Members of the Ba2Zn1-xCdxTa2O9 (0 =< x =< 1) series have been synthesized by solid state reactions at 1473 K. Powder x-ray diffraction studies show a cubic perovskite cell with a ~ 4.1 a which increases with increase in x. Electron diffraction studies show the presence of hexagonal ordered perovskite structure in addition to the cubic structure seen by x-rays, the x = 0.5 composition showing more ordered crystallites. (...) These samples show high dielectric constants with a maximum (r = 30 at 1 kHz) for the x = 0.5 member. The dielectric loss increases with increase in x at all the frequencies under study. (shrink)
The plasticity of monoclinic Al13Fe4 particles grown in a spray-formed Al?Fe alloy is examined after being submitted to two deformation modes between 300 and 873 K by specially designed semi-in situ compression tests; one is uniform and the other is by indentation. In the uniform mode, cracks propagate through the Al13Fe4 particles along the pentagonal column planes, leaving extremely thin and heavily deformed plastic zones along the cracked faces at 300 and 473 K. In contrast, the generation of isolated dislocations (...) and their motion govern the plastic deformation at 673 and 873 K. In the indentation mode, local deformation is achieved exclusively by individual dislocations over the whole range of temperature explored. A possible mechanism of dislocation motion in monoclinic Al13Fe4 is discussed based on Burgers vector analyses coupled with the three-dimensional observation of dislocation configurations. (shrink)
This article reports the findings of a cross-cultural study that explored the relationship between nationality, cultural orientation, and attitudes toward different ways in which an employee might blow the whistle. The study investigated two questions – are there any significant differences in the attitudes of university students from South Korea, Turkey and the U.K. toward various ways by which an employee blows the whistle in an organization?, and what effect, if any, does cultural orientation have on these attitudes? In order (...) to answer these questions, the study identified six dimensions of whistleblowing and four types of cultural orientation. The survey was conducted among 759 university students, who voluntarily participated; 284 South Korean, 230 Turkish, and 245 U.K. Although all three samples showed a preference for formal, anonymous and internal modes of whistleblowing, there were significant variations related to nationality and cultural orientation. The findings have some key implications for organizational practice and offer directions for future research. (shrink)
In this paper we report a study of the approach of six U.K. water and electricity companies towards managing the relationship with their ''green'' stakeholders. Stakeholders are accorded increasing importance in political discourse and stakeholder theory is emerging as a promising framework for the analysis of corporate social performance.We studied the companies'' general approach towards green stakeholders, their dealings with specific stakeholder groups and whether they emphasised the consultation or the information aspect of stakeholder management. We found that none of (...) the six companies had a systematic stakeholder approach that extended to all potential green stakeholders. Rather, the importance of specific stakeholder groups seemed to be determined by managers'' intuition and by the stance that the stakeholders themselves displayed towards the company. (shrink)
George A. Olah, Alain Goeppert and G. K. Surya Prakash (eds): Beyond oil and gas: the methanol economy, 2nd updated and enlarged edition Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s10698-011-9141-x Authors George B. Kauffman, Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8034, USA Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.
We examine the occurrence of ethicsrelated terms in 10-K annual reports over 1994-2006 and offer empirical observations on the conceptual framework of Erhard et al. (Integrity: A Positive Model that Incorporates the Normative Phenomena of Morality, Ethics, and Legality (Harvard Business School, Harvard) 2007). We use a pre-Sarbanes-Oxley sample subset to compare the occurrence of ethics-related terms in our 10-K data with samples from other studies that consider virtue-related phenomena. We find that firms using ethics-related terms are more likely to (...) be "sin" stocks, are more likely to be the object of class action lawsuits, and are more likely to score poorly on measures of corporate governance. The consistency of our results across these alternative measures of ethical behavior suggests that managers who portray their firm as "ethical" in 10-K reports are more likely to be systematically misleading the public. These results are consistent with the integrity-performance paradox. (shrink)
James K.A. Smith argues that the ontology of participation associated with Radical Orthodoxy is incompatible with a Christian affirmation of the intrinsic being and goodness of creatures. In response, he proposes a Leibnizian view in which things are endowed with the innate dynamism of ‘force’. Creatures have a certain depth of being, and are intrinsically good, just because they each have an inner virtuality that they bring into expression. Such force is said to be a metaphysical component of the agent. (...) In this paper it is asked whether John Milbank's ontology of participation can be defended by distinguishing between two senses of being a subject. Perhaps it is possible for a creature to bring into expression what is an infused ‘alien’ gift rather than a metaphysical component – to be expressive subject, but not ontic subject, for divine power. However, while this distinction promises to make sense of the reception of an indwelling ‘other’ in grace, knowledge and love, neither proper substance nor proper existence can be received in this way. A creature must be the ontic subject for its being, after all. Still, divine being might proceed from God as radical indwelling gift, as non-ontic ground for ontic being. (shrink)
Working in ZF+AD alone, we prove that every set of ordinals with cardinality at least Θ can be covered by a set of ordinals in HOD of K (ℝ) of the same cardinality, when there is no inner model with an ℝ-complete measurable cardinal. Here ℝ is the set of reals and Θ is the supremum of the ordinals which are the surjective image of ℝ.
As Post (1996) observes, accounting firms are unique among multinationals. They are more likely than firms in almost any other category to go abroad. They also have less choice in location as their expansion is determined largely by the desired locations of their clients (Anderson and Gatignon, 1986). Given the widespread global presence of such firms, it can be argued that the global audit firm is uniquely at risk from variations in ethical perceptions across nations. This study extends the (...) U.S. accounting literature on determinants of cheating among accounting students to the U.K. Based on the work of Cohen et al. (1993) it develops a model that suggests that students in lower "uncertainty avoidance" countries will be both less likely to cheat, and when they do cheat, will be driven by internal rather than external mode. Our results supported the model as proposed as our results indicated that U.S. students were more likely to cheat and were more responsive to external stimuli than were the U.K. students. (shrink)
Last year the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) released a new set of revised guidelines upon environmental reporting practices for U.K companies. Two industrial sectors were selected – the Water industry and the Energy industry – and the most recent Environmental Reports produced by companies in these sectors were subjected to content analysis where the coding framework was heavily based on the DEFRA guidelines. Results are reported for the two industries separately and the two industries are (...) also compared. Whilst sectoral differences were found it was clear that many companies addressed most of the issues raised in the guidelines. However, others did not. Whilst no conclusions can be made about the quality of reporting the main areas of emphasis in each sector can be determined. (shrink)
David K. Chan wants to save the DDE from the considerable criticism levelled against it, by making the moral distinction it refers to rest on a difference in desire instead of in intention. I argue that the revised version, too, is counter-intuitive and confuses the blameworthiness of an actor with the wrongness of the act. It also invites abuse instead of preventing it. Besides, Chan's DDE omits three of the four criteria of the traditional DDE, and it is couched in (...) terms of lesser objectionability, while the traditional DDE is couched in terms of permission. Therefore, Chan's DDE has so little in common with the traditional DDE that it should not even count as a revised version of it. (shrink)
We investigate the novel problem of what happens in special relativity and in relativistic field theories whenthree-dimensional space is quantized. First we examine the equation for elastic waves on a linear chain, the simplest example of a quantized medium, and propose, on its analogy, a nonlinearp-k relationp=ħk(sinhkl)/kl for light and material waves. Here,kl is a new variable which represents the space-quantization effect on the plane wave of wave numberk=|k|. (Note thatkl=0 givesp=ħk.) This relation makes the light velocity in vacuum dependent (...) onkl. We postulate, however, that the phase and group velocities of each individual light wave are still invariant, and try to generalize special relativity to the case ofkl ≠ 0. This can be simply done if the invariance ofkl is assumed. Our results suggest that “localization” might be a relative concept. One interesting consequence of our proposal is that relativistic field theories become automatically finite. This comes out without violating unitarity or causality. A precise measurement of velocities of high-energy photons or massive particles is desirable for checking our proposal. (shrink)
David K. Chan wants to save the DDE from the considerable criticism levelled against it, by making the moral distinction it refers to rest on a difference in desire instead of in intention. I argue that the revised version, too, is counter-intuitive and confuses the blameworthiness of an actor with the wrongness of the act. It also invites abuse instead of preventing it. Besides, Chan's DDE omits three of the four criteria of the traditional DDE, and it is couched (...) in terms of lesser objectionability, while the traditional DDE is couched in terms of permission. Therefore, Chan's DDE has so little in common with the traditional DDE that it should not even count as a revised version of it. (shrink)
(2012). Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing in Schools: a Critical Perspective. By D. Watson, C. Emery and P. Bayliss with M. Boushel and K. McInnes. British Journal of Educational Studies: Vol. 60, Disciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity and Educational Studies – Past, Present and Future, pp. 439-441. doi: 10.1080/00071005.2012.742274.
Des calculs du typo Monte Carlo ont été conduits pour simuler une expérience de trempe d'aluminium à 4°K. Ces calculs montrent que les trilacunes doivent ?tro mobiles pour rendre compte des caractéristiques oxpérimentales de 1'agglomération. On est conduit à admettre une énergie do liaison lacune-laoune de 0.2 eV environ.
The logic B+ is Routley and Meyer’s basic positive logic. We define the logics BK+ and BK'+ by adding to B+ the K rule and to BK+ the characteristic S4 axiom, respectively. These logics are endowed with a relatively strong non-constructive negation. We prove that all the logics defined lack the K axiom and the standard paradoxes of consistency.
De 1'aluminium de haute pureté a été trempé depuis des temperatures comprises entre 180° et 550°C jusqu' à 4,2°K. Le comportement des lacunes pendant la trempe et au cours des recuits ultérieurs a été étudié au moyen de. mesures de résitivité électrique et d'observations de microscopic électronique Le profil du spectre do restauration semble indiquer que plus de deux espèces mobiles participent à l'évolution de la population de défauts trempés. D'autre part, nous avons étudieéles conditions de nucléation des amas de (...) lacunes, boucles et cavités. (shrink)
readers of Greek ethics tend to favour those accounts of the virtuous ideal according to which virtue involves the development of our non-rational—appetitive and emotional— motivations as well as of our rational motivations. So our contemporaries find much of interest and sympathy in Aristotle’s conception of virtue as a condition in which reason does not simply override our appetites and emotions, but these non-rational motivations themselves ‘speak with the (...) same voice as reason’.2 By contrast, the Stoic.. (shrink)
There is no technical language with which to speak of patients' quality of life, there are no standard measures and no authority to validate criteria of measurement. It is well known that 'professionals' tend, often for institutional reasons, to play down or undervalue factors which are not defined by their particular expertise. It is fortunate that, despite this tendency, there is a growing interest in broadening the evaluation of medical care, but there is still a need to clarify what is (...) at issue in considerations of quality of life. This article examines the strengths and weaknesses of one approach to assessing quality of life, and sketches out the implications for anyone concerned to establish a framework within which both medical and non-medical objectives of care can be taken into account. (shrink)