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Profile: Kenneth Schaffner (University of Pittsburgh)
Profile: Kenneth Schaffner (University of Pittsburgh)
Profile: Bradley Schaffner (Dickinson College)
Profile: Tobias Schaffner (Cambridge University)
  1. Anna Katharina Schaffner (forthcoming). Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity. Journal of Medical Humanities.
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  2. K. F. Schaffner (forthcoming). Case-Based Reasoning in Law and Ethics. Presentation at the ‘Foundations of Bioethics’ Conference. Hastings Center.
     
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  3. Kenneth F. Schaffner (forthcoming). Ethical Considerations in Human Investigation Involving Paradigm Shifts: Organ Transplantation in the 1990s. Irb.
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  4. Kenneth F. Schaffner (forthcoming). Neuroethics: Reductionism, Emergence, and Decision-Making Capacities. Neuroethics: Mapping the Field.
     
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  5. Joan Schaffner (2015). Review International Issues in Animal Law: The Impact of International Environmental and Economic Law Upon Animal Interests and Advocacy Fitzgerald Peter L. Carolina Academic Press Durham, NC. Journal of Animal Ethics 5 (1):94-97.
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  6. Filippo Aureli & Colleen M. Schaffner (2013). Why so Complex? Emotional Mediation of Revenge, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):15-16.
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  7. Malte Friese, Claude Messner & Yves Schaffner (2012). Mindfulness Meditation Counteracts Self-Control Depletion. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1016-1022.
    Mindfulness meditation describes a set of different mental techniques to train attention and awareness. Trait mindfulness and extended mindfulness interventions can benefit self-control. The present study investigated the short-term consequences of mindfulness meditation under conditions of limited self-control resources. Specifically, we hypothesized that a brief period of mindfulness meditation would counteract the deleterious effect that the exertion of self-control has on subsequent self-control performance. Participants who had been depleted of self-control resources by an emotion suppression task showed decrements in self-control (...)
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  8. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). A Philosophical Overview of the Problems of Validity for Psychiatric Disorders. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oup Oxford. 169.
  9. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Coherentist Approaches to Scientific Progress in Psychiatry: Comments on Kendler. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oup Oxford. 323.
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  10. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Ernest Nagel and Reduction. Journal of Philosophy 109 (8-9):534-565.
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  11. Drozdstoj St Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Rendering Clinical Psychology an Evidence‐Based Scientific Discipline: A Case Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):149-154.
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  12. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Rayito Rivera‐Hernández (2012). The Challenge of Psychiatric Nosology and Diagnosis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):704-709.
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  13. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Rayito Rivera‐Hernández (2012). The Meta‐Language of Psychiatry as Cross‐Disciplinary Effort: In Response to Zachar (2012). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):710-720.
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  14. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Further Thoughts on the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):73-75.
    We are gratified at the largely positive comments on our essay on the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS) by these two distinguished commentators from the fields of biological psychiatry (Dr. Tamminga) and the philosophy of psychiatry (Dr. Murphy). There is little that they have said with which we disagree. Rather, we want to expand briefly on their commentaries.We found Dr. Tamminga's reactions to be particularly fascinating because she has been an "insider" to the story of the DHS as it has (...)
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  15. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Historical and Philosophical Analysis. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):41-63.
    This essay selectively reviews, from an historical and philosophical perspective, the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS; Table 1 lists the abbreviations used in this essay). Our goal is not to adjudicate the validity of the theory—although we arrive at a generally skeptical conclusion—but to focus on the process whereby the DHS has evolved over time and been evaluated. Since its inception, the DHS has been the most prominent etiologic theory in psychiatry and is still referred to widely in current (...)
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  16. Paul Prior & Spencer Schaffner (2011). Bird Identification as a Family of Activities: Motives, Mediating Artifacts, and Laminated Assemblages. Ethos 39 (1):51-70.
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  17. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Reduction in Biology and Medicine. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. 16--137.
  18. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2010). Interpretive Practices in Medicine. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Interpretation: Ways of Thinking About the Sciences and the Arts. University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  19. Spencer Schaffner (2010). Desktop MCing. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 14 (2):n2.
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  20. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter Machamer & Kenneth Schaffner, In Quest for Scientific Psychiatry: Towards Bridging the Explanatory Gap.
    The contemporary epistemic status of mental health disciplines does not allow the cross validation of mental disorders among various genetic markers, biochemical pathway or mechanisms, and clinical assessments in neuroscience explanations. We attempt to provide a meta-empirical analysis of the contemporary status of the cross-disciplinary issues existing between neuro-biology and psychopathology. Our case studies take as an established medical mode an example cross validation between biological sciences and clinical cardiology in the case of myocardial infarction. This is then contrasted with (...)
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  21. Joan Schaffner (2008). Review of Francione's Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. [REVIEW] Between the Species 13 (8):9.
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  22. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Etiological Models in Psychiatry : Reductive and Nonreductive Approaches. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  23. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1008-1021.
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which require various simplifications, involve the types of heuristics (...)
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  24. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2007). Theories, Models, and Equations in Systems Biology. In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier. 145--162.
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  25. David Hopkins & Anna Katharina Schaffner (eds.) (2006). Neo-Avant-Garde. Rodopi.
    'ART' AND 'LIFE'... AND DEATH: MARCEL DUCHAMP, ROBERT MORRIS AND NEO-AVANT- GARDE IRONY DAVID HOPKINS Peter Bürger charges avant-garde art of the and 60s ...
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  26. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2006). Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots. Synthese 151 (3):377 - 402.
    In this paper, I propose two theses, and then examine what the consequences of those theses are for discussions of reduction and emergence. The first thesis is that what have traditionally been seen as robust, reductions of one theory or one branch of science by another more fundamental one are a largely a myth. Although there are such reductions in the physical sciences, they are quite rare, and depend on special requirements. In the biological sciences, these prima facie sweeping reductions (...)
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  27. Kenneth Schaffner (2004). Commentary on Stotz and Griffiths, Burian, and Waters: Genes, Concepts, DST Implications, and the Possibility of Prototypes. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):81 - 90.
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  28. Kenneth F. Schaffner, Ullica Segerstrale, Paul E. Griffiths & Steven Pinker (2004). Liberals Ate My Genes? Metascience 13 (1):28-51.
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  29. Filippo Aureli & Colleen M. Schaffner (2001). Empathy as a Special Case of Emotional Mediation of Social Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):23-24.
    Empathy can be viewed as an intervening variable to explain complex webs of causation between multiple factors and the resulting responses. The mediating role of emotion, implicit in the concept of an intervening variable, can be at the basis of the flexibility of empathic responses. Knowledge of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is needed for empathy to be considered as a biologically functional intervening variable.
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  30. P. Lichtlen & W. Schaffner (2001). Putting its Fingers on Stressful Situations: The Heavy Metal‐Regulatory Transcription Factor MTF‐1. Bioessays 23 (11):1010-1017.
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  31. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2001). Biopsychosocial Foundations. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):26 – 27.
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  32. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2001). Extrapolation From Animal Models. In MachamerPeter (ed.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. 200.
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  33. Urs Schaffner (2001). Host Range Testing of Insects for Biological Weed Control: How Can It Be Better Interpreted? BioScience 51 (11):951.
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  34. Urs Schaffner (2001). Host Range Testing of Insects for Biological Weed Control: How Can It Be Better Interpreted? Data on the Host Range of Biocontrol Candidates Are Particularly Relevant in Assessing Potential Detrimental Effects to Nontarget Organisms. BioScience 51 (11):951-959.
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  35. Manfred D. Laubichier & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Philosophy of Biology, Psychology, and Neuroscience-The Organism in Philosophical Focus-Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. Elegans. Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
     
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  36. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Biology and Epistemology: Emerging Themes. In Richard Creath & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and Epistemology. Cambridge University Press. 287.
  37. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. Elegans. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):288.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a tiny worm that has become the focus of a large number of worldwide research projects examining its genetics, development, neuroscience, and behavior. Recently several groups of investigators have begun to tie together the behavior of the organism and the underlying genes, neural circuits, and molecular processes implemented in those circuits. Behavior is quintessentially organismal--it is the organism as a whole that moves and mates--but the explanations are devised at the molecular and neurocircuit levels, and (...)
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  38. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Medical Informatics and the Concept of Disease. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (1):85-100.
    This paper attempts to address the general questionwhether information technologies, as applied in thearea of medicine and health care, have or are likelyto change fundamental concepts regarding disease andhealth. After a short excursion into the domain ofmedical informatics I provide a brief overview of someof the current theories of what a disease is from amore philosophical perspective, i.e. the ``valuefree'' and ``value laden'' view of disease. Next, Iconsider at some length, whether health careinformatics is currently modifying fundamentalconcepts of disease. To (...)
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  39. Janet L. Schaffner & Robert M. Nelson (1999). What Are Healthcare Ethics Committees in Wisconsin Doing? HEC Forum 11 (3):247-253.
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  40. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1999). Coming Home to Hume: A Sociobiological Foundation for a Concept of 'Health' and Morality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4):365 – 375.
    Assessing the normative status of concepts of health and disease involves one in questions regarding the relationship between fact and value. Some have argued that Christopher Boorse's conception of health and disease lacks such a valuational element because it cannot account for types of harms which, while disvalued, do not have evolutionarily dysfunctional consequences. I take Boorse's account and incorporate some Humean-like sociobiological assumptions in order to respond to this challenge. The possession of moral sentiments, I argue, offers an evolutionary (...)
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  41. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible? Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results of developmental and (...)
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  42. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):276-288.
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the issues raised by Developmental Systems (...)
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  43. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Paradigm Changes in Organ Transplantation: A Journey Toward Selflessness? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (5):425-440.
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  44. Kenneth F. Schaffner & H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (1998). Medicine, Philosophy Of. In Craig Edward (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. 264-269.
     
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  45. A. Mathew Thomas, Gene Cohen, Robert M. Cook-Deegan, Joan O'sullivan, Stephen G. Post, Allen D. Roses, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Ronald M. Green (1998). Alzheimer Testing at Silver Years. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):294-307.
    Early last year, the GenEthics Consortium (GEC) of the Washington Metropolitan Area convened at George Washington University to consider a complex case about genetic testing for Alzheimer disease (AD). The GEC consists of scientists, bioethicists, lawyers, genetic counselors, and consumers from a variety of institutions and affiliations. Four of the 8 co-authors of this paper delivered presentations on the case. Supplemented by additional ethical and legal observations, these presentations form the basis for the following discussion.
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  46. Wolfgang Schäffner (1996). Operationale Topographie: Repräsentationsräume in den Niederlanden Um 1600. In Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt, Michael Hagner & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.), Räume des Wissens: Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur. De Gruyter. 63-90.
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  47. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1995). Response to Michael Ruse. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (3):317-319.
  48. Paul Schaffner (1995). The Errant Morsel in Solomon and Saturn II: Liturgy, Lore, and Lexicon. Mediaeval Studies 57 (1):223-257.
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  49. E. H. Morreim & K. F. Schaffner (1994). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (4):301-303.
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  50. Eh Morreim & Kf Schaffner (1994). The Oregon Plan-Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (4):301-303.
     
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