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  1. Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis, Cooperation, Reciprocity and Punishment in Fifteen Small- Scale Societies.
    Recent investigations have uncovered large, consistent deviations from the predictions of the textbook representation of Homo economicus (Roth et al, 1992, Fehr and Gächter, 2000, Camerer 2001). One problem appears to lie in economists’ canonical assumption that individuals are entirely self-interested: in addition to their own material payoffs, many experimental subjects appear to care about fairness and reciprocity, are willing to change the distribution of material outcomes at personal cost, and reward those who act in a cooperative manner while punishing (...)
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  2. Samuel Bowles, Robert Boyd, Sarah Mathew & Peter J. Richerson (2012). The Punishment That Sustains Cooperation is Often Coordinated and Costly. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):20 - 21.
    Experiments are not models of cooperation; instead, they demonstrate the presence of the ethical and other-regarding predispositions that often motivate cooperation and the punishment of free-riders. Experimental behavior predicts subjects' cooperation in the field. Ethnographic studies in small-scale societies without formal coercive institutions demonstrate that disciplining defectors is both essential to cooperation and often costly to the punisher.
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  3. Samuel Bowles (2011). Is Liberal Society a Parasite on Tradition? Philosophy and Public Affairs 39 (1):46-81.
  4. Herb Gintis, Samuel Bowles, Robert Boyd & Fehr & Ernst (2009). Explaining Altruistic Behaviour in Humans. In Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oup Oxford.
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  5. Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis & Melissa Osborne Groves (eds.) (2008). Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success. Princeton University Press.
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  6. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis (2006). Social Preferences, Homo Economicus, and Zoon Politikon. In Robert E. Goodin & Charles Tilly (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford University Press. 172--86.
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  7. Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Natalie Smith Henrich, Kim Hill, Francisco Gil-White, Michael Gurven, Frank W. Marlowe & John Q. Patton (2005). “Economic Man” in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):795-815.
    Researchers from across the social sciences have found consistent deviations from the predictions of the canonical model of self-interest in hundreds of experiments from around the world. This research, however, cannot determine whether the uniformity results from universal patterns of human behavior or from the limited cultural variation available among the university students used in virtually all prior experimental work. To address this, we undertook a cross-cultural study of behavior in ultimatum, public goods, and dictator games in a range of (...)
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  8. Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Natalie Smith Henrich, Kim Hill, Francisco Gil-White, Michael Gurven, Frank W. Marlowe, John Q. Patton & David Tracer (2005). Models of Decision-Making and the Coevolution of Social Preferences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):838-855.
    We would like to thank the commentators for their generous comments, valuable insights and helpful suggestions. We begin this response by discussing the selfishness axiom and the importance of the preferences, beliefs, and constraints framework as a way of modeling some of the proximate influences on human behavior. Next, we broaden the discussion to ultimate-level (that is evolutionary) explanations, where we review and clarify gene-culture coevolutionary theory, and then tackle the possibility that evolutionary approaches that exclude culture might be sufficient (...)
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  9. Samuel Bowles (2000). Economic Institutions as Ecological Niches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):148-149.
    Economic institutions governing such activities as food sharing among non-kin, the accumulation and inheritance of wealth, and the division of labor and its rewards are human-constructed environments capable of imparting distinctive direction and pace to the process of biological evolution and cultural change. Where differing structures of these institutions take the form of distinct conventions sustained by (near) mutual adherence, small initial differences may support divergent evolutionary trajectories even in the absence of conformist behaviors.
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  10. Samuel Bowles & Thomas Weisskopf (1996). David M. Gordon (1944-1996)-Obituary. Social Research 63 (1):R3 - R5.
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  11. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis (1993). A Political and Economic Case for the Democratic Enterprise. Economics and Philosophy 9 (01):75-.
  12. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis (1992). Power and Wealth in a Competitive Capitalist Economy. Philosophy and Public Affairs 21 (4):324-353.
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  13. Thomas E. Weisskopf, Samuel Bowles & David M. Gordon (1985). Two Views of Capitalist Stagnation: Underconsumption and Challenges to Capitalist Control. Science and Society 49 (3):259 - 286.
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