society and Animals 17 (1):72-89.
    Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. They can range between extremely negative to positive . Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. This paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals . The research presented here tested whether companion-animal caregivers would respond to reminders of human creatureliness and mortality salience with more negative attitudes toward pets. Participants completed an online survey in which MS and human-creatureliness conditions were (...)
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  3.  85
    Gerald J. Postema (2008). Salience Reasoning. Topoi 27 (1-2):41-55.
    The thesis of this essay is that social conventions of the kind Lewis modeled are generated and maintained by a form of practical reasoning which is essentially common. This thesis is defended indirectly by arguing for an interpretation of the role of salience in Lewis’s account of conventions. The remarkable ability of people to identify salient options and appreciate their practical significance in contexts of social interaction, it is argued, is best explained in terms of their exercise of what (...)
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  4.  36
    David L. Pelletier, Vivica Kraak, Christine McCullum, Ulla Unsitalo & Robert Rich (1999). Community Food Security: Salience and Participation at Community Level. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (4):401-419.
    Community food security (CFS) is an incipient movement based on the re-localization of many food system activities in response to values concerning the social, health, economic, and environmental consequences of the globalizing food system. This study examines the salience of these values based on the action agendas and accomplishments emerging from community planning events in six rural counties of New York, and the nature and type of participation and local support. The study finds a high level of agreement between (...)
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  5.  23
    E. James & M. Gifford (2010). Effective Shareholder Engagement: The Factors That Contribute to Shareholder Salience. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):79 - 97.
    Institutional investors are increasingly becoming active owners through voting their shares and engaging in dialogue with investee companies to improve corporate environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) performance. This article applies a model of stakeholder salience to the shareholder context, analysing the attributes of power, legitimacy and urgency, to determine the factors that are likely to enhance shareholder salience. It is found that a strong business case and the values of the managers of investee companies are likely to (...)
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  6.  1
    Rommel O. Salvador, Altaf Merchant & Elizabeth A. Alexander (2014). Faith and Fair Trade: The Moderating Role of Contextual Religious Salience. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (3):353-371.
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  7.  32
    David Bodoff (2013). When Learning Meets Salience. Theory and Decision 74 (2):241-266.
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  8.  35
    Mohammed Abouelleil Rashed (2013). Culture, Salience, and Psychiatric Diagnosis: Exploring the Concept of Cultural Congruence & its Practical Application. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):5.
    Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture (...)
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  9.  3
    Richard D. Odom (1972). Effects of Perceptual Salience on the Recall of Relevant and Incidental Dimensional Values: A Developmental Study. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (2):285.
  10.  40
    Talbot Brewer (2001). Rethinking Our Maxims: Perceptual Salience and Practical Judgment in Kantian Ethics. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (3):219-230.
    Some contemporary Kantians have argued that one could not be virtuous without having internalized certain patterns of awareness that permit one to identify and respond reliably to moral reasons for action. I agree, but I argue that this insight requires unrecognized, farreaching, and thoroughly welcome changes in the traditional Kantian understanding of maxims and virtues. In particular, it implies that one''s characteristic emotions and desires will partly determine one''s maxims, and hence the praiseworthiness of one''s actions. I try to show (...)
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  11.  6
    Lee R. Beach & Richard W. Shoenberger (1965). Event Salience and Response Frequency on a ten-Alternative Probability-Learning Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):312.
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  12. Richard Yetter Chappell & Helen Yetter-Chappell (2015). Virtue and Salience. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (3):449-463.
    This paper explores two ways in which evaluations of an agent's character as virtuous or vicious are properly influenced by what the agent finds salient or attention-grabbing. First, we argue that ignoring salient needs reveals a greater deficit of benevolent motivation in the agent, and hence renders the agent more blameworthy. We use this fact to help explain our ordinary intuition that failing to give to famine relief is in some sense less bad than failing to help a child who (...)
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  13. Robin P. Cubitt & Robert Sugden (2003). Common Knowledge, Salience and Convention: A Reconstruction of David Lewis' Game Theory. Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):175-210.
    David Lewis is widely credited with the first formulation of common knowledge and the first rigorous analysis of convention. However, common knowledge and convention entered mainstream game theory only when they were formulated, later and independently, by other theorists. As a result, some of the most distinctive and valuable features of Lewis' game theory have been overlooked. We re-examine this theory by reconstructing key parts in a more formal way, extending it, and showing how it differs from more recent game (...)
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  14.  27
    Ronald K. Mitchell, Bradley R. Agle, James J. Chrisman & Laura J. Spence (2011). Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Salience in Family Firms. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (2):235-255.
    The notion of stakeholder salience based on attributes (e.g., power, legitimacy, urgency) is applied in the family business setting. We argue that where principal institutions intersect (i.e., family and business); managerial perceptions of stakeholder salience will be different and more complex than where institutions are based on a single dominant logic. We propose that (1) whereas utilitarian power is more likely in the general business case, normative power is more typical in family business stakeholder salience; (2) whereas (...)
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  15. Fernando Martinez-Manrique & Agustin Vicente (2013). What is Said by a Metaphor: The Role of Salience and Conventionality. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (2):304-328.
    Contextualist theorists have recently defended the views (a) that metaphor-processing can be treated on a par with other meaning changes, such as narrowing or transfer, and (b) that metaphorical contents enter into “what is said” by an utterance. We do not dispute claim (a) but consider that claim (b) is problematic. Contextualist theorists seem to leave in the hands of context the explanation about why it is that some meaning changes are directly processed, and thus plausibly form part of “what (...)
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  16.  45
    Jeremy Moon & Xi Shen (2010). CSR in China Research: Salience, Focus and Nature. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):613 - 629.
    This article investigates the development of research in the field of CSR in China. The justification for this is that (i) there is evidence that CSR is emerging as a management practice and management field internationally; (ii) there is a general interest in the distinctiveness or comparability of management and management research in Asia and China; (iii) there is evidence that CSR is growing as a management issue in China; and (iv) yet, the mainsprings of this are very different from (...)
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  17.  9
    Nathan Stout (forthcoming). Salience, Imagination, and Moral Luck. Philosophical Papers.
    In this paper, I begin by addressing the way in which T.M. Scanlon's account of blame aims to solve the problem of moral luck by appealing to the significance of an agent’s actions. I then attempt to show that this solution to the problem fails in an important way insofar as there may be cases of outcome luck in which one’s being a member of a particular relationship with normative standards is itself a matter of luck. After presenting this challenge, (...)
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  18.  14
    M. CruMp, J. Vaquero & B. Milliken (2008). Context-Specific Learning and Control: The Roles of Awareness, Task Relevance, and Relative Salience. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):22-36.
    The processes mediating dynamic and flexible responding to rapidly changing task-environments are not well understood. In the present research we employ a Stroop procedure to clarify the contribution of context-sensitive control processes to online performance. In prior work Stroop interference varied as a function of probe location context, with larger Stroop interference occurring for contexts associated with a high proportion of congruent items [Crump, M. J., Gong, Z., & Milliken, B. . The context-specific proportion congruent stroop effect: location as a (...)
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  19.  62
    Vanessa Magness (2008). Who Are the Stakeholders Now? An Empirical Examination of the Mitchell, Agle, and Wood Theory of Stakeholder Salience. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (2):177 - 192.
    Two environmental accidents in the mining industry provide the context for this study of the Mitchell, Agle, and Wood (1997, The Academy of Management Review 22, 853–886) analysis of stakeholder salience. I examine the reactions of two stakeholder groups: shareholder response is examined in terms of changing share returns and risk; management response through change in disclosure. I find the two decision-makers reacted at different times. Management responded to the first accident, though not the second. Shareholders responded to the (...)
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  20.  36
    Margaret Gilbert (1989). Rationality and Salience. Philosophical Studies 57 (1):61-77.
    A number of authors, Including Thomas Schelling and David Lewis, have envisaged a model of the generation of action in coordination problems in which salience plays a crucial role. Empirical studies suggest that human subjects are likely to try for the salient combination of actions, a tendency leading to fortunate results. Does rationality dictate that one aim at the salient combination? Some have thought so, Thus proclaiming that salience is all that is needed to resolve coordination problems for (...)
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  21.  73
    Longinos Marin, Salvador Ruiz & Alicia Rubio (2009). The Role of Identity Salience in the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumer Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):65-78.
    Based on the assumption that consumers will reward firms for their support of social programs, many organizations have adopted corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. Drawing on social identity theory, a model of influence of CSR on loyalty is developed and tested using a sample of real consumers. Results demonstrate that CSR initiatives are linked to stronger loyalty both because the consumer develops a more positive company evaluation, and because one identifies more strongly with the company. Moreover, identity salience is (...)
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  22.  61
    Moira Howes (2012). Managing Salience: The Importance of Intellectual Virtue in Analyses of Biased Scientific Reasoning. Hypatia 27 (4):736-754.
    Feminist critiques of science show that systematic biases strongly influence what scientific communities find salient. Features of reality relevant to women, for instance, may be under-appreciated or disregarded because of bias. Many feminist analyses of values in science identify problems with salience and suggest better epistemologies. But overlooked in such analyses are important discussions about intellectual virtues and the role they play in determining salience. Intellectual virtues influence what we should find salient. They do this in part by (...)
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  23.  2
    David Chan & Fookkee Chua (1994). Suppression of Valid Inferences: Syntactic Views, Mental Models, and Relative Salience. Cognition 53 (3):217-238.
    Byrne has demonstrated that although subjects can make deductively valid inferences of the modus ponens and modus tollens forms, these valid inferences can be suppressed by presenting an appropriate additional premise “If R then Q” with the original conditional “If P then Q”. This suppression effect challenges the assumption of all syntactic theories of conditional reasoning that formal rules of inference such as modus ponens is part of mental logic. This paper argues that both the syntactic and the mental model (...)
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  24.  50
    Allyson Mount (2008). Intentions, Gestures, and Salience in Ordinary and Deferred Demonstrative Reference. Mind and Language 23 (2):145–164.
    In debates about the proper analysis of demonstrative expressions, ostensive gestures and speaker intentions are often seen as competing for primary importance in securing reference. Underlying some of these debates is the mistaken assumption that ostensive gestures always make the demonstrated object maximally salient to interlocutors. When we abandon this assumption and focus on an object’s mutually-recognized salience itself, rather than on how the object came to be salient, we can work towards a more promising analysis with a uniform (...)
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  25.  16
    Pavlos Kontos (2011). Kant's Categories of Freedom as Rules of Moral Salience. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 65 (2):218-240.
    In diesem Artikel versuche ich deutlich zu machen dass, und aus welchem Grund, Kant den Kategorien der Freiheit eine Doppelfunktion zugeschrieben hat. Es wird sich zeigen, dass die Kategorien der Freiheit nicht nur als die ratio cognoscendi von freien Handlungen innerhalb der Sinnenwelt fungieren, sondern auch geeignet sind, die Begriffe von Gut und Böse als echte moralische Relevanzregeln zu begründen; mit anderen Worten, sie eignen sich als Regeln dafür, wie Umstände und Ereignisse mit moralischer Wichtigkeit aufzuspüren und zu bewerten sind. (...)
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  26.  8
    Sefa Hayibor (2005). Salience of Organizational Values as a Determinant of Value Projection and the Accuracy of Assessments of the Values of Superiors. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:22-25.
    This paper employs data from a sample of the CEOs and top managers of seventy-nine U.S. companies and non-profit organizations to test hypotheses concerning the effects of the salience of organizational values on the accuracy of top managers’ perceptions of their CEOs’ values and their propensities to project their own values onto their CEOs. Results provide evidence that the salience of organizational values is positively related to both accuracy in subordinates’ perceptions of their superiors’ values and projection of (...)
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  27.  14
    David Saiia (2005). Stakeholder Salience, Shifting Networks and Sustainability. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:342-346.
    The definition of sustainability is notoriously imprecise. Stakeholder salience and a better understanding of stakeholder networks can help to add clarity to sustainability in an organizational context. Case material drawn from a South American NGO will be used to demonstrate a new representation of stakeholder management information. This paper offers a tool for graphically describing and managing stakeholder relationships for sustainable development.
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  28.  12
    Brian K. Burton & Michael Goldsby (2005). Stakeholder Salience and Ethical Views of Small Business Managers. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:306-309.
    This study investigates possible links between small-business managers’ perceptions of stakeholder salience and their views of the ethicality of business decisions. Results indicate few if any links between the two concepts exist. They provide evidence that small-business managers make decisions in line with internal viewpoints rather than external pressures.
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  29.  17
    Maxwell J. Roberts, Heather Welfare, Doreen P. Livermore & Alice M. Theadom (2000). Context, Visual Salience, and Inductive Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):349 – 374.
    An important debate in the reasoning literature concerns the extent to which inference processes are domain-free or domain-specific. Typically, evidence in support of the domain-specific position comprises the facilitation observed when abstract reasoning tasks are set in realistic context. Three experiments are reported here in which the sources of facilitation were investigated for contextualised versions of Raven's Progressive Matrices (Richardson, 1991) and non-verbal analogies from the AH4 test (Richardson & Webster, 1996). Experiment 1 confirmed that the facilitation observed for the (...)
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  30.  8
    Brian K. Burton & Michael Goldsby (2005). Stakeholder Salience and Corporate Performance. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:302-305.
    This paper reports the results of a study essentially replicating that of Agle, Mitchell, and Sonnenfeld concerning stakeholder salience, values, andorganizational performance, but surveying small business managers instead of large-firm CEOs. The results in some ways parallel the findings of Agle et al. and in some ways diverge.
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  31.  8
    Kirk G. Thompson & Narcisse P. Bichot (1999). Frontal Eye Field: A Cortical Salience Map. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):699-700.
    The concept of a salience map has become important for the development of theories of visual attention and saccade generation. Recent studies have shown that the frontal eye fields have all of the characteristics of a salience map.
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  32.  5
    Kent C. Berridge, Jun Zhang & J. Wayne Aldridge (2008). Computing Motivation: Incentive Salience Boosts of Drug or Appetite States. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):440-441.
    Current computational models predict reward based solely on learning. Real motivation involves that but also more. Brain reward systems can dynamically generate incentive salience, by integrating prior learned values with even novel physiological states (e.g., natural appetites; drug-induced mesolimbic sensitization) to cause intense desires that were themselves never learned. We hope future computational models may capture this too.
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  33.  1
    Mark K. Johansen, Justin Savage, Nathalie Fouquet & David R. Shanks (2015). Salience Not Status: How Category Labels Influence Feature Inference. Cognitive Science 39 (7):1594-1621.
    Two main uses of categories are classification and feature inference, and category labels have been widely shown to play a dominant role in feature inference. However, the nature of this influence remains unclear, and we evaluate two contrasting hypotheses formalized as mathematical models: the label special-mechanism hypothesis and the label super-salience hypothesis. The special-mechanism hypothesis is that category labels, unlike other features, trigger inference decision making in reference to the category prototypes. This results in a tendency for prototype-compatible inferences (...)
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  34. Fabian Dorsch (2016). The Phenomenology of Attitudes and the Salience of Rational Role and Determination. Philosophical Explorations 19 (2):114-137.
    The recent debate on cognitive phenomenology has largely focused on phenomenal aspects connected to the content of thoughts. By contrasts, aspects pertaining to their attitude have often been neglected, despite the fact that they are distinctive of the mental kind of thought concerned and, moreover, also present in experiences and thus less contentious than purely cognitive aspects. My main goal is to identify two central and closely related aspects of attitude that are phenomenologically salient and shared by thoughts with experiences, (...)
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  35. Donald D. Hoffman & Manish Singh (1997). Salience of Visual Parts. Cognition 63 (1):29-78.
  36. Albert Garth Thomas, Contested Concepts: The Salience of Metaphysics to Bioethical Debate.
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  37. Jillian H. Fecteau & Douglas P. Munoz (2006). Salience, Relevance, and Firing: A Priority Map for Target Selection. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8):382-390.
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  38.  5
    Klaus Rothermund, Anne Gast & Dirk Wentura (2011). Incongruency Effects in Affective Processing: Automatic Motivational Counter-Regulation or Mismatch-Induced Salience? Cognition and Emotion 25 (3):413-425.
  39.  48
    Marc Lange (2014). Aspects of Mathematical Explanation: Symmetry, Unity, and Salience. Philosophical Review 123 (4):485-531.
    Unlike explanation in science, explanation in mathematics has received relatively scant attention from philosophers. Whereas there are canonical examples of scientific explanations, there are few examples that have become widely accepted as exhibiting the distinction between mathematical proofs that explain why some mathematical theorem holds and proofs that merely prove that the theorem holds without revealing the reason why it holds. This essay offers some examples of proofs that mathematicians have considered explanatory, and it argues that these examples suggest a (...)
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  40.  2
    Alasdair D. F. Clarke, Micha Elsner & Hannah Rohde (2015). Giving Good Directions: Order of Mention Reflects Visual Salience. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  41.  1
    Tiziana Pedale & Valerio Santangelo (2015). Perceptual Salience Affects the Contents of Working Memory During Free-Recollection of Objects From Natural Scenes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  42.  1
    Sammie Tarenskeen, Mirjam Broersma & Bart Geurts (2015). Overspecification of Color, Pattern, and Size: Salience, Absoluteness, and Consistency. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  43. E. T. Higgins (1996). VKnowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience, V in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski, Eds. In E. E. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guilford
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  44.  4
    Bastien Trémolière, Wim De Neys & Jean-François Bonnefon (2012). Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking About Death Makes People Less Utilitarian. Cognition 124 (3):379-384.
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  45.  4
    Nicholas J. Kelley, David Tang & Brandon J. Schmeichel (2014). Mortality Salience Biases Attention to Positive Versus Negative Images Among Individuals Higher in Trait Self-Control. Cognition and Emotion 28 (3):550-559.
  46.  5
    James E. Mattingly (2004). Stakeholder Salience, Structural Development, and Firm Performance: Structural and Performance Correlates of Sociopolitical Stakeholder Management Strategies. Business and Society 43 (1):97-114.
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  47. Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & John Waterman (forthcoming). Salience and Epistemic Egocentrism: An Empirical Study. In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology. Continuum
    Jennifer Nagel (2010) has recently proposed a fascinating account of the decreased tendency to attribute knowledge in conversational contexts in which unrealized possibilities of error have been mentioned. Her account appeals to epistemic egocentrism, or what is sometimes called the curse of knowledge, an egocentric bias to attribute our own mental states to other people (and sometimes our own future and past selves). Our aim in this paper is to investigate the empirical merits of Nagel’s hypothesis about the psychology involved (...)
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  48.  10
    Jon Garthoff (2015). The Salience of Moral Character. Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (2):178-195.
    In this essay I review an underappreciated strand of thought according to which the best Kantian moral theory has less in common with paradigmatically deontological theories and more in common with virtue theories than is standardly maintained. I then argue this program should be continued further, to provide not only a virtue-based account of moral judgment but also a virtue-based account of moral worth. I make a case that this fusion of Kantian theory with virtue theory provides the best account (...)
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  49.  2
    Cyril Hédoin (2014). A Framework for Community-Based Salience: Common Knowledge, Common Understanding and Community Membership. Economics and Philosophy 30 (3):365-395.
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  50.  23
    Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner (2015). Empirical Support for the Moral Salience of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in the Debate Over Cognitive, Affective and Social Enhancement. Neuroethics 8 (3):243-256.
    The ambiguity regarding whether a given intervention is perceived as enhancement or as therapy might contribute to the angst that the public expresses with respect to endorsement of enhancement. We set out to develop empirical data that explored this. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk to recruit participants from Canada and the United States. Each individual was randomly assigned to read one vignette describing the use of a pill to enhance one of 12 cognitive, affective or social domains. The vignettes described (...)
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