Search results for 'Schema' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Corcoran (2006). Schemata: The Concept of Schema in the History of Logic. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (2):219-240.
    The syllogistic figures and moods can be taken to be argument schemata as can the rules of the Stoic propositional logic. Sentence schemata have been used in axiomatizations of logic only since the landmark 1927 von Neumann paper [31]. Modern philosophers know the role of schemata in explications of the semantic conception of truth through Tarski’s 1933 Convention T [42]. Mathematical logicians recognize the role of schemata in first-order number theory where Peano’s second-order Induction Axiom is approximated by Herbrand’s Induction-Axiom (...)
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  2.  7
    Robert S. Lubarsky, Fred Richman & Peter Schuster (2012). The Kripke Schema in Metric Topology. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (6):498-501.
    A form of Kripke's schema turns out to be equivalent to each of the following two statements from metric topology: every open subspace of a separable metric space is separable; every open subset of a separable metric space is a countable union of open balls. Thus Kripke's schema serves as a point of reference for classifying theorems of classical mathematics within Bishop-style constructive reverse mathematics.
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  3.  38
    Helena Preester (2013). Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):171-184.
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a (...)
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  4.  36
    John Corcoran, Schema. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    -/- A schema (plural: schemata, or schemas), also known as a scheme (plural: schemes), is a linguistic template or pattern together with a rule for using it to specify a potentially infinite multitude of phrases, sentences, or arguments, which are called instances of the schema. Schemas are used in logic to specify rules of inference, in mathematics to describe theories with infinitely many axioms, and in semantics to give adequacy conditions for definitions of truth. -/- 1. What is (...)
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  5.  5
    DominiqueGuy Brassart (1996). Does a Prototypical Argumentative Schema Exist? Text Recall in 8 to 13 Years Olds. Argumentation 10 (2):163-174.
    120 students in grades 3 to 7 (aged 8 to 13) heard an argumentative text and were immediately submitted to a free recall task. The results show that before grade 7, the subjects did not view the text as argumentative. The discussion centers on the relevancy of a prototypical argumentative schema in accounting for these findings.
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  6.  26
    Deborah C. Smith (2007). Superassertibility and the Equivalence Schema: A Dilemma for Wright's Antirealist. Synthese 157 (1):129 - 139.
    Crispin Wright champions the notion of superassertibility as providing a truth predicate that is congenial to antirealists in many debates in that it satisfies relevant platitudes concerning truth and does so in a very minimal way. He motivates such a claim by arguing that superassertibility can satisfy the equivalence schema: it is superassertible that P if and only if P. I argue that Wright’s attempted proof that superassertibility can satisfy this schema is unsuccessful, because it requires a premise (...)
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  7. Daniel D. Hutto (2001). Consciousness and Conceptual Schema. In Paavo Pylkkanen & Tere Vaden (eds.), Dimensions of Conscious Experience. John Benjamins 15-43.
    There are two importantly different ways in which consciousness resists incorporation into our familiar object-based conceptual schema which, when analysed, help to explain why it is regarded as such a philosophically recalcitrant phenomena. One concerns the nonconceptual nature of basic forms of conscious experience, the other concerns the fact that attempts to understand the nature of such experience in an object-based schema, as is demanded by some forms of physicalism, is inappropriate. My concern in this paper is to (...)
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  8.  69
    David Morris (1999). The Fold and the Body Schema in Merleau-Ponty and Dynamic Systems Theory. Chiasmi International 1:275-286.
  9.  20
    David Morris (2000). The Logic of the Body in Bergson's Motor Schemes and Merleau-Ponty's Body Schema. Philosophy Today 44 (Supplement):60-69.
  10. Douwe Tiemersma (1989). Body Schema and Body Image: An Interdisciplinary and Philosophical Study. Amsterdam ;Swets & Zeitlinger.
     
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  11. Deborah K. Heikes (2003). Schema, Language, and Two Problems Content. Journal of Mind and Behavior 24 (2):155-168.
    Human cognition is often taken to be a rule-governed system of representations that serve to guide our beliefs about our actions in the world around us. This view, though, has two problems: it must explain how the conceptually governed contents of the mind can be about objects that exist in a non-conceptual world, and it must explain how the non-conceptual world serves as a constraint on belief. I argue that the solution to these problems is to recognize that cognition has (...)
     
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  12. Lindley Darden (2002). Strategies for Discovering Mechanisms: Schema Instantiation, Modular Subassembly, Forward/Backward Chaining. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S354-S365.
    Discovery proceeds in stages of construction, evaluation, and revision. Each of these stages is constrained by what is known or conjectured about what is being discovered. A new characterization of mechanism aids in specifying what is to be discovered when a mechanism is sought. Guidance in discovering mechanisms may be provided by the reasoning strategies of schema instantiation, modular subassembly, and forward/backward chaining. Examples are found in mechanisms in molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and evolutionary biology.
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  13. Shaun Gallagher & Jonathan Cole (1995). Body Image and Body Schema in a Deafferented Subject. Journal of Mind and Behavior 16 (4):369-390.
    In a majority of situations the normal adult maintains posture or moves without consciously monitoring motor activity. Posture and movement are usually close to automatic; they tend to take care of themselves, outside of attentive regard. One's body, in such cases, effaces itself as one is geared into a particular intentional goal. This effacement is possible because of the normal functioning of a body schema. Body schema can be defined as a system of preconscious, subpersonal processes that play (...)
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  14.  82
    R. T. Cook (2012). The T-Schema is Not a Logical Truth. Analysis 72 (2):231-239.
    It is shown that the logical truth of instances of the T-schema is incompatible with the formal nature of logical truth. In particular, since the formality of logical truth entails that the set of logical truths is closed under substitution, the logical truth of T-schema instances entails that all sentences are logical truths.
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  15. Raanan Lipshitz, Daphna Leshem Levy & Keren Orchen (2006). Is This Problem Likely to Be Solved? A Cognitive Schema of Effective Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (4):413 – 430.
    The present study tested the existence of a cognitive schema that guides people's evaluations of the likelihood that observed problem-solving processes will succeed. The hypothesised schema consisted of attributes that were found to distinguish between retrospective case reports of successful and unsuccessful real world problem solving (Lipshitz & Bar Ilan, 1996). Participants were asked to evaluate the likelihood of success of identical cases of problem solving that differed in the presence or absence of diagnosis, the selection of appropriate (...)
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  16.  63
    Edward N. Zalta (2013). The Tarski T-Schema is a Tautology (Literally). Analysis (1):ant099.
    The Tarski T-Schema has a propositional version. If we use ϕ as a metavariable for formulas and use terms of the form that-ϕ to denote propositions, then the propositional version of the T-Schema is: that-ϕ is true if and only if ϕ. For example, that Cameron is Prime Minister is true if and only if Cameron is Prime Minister. If that-ϕ is represented formally as [λ ϕ], then the T-Schema can be represented as the 0-place case of (...)
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  17.  87
    Glenn Carruthers (2009). Is the Body Schema Sufficient for the Sense of Embodiment? An Alternative to de Vignmont's Model. Philosophical Psychology 22 (2):123-142.
    De Vignemont argues that the sense of ownership comes from the localization of bodily sensation on a map of the body that is part of the body schema. This model should be taken as a model of the sense of embodiment. I argue that the body schema lacks the theoretical resources needed to explain this phenomenology. Furthermore, there is some reason to think that a deficient sense of embodiment is not associated with a deficient body schema. The (...)
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  18. Christopher Gauker (2001). T-Schema Deflationism Versus Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem. Analysis 61 (270):129–136.
    I define T-schema deflationism as the thesis that a theory of truth for our language can simply take the form of certain instances of Tarski's schema (T). I show that any effective enumeration of these instances will yield as a dividend an effective enumeration of all truths of our language. But that contradicts Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem. So the instances of (T) constituting the T-Schema deflationist's theory of truth are not effectively enumerable, which casts doubt on the (...)
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  19.  57
    Hartry Field (2002). Saving the Truth Schema From Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (1):1-27.
    The paper shows how we can add a truth predicate to arithmetic (or formalized syntactic theory), and keep the usual truth schema Tr( ) ↔ A (understood as the conjunction of Tr( ) → A and A → Tr( )). We also keep the full intersubstitutivity of Tr(>A>)) with A in all contexts, even inside of an →. Keeping these things requires a weakening of classical logic; I suggest a logic based on the strong Kleene truth tables, but with (...)
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  20.  70
    Emil Badici (2008). The Liar Paradox and the Inclosure Schema. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (4):583 – 596.
    In Beyond the Limits of Thought [2002], Graham Priest argues that logical and semantic paradoxes have the same underlying structure (which he calls the Inclosure Schema ). He also argues that, in conjunction with the Principle of Uniform Solution (same kind of paradox, same kind of solution), this is sufficient to 'sink virtually all orthodox solutions to the paradoxes', because the orthodox solutions to the paradoxes are not uniform. I argue that Priest fails to provide a non-question-begging method to (...)
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  21.  11
    Lilian Bermejo-Luque (2012). A Unitary Schema for Arguments by Analogy. Informal Logic 32 (1):1-24.
    Following a Toulmian account of argument analysis and evaluation, I offer a general unitary schema for, so called, deductive and inductive types of analogical arguments. This schema is able to explain why certain analogical arguments can be said to be deductive, and yet, also defeasible.
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  22.  24
    Janusz Czelakowski & Wiesław Dziobiak (1991). A Deduction Theorem Schema for Deductive Systems of Propositional Logics. Studia Logica 50 (3-4):385 - 390.
    We propose a new schema for the deduction theorem and prove that the deductive system S of a prepositional logic L fulfills the proposed schema if and only if there exists a finite set A(p, q) of propositional formulae involving only prepositional letters p and q such that A(p, p) L and p, A(p, q) s q.
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  23.  26
    Nicholas Paul Holmes & Charles Spence (2007). Dissociating Body Image and Body Schema with Rubber Hands. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):211-212.
    Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) argue that body image and body schema form parts of different and dissociable somatosensory streams. We agree in general, but believe that more emphasis should be placed on interactions between these two streams. We illustrate this point with evidence from the rubber-hand illusion (RHI) – an illusion of body image, which depends critically upon body schema.
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  24.  13
    Hans Lenk (2000). Outline of Systematic Schema Interpretation. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:121-132.
    Any sort of cognition, perception, and action is necessarily shaped by (re)activation of “schemata.” Any interpretation is schema (re)activation. Schemata are epistemologically speaking “structural” activation patterns which are psychologically and neurologically speaking accommodated, adapted, “learned” by co- and re-activating neuronal assemblies. Six levels of interpretative schema activations (schema interpretations) are outlined from invariable primary “interpretations” through conventional, classificatory, and justificatory, as well as meta-interpretations. Constitutive schema interpretations are unavoidable. Many philosophical problems will have to be reformulated (...)
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  25.  44
    Kostas Gavroglu (1985). Popper's Tetradic Schema, Progressive Research Programs, and the Case of Parity Violation in Elementary Particle Physics 1953–1958. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 16 (2):261-286.
    Die Frage der Erhaltung der Parität bei der Wechselwirkung von Elementarteilchen, der Vorschlag ihrer Verletzung, die experimentelle Bestätigung dieses Vorschlags und die daraus sich ergebenden Folgerungen, die zur Formulierung der mathematischen Struktur der schwachen Wechselwirkungen führten, sind die wichtigsten Entwicklungen in der Elementarteilchenphysik während der Periode von 1953 bis 1958. Vorliegender Aufsatz versucht die rationale Rekonstruktion dieser Periode und des Forschungsprogrammes, welches als eines der progressivsten Programme der modernen Physik angesehen wird. Hierzu benutzen wir eine modifizierte Fassung von Poppers tetradischem (...)
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  26.  20
    Neil Tennant (2014). The Logical Structure of Evolutionary Explanation and Prediction: Darwinism's Fundamental Schema. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):611-655.
    We present a logically detailed case-study of Darwinian evolutionary explanation. Special features of Darwin’s explanatory schema made it an unusual theoretical breakthrough, from the point of view of the philosophy of science. The schema employs no theoretical terms, and puts forward no theoretical hypotheses. Instead, it uses three observational generalizations—Variability, Heritability and Differential Reproduction—along with an innocuous assumption of Causal Efficacy, to derive Adaptive Evolution as a necessary consequence. Adaptive Evolution in turn, with one assumption of scale (‘Deep (...)
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  27.  8
    Peter Schroeder-Heister (2011). Implications-as-Rules Vs. Implications-as-Links: An Alternative Implication-Left Schema for the Sequent Calculus. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (1):95 - 101.
    The interpretation of implications as rules motivates a different left-introduction schema for implication in the sequent calculus, which is conceptually more basic than the implication-left schema proposed by Gentzen. Corresponding to results obtained for systems with higher-level rules, it enjoys the subformula property and cut elimination in a weak form.
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  28.  27
    Andrew Alexander Davis (2012). Schema and Bild. Idealistic Studies 42 (1):57-68.
    Immanuel Kant’s “Schema” and J. G. Fichte’s “Bild” are parallel figures of activity that serve as bridges. For both Kant and Fichte, it is not the image/schema taken as product that is primary, but the act of imaging. I show how Fichte leans on the Kantian argumentation of the schematism in order to attempt bridging the gulf critical philosophy leaves between theoretical and practical philosophy. My broader purpose is to indicate how two German Idealists emphasize activity as a (...)
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  29.  28
    Jui-Pi Chien (2004). Schema as Both the Key to and the Puzzle of Life. Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):187-207.
    Jakob von Uexküll’s problematic is manifested in his paradoxical portraiture of form within the plan of nature: the one a sensual schema and the other a transsensual ideal form. At first sight, Uexküll’s belief in the Platonic and the Reformational notions of the immobile becoming of form seems to be a resignation from the heated debates among his contemporary materialists, vitalists, dynamists, and evolutionists. However, in terms of the Kantian subjective teleology, Uexküll’s appropriation of the ancient philosophy reinstates the (...)
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  30.  60
    Alessia Tessari & Anna M. Borghi (2007). Body Image and Body Schema: The Shared Representation of Body Image and the Role of Dynamic Body Schema in Perspective and Imitation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):221-222.
    Our commentary addresses two issues that are not developed enough in the target article. First, the model does not clearly address the distinction among external objects, external body parts, and internal bodies. Second, the authors could have discussed further the role of body schema with regard to its dynamic character, and its role in perspective and in imitation.
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  31.  19
    Gregory Landini (2009). Russell's Schema, Not Priest's Inclosure. History and Philosophy of Logic 30 (2):105-139.
    On investigating a theorem that Russell used in discussing paradoxes of classes, Graham Priest distills a schema and then extends it to form an Inclosure Schema, which he argues is the common structure underlying both class-theoretical paradoxes (such as that of Russell, Cantor, Burali-Forti) and the paradoxes of ?definability? (offered by Richard, König-Dixon and Berry). This article shows that Russell's theorem is not Priest's schema and questions the application of Priest's Inclosure Schema to the paradoxes of (...)
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  32.  25
    A. Baltas & K. Gavroglu (1980). A Modification of Popper's Tetradic Schema and the Special Relativity Theory. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (2):213-237.
    Summary The present paper constitutes an elaboration of a previous work by one of us which, among other things, proposed some modifications of Popper's tetradic schema. Here, in the first part, we consider critically and develop further these modifications and elaborate on methods which prove more satisfactory for the mapping of the problem solving processes in Physics. We also find the opportunity to make some comments on Physics and on its relation to Mathematics. In the second part, there is (...)
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  33.  37
    Thomas Nickles (2000). Kuhnian Puzzle Solving and Schema Theory. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):255.
    Looking at Thomas Kuhn's work from a cognitive science perspective helps to articulate and to legitimize, to some degree, his rejection of traditional views of concepts, categorization, theory structure, and rule-based problem solving. Whereas my colleagues focus on the later Kuhn of the MIT years, I study the early Kuhn as an anticipation of case-based reasoning and schema theory. These recent developments in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence may point toward a more computational version of Kuhn's ideas, but they (...)
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  34.  36
    Nigel Thomas, A Note on "Schema" and "Image Schema".
    The term schema (plural: schemata, or sometimes schemas) is widely used in cognitive psychology and the cognitive sciences generally to designate "psychological constructs that are postulated to account for the molar forms of human generic knowledge" (Brewer, 1999). The vagueness of this definition is no accident (and no sort of failing on Brewer's part). In fact schema is used in such very different ways by different cognitive theorists that the term has become quite notorious for its ambiguity (Miller, (...)
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  35.  16
    Arnaud Dewalque (2013). Schema of the Brentano School Intellectual Progeny. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):445-445.
    This schema gives an overview of the main branches and key members of the school of the German philosopher Franz Brentano (1838–1917).
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  36.  4
    Stephen Read (2010). The Liar and the New T-Schema. Discusiones Filosóficas 11 (17):119-137.
    Desde que Tarski publicó su estudio sobreel concepto de verdad en los años 30, hasido una práctica ortodoxa el considerarque t oda i nst anci a del esquema T esverdadera. Sin embargo, algunas instanciasdel esquema son falsas. Éstas incluyen lasi nst anci as paradój i cas ej empl i f i cadaspor la oración del mentiroso. Aquí sedemuestra que un esquema mejor permiteun tratamiento uniforme de la verdad enel que las paradojas semánticas resultanser simplemente falsas.Si nc e Ta r s (...)
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  37.  10
    Thomas F. O'Meara (2008). Karl Rahner's “Remarks on the Schema, 'De Ecclesia in Mundo Hujus Temporis,' in the Draft of May 28, 1965”. Philosophy and Theology 20 (1/2):331-339.
    The author acquired in May of 1965 a copy of Karl Rahner’s observations on the latest draft of “Schema XIII” which would becomeGaudium et Spes. The title was “Anmerkungen zum Schema DE ECCLESIA IN MUNDO HUIUS TEMPORIS (in der Fassungvom 28.5.65).” After the third session of Vatican II serious work remained to be done on that text. Among several meetings was onelong and important occurred at Ariccia in the Alban hills outside Rome. Rahner could not attend because he (...)
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  38.  19
    Jonathan P. Maxwell, Richard S. W. Masters & John van der Kamp (2007). Taking a Conscious Look at the Body Schema. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2):216-217.
    Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) propose a somatosensory perceptual pathway that informs a consciously accessible body image, and an action pathway that provides information to a body schema, which is not consciously accessible. We argue that the body schema may become accessible to consciousness in some circumstances, possibly resulting from cross talk, but that this may be detrimental to skilled movement production.
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  39.  8
    Farzad Sharifian (2005). The Persian Cultural Schema of "Shekasteh-Nafsi": A Study of Compliment Responses in Persian and Anglo-Australian Speakers. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):337-362.
    This study is as an attempt to explicate the Persian cultural schema of shekasteh-nafsi ¿modesty¿. The schema motivates the speakers to downplay their talents, skills, achievements, etc. while praising a similar trait in their interlocutors. The schema also encourages the speakers to reassign the compliment to the giver of the compliment, a family member, a friend, or another associate. This paper explicates the schema in an ethnographic fashion and also makes use of empirical data to further (...)
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  40.  8
    Danilo Saretta Verissimo (2012). Sur la notion de schéma corporel dans la philosophie de Merleau-Ponty : de la perception au problème du sensible. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique.
    Dans cet article, nous nous proposons d?établir une analyse comparative entre l?approche de la notion de schéma corporel dans la Phénoménologie de la perception 1 et dans les Cours de Sorbonne , réalisés entre 1949 et 1952, et dédiés, surtout, à la psychologie de l?enfant. Dans la Phénoménologie de la perception , Merleau-Ponty critique le caractère associationiste qui a marqué l?émergence de la notion de schéma corporel dans la neuropsychiatrie au passage du xix e au xx e siècle. Pour le (...)
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  41.  3
    Dominique Guy Brassart (1996). Does a Prototypical Argumentative Schema Exist? Text Recall in 8 to 13 Years Olds. Argumentation 10 (2):163-174.
    120 students in grades 3 to 7 heard an argumentative text and were immediately submitted to a free recall task. The results show that before grade 7, the subjects did not view the text as argumentative. The discussion centers on the relevancy of a prototypical argumentative schema in accounting for these findings.
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  42.  7
    Asghar Iran-Nejad & Adam Winsler (2000). Bartlett's Schema Theory and Modern Accounts of Learning and Remembering. Journal of Mind and Behavior 21 (1-2):5-36.
    Although Bartlett's schema theory has been highly influential in modern cognitive psychology, it has often been misunderstood. This paper discusses Bartlett's schema theory along with modern schema theories, argues that the problems in the interpretation of Bartlett's writing arise because his theory is fundamentally different from modern schema theories, shows that Bartlett's theory, but not modern schema theories, can be explained in terms of the brain's constructive and self-regulatory processes, and discusses such a brain-based theory (...)
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  43.  7
    Ewald Lang (1990). Primary Perceptual Space and Inherent Proportion Schema: Two Interacting Categorization Grids Underlying the Conceptualization of Spatial Objects. Journal of Semantics 7 (2):121-141.
    Within the realms of cognitive studies, spatial structure is one of the few domains where attempts to trace mental representations from the level of sensory input conditions through conceptual structure to their lexical and grammatical organization seem to be feasible and revealing. Presenting a linguist's approach to the meaning and use of spatial dimensional terms, the paper aims to demonstrate why and how the semantic analysis of these linguistic items has to be justified in terms of nonlinguistic conceptual structure formation, (...)
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  44.  6
    Charles Forceville & Marloes Jeulink (2011). The Flesh and Blood of Embodied Understanding: The Source-Path-Goal Schema in Animation Film. Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):37-59.
    According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory , the Source-Path-Goal schema constitutes a central concept in cognition. Apart from literally structuring “movement“, SPG also shapes our understanding of “purposive activity“, including questing and story-telling. A problem in CMT, however, is that the existence of image schemas is almost exclusively postulated on the basis of verbal expressions. To examine the claim that people recruit image schemas such as SPG to make sense of life, it is essential to examine non-verbal modalities. Animation has (...)
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  45.  22
    Alexander Grunewald (2000). Schema Theory: Very Promising. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):542-543.
    A direct equivalence between neural function and neural structure does not provide a fruitful approach to understanding brain functioning. Arbib et al. describe a new and powerful approach to circumvent this problem, which they call schema theory. However, in examples they fall prey to the tradition of finding such equivalences, not doing schema theory justice.
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  46.  16
    Ulrike Hahn (1999). The Dual-Route Account of German: Where It is Not a Schema Theory, It is Probably Wrong. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):1024-1025.
    Clahsen's experimental data from generalization, frequency, and priming fail to support and even conflict with those aspects of his dual-route account that distinguish it from schema theories.
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  47.  19
    Virginia Slaughter (2004). Emulator as Body Schema. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):415-416.
    Grush's emulator model appears to be consistent with the idea of a body schema, that is, a detailed mental representation of the body, its structure, and movement in relation to the environment. If the emulator is equivalent to a body schema, then the next step will be to specify how the emulator accounts for neuropsychological and developmental phenomena that have long been hypothesized to involve the body schema.
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  48.  18
    Marie-Pascale Noël, Jacques Grégoire, Gaëlle Meert & Xavier Seron (2008). The Innate Schema of Natural Numbers Does Not Explain Historical, Cultural, and Developmental Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):664-665.
    Rips et al.'s proposition cannot account for the facts that (1) a historical look at the word number systems suggests that the concept of natural numbers has been progressively elaborated; (2) people from cultures without an elaborate counting system do not master the concept of natural numbers; (3) children take time to master natural numbers; and (4) the competing advantage of the postulated math schema in the natural selection process is not obvious.
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  49.  19
    Pietro G. Morasso (2000). Is Schema Theory an Appropriate Framework for Modeling the Organization of the Brain? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):547-548.
    This review evaluates pros and cons of the schema theory as a general framework for expressing what Arbib et al. call “systems neuroscience.” We discuss the software/hardware duality of the schema concept and the relative neglect of the mechanical properties of muscles. We propose a computational alternative to the functional decomposition in terms of schemas.
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  50.  1
    Deborah C. Smith (2007). Superassertibility and the Equivalence Schema: A Dilemma for Wright’s Antirealist. Synthese 157 (1):129-139.
    In _Truth and Objectivity_, Crispin Wright argues that the notion of superassertibility affords the antirealist (with respect to a given range of discourse) a viable alternative to the realist’s more robust notion of truth. Toward this end, he endeavors to prove that a superassertibility predicate can satisfy the traditional equivalence schema: it is true that P iff P. (Wright takes satisfaction of this schema to be a criterion of adequacy for any viable truth predicate.) In this paper, I (...)
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