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  1. Sam S. Rakover (2012). Psychology as an Associational Science: A Methodological Viewpoint. Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):143-152.
    Unlike the sciences (physics), psychology has not developed in any of its areas (such as perception, learning, cognition) a top-theory like Newtonian theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum theory in physics. This difference is explained by a methodological discrepancy between the sciences and psychology, which centers on the measurement procedure: in psychology, measurement units similar to those in physics have not been discovered. Based on the arguments supporting this claim, a methodological distinction is made between the sciences and psychology (...)
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  2. Sam S. Rakover (2011). A Plea for Methodological Dualism and Multi-Explanation Framework in Psychology. Behavior and Philosophy 39:17-43.
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  3. G. Hon & Sam S. Rakover (eds.) (2003). Explanation: Theoretical Approaches and Applications. Springer.
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  4. Sam S. Rakover (2003). Experimental Psychology and Duhem's Problem. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (1):45–66.
    The paper proposes a practical answer to Duhem's problem within the framework of experimental psychology. First, this problem is briefly discussed; second, two studies in psychology are presented illustrating how theories are tested. Thirdly, based on the foregoing, an approach called the “Empirical Reasoning” is developed and justified. It is shown that the ER approach can successfully cope with Duhem's problem. Finally, the ER approach and the Error Statistics approach of Mayo are critically compared with regard to Duhem's problem.
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  5. Sam S. Rakover (2002). Reconstruction of Past Events From Memory: An Alternative to the Hypothetico-Deductive (H-D) Method. Behavior and Philosophy 30:101 - 122.
    According to the demand of the Hypothetico-Deductive (H-D) method, a theory is confirmed when the prediction-observation (p-o) gap is small and disconfirmed when the gap is large. A major goal of this paper is to introduce a research domain for which this demand does not hold. In contrast to the H-D method's demand, this research, called the Catch model for reconstructing a face previously seen from memory, requires an increase, within limits, in the p-o gap. The Catch model research substantiates (...)
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  6. Sam S. Rakover (2002). Scientific Rules of the Game and the Mind/Body: A Critique Based on the Theory of Measurement. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (11):52-57.
  7. Sam S. Rakover (1997). Can Psychology Provide a Coherent Account of Human Behavior? A Proposed Multiexplanation-Model Theory. Behavior and Philosophy 25 (1):43 - 76.
    Human behavior cannot be understood by using only models of explanation utilized in the natural sciences. Multiple models of explanation, which are not consistent with, or reducible to each other, are required and are in fact used in psychology to explain human actions. This situation, called "Multiexplanation," could cause a problem of developing a justified correspondence between psychological phenomena and multiple models of explanation. Unless this problem is solved, the explanatory capability of a psychological theory seems inconsistent and ad hoc. (...)
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  8. Sam S. Rakover (1996). The Place of Consciousness in the Information Processing Approach: The Mental-Pool Thought Experiment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):537-538.
    Velmans (1991a; 1991b) proposed that consciousness plays a minor explanatory role in the information processing approach and that unconscious mechanisms process stimuli and responses and intervene between them. In contrast, the present commentary describes a thought experiment suggesting that, although input information is initially processed unconsciously, subsequent processing involves consciousness, and consciousness plays an important role in the explanation of behavior.
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  9. Sam S. Rakover (1994). Consciousness Explained?: A Commentary on Dennett's Consciousness Explained. International Studies in Philosophy 26 (2):97-99.
     
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  10. Sam S. Rakover (1993). Theories of Mind: Some Methodological/Conceptual Problems and an Alternative Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):73.
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  11. Sam S. Rakover (1992). Outflanking the Mind-Body Problem: Scientific Progress in the History of Psychology. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 22 (2):145–173.
  12. Sam S. Rakover (1991). Tallying the “Tally Argument”: What Next? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):727-729.
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  13. Sam S. Rakover & Kalman J. Kaplan (1990). Metapsychology Missing Links in Behavior, Mind & Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  14. Sam S. Rakover (1989). Incommensurability: The Scaling of Mind-Body Theories as a Counter Example. Behaviorism 17 (2):103-118.
    An opponent thesis to that of incommensurability—the commensurability approach—is proposed. The new thesis is based on the delineation of an empirical comparative metatheory for comparing theories of different paradigms. The method of multidimensional scaling together with the proximity-predictability hypothesis instantiate and substantiate this metatheory. The scaling of mind body theories, and the confirmation of certain predictions derived from MDS and the PP hypothesis concerning the relations that exist among these theories, are brought as actual examples supporting the present paper's approach.
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  15. Sam S. Rakover (1986). Latent Avoidance Learning: Positive Transfer From Barpress to Shuttle Avoidance and Vice Versa. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (4):286-289.
  16. Sam S. Rakover (1984). Avoidance Theory: The Nature of Innate Responses and Their Interaction with Acquired Responses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):752.
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  17. Sam S. Rakover (1983). Hypothesizing From Introspections: A Model for the Role of Mental Entities in Psychological Explanation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 13 (2):211–230.
  18. Sam S. Rakover (1983). In Defense of Memory Viewed as Stored Mental Representation. Behaviorism 11 (April):53-62.
    The present paper develops a defense for the representational approach to memory which wilcox and Katz believe leads to logical paradoxes. It is suggested that three of the central arguments of Wilcox and Katz make sense when one ascribes to the representational theory a "human-like" model, rather is based. the fourth major argument of Wilcox and Katz, which in the present article had been labelled the "eliminative' argument, has been shown to confuse ontological assuptions with logical considerations.
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  19. Sam S. Rakover & A. Yaniv (1980). Individual Trauma and National Response to External Threat: The Case of Israel. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (3):217-220.
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  20. Sam S. Rakover (1979). One or Two Different Sets of Laws of Learning—Is This an Empirical Question? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 13 (1):41-43.
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  21. Sam S. Rakover & Malka Maon (1973). Serial Learning and Filled and Unfilled Delay Intervals: Effects of Informative Feedback Contingencies. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (2):87-88.