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  1. Sarah R. Beck, Daniel P. Weisberg, Patrick Burns & Kevin J. Riggs (2013). Conditional Reasoning and Emotional Experience: A Review of the Development of Counterfactual Thinking. [REVIEW] Studia Logica:1-17.
    What do human beings use conditional reasoning for? A psychological consequence of counterfactual conditional reasoning is emotional experience, in particular, regret and relief. Adults’ thoughts about what might have been influence their evaluations of reality. We discuss recent psychological experiments that chart the relationship between children’s ability to engage in conditional reasoning and their experience of counterfactual emotions. Relative to conditional reasoning, counterfactual emotions are late developing. This suggests that children need not only competence in conditional reasoning, but also to (...)
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  2. Sarah R. Beck, Jackie Chappell, Ian A. Apperly & Nicola Cutting (2012). Tool Innovation May Be a Critical Limiting Step for the Establishment of a Rich Tool-Using Culture: A Perspective From Child Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):220-221.
    Recent data show that human children (up to 8 years old) perform poorly when required to innovate tools. Our tool-rich culture may be more reliant on social learning and more limited by domain-general constraints such as ill-structured problem solving than otherwise thought.
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  3. Daniel P. Weisberg & Sarah R. Beck (2012). The Development of Children's Regret and Relief. Cognition and Emotion 26 (5):820-835.
  4. Sarah R. Beck, Ian A. Apperly, Jackie Chappell, Carlie Guthrie & Nicola Cutting (2011). Making Tools Isn't Child's Play. Cognition 119 (2):301-306.
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  5. Sarah R. Beck, KevinJ Riggs & Patrick Burns (2011). Counterfactual Thinking. In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Sarah R. Beck (eds.), Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation. Oxford University Press. 110.
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  6. Sarah L. Gorniak, Kevin J. Riggs & Sarah R. Beck (2011). Relating Developments in Children's Counterfactual Thinking and Executive Functions. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):337-354.
    The performance of 93 children aged 3 and 4 years on a battery of different counterfactual tasks was assessed. Three measures: short causal chains, location change counterfactual conditionals, and false syllogisms—but not a fourth, long causal chains—were correlated, even after controlling for age and receptive vocabulary. Children's performance on our counterfactual thinking measure was predicted by receptive vocabulary ability and inhibitory control. The role that domain general executive functions may play in 3- to 4-year olds' counterfactual thinking development is discussed.
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  7. Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Sarah R. Beck (eds.) (2011). Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation. Oxford University Press.
    How are causal judgements such as 'The ice on the road caused the traffic accident' connected with counterfactual judgements such as 'If there had not been any ice on the road, the traffic accident would not have happened'? This volume throws new light on this question by uniting, for the first time, psychological and philosophical approaches to causation and counterfactuals. Traditionally, philosophers have primarily been interested in connections between causal and counterfactual claims on the level of meaning or truth-conditions. More (...)
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  8. Kevin J. Riggs & Sarah R. Beck (2007). Thinking Developmentally About Counterfactual Possibilities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):463-463.
    Byrne implies that working memory development underpins children's ability to represent counterfactuals as possibilities at 3 to 4 years of age. Recent findings suggest that (1) developments in the ability to consider alternatives to reality in children of this age are underpinned by improvements in inhibitory control, not working memory, and (2) children do not develop an understanding of counterfactuals as possibilities until mid-childhood.
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