Search results for 'Schizophrenia' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Wayne Wu (2012). Explaining Schizophrenia: Auditory Verbal Hallucination and Self-Monitoring. Mind and Language 27 (1):86-107.score: 24.0
    Do self-monitoring accounts, a dominant account of the positive symptoms, explain auditory verbal hallucination (AVH)? In this essay, I argue that the account fails to answer many crucial questions any explanation of AVH must address. Where the account provides a plausible answer, I make a case for an alternative explanation: AVH is not the result of a failed control mechanism, namely failed self-monitoring, but the persistent automaticity of auditory experience of a voice. The argument emphasizes the importance of careful examination (...)
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  2. Louis A. Sass & Josef Parnas (2003). Schizophrenia, Consciousness, and the Self. Schizophrenia Bulletin 29 (3):427-444.score: 24.0
  3. Christoph Hoerl (2001). Introduction: Understanding, Explaining, and Intersubjectivity in Schizophrenia. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (2-3):83-88.score: 24.0
    This article provides an introduction to a special issue of the journal Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, On Understanding and Explaining Schizophrenia. The article identifies a common thread running through the different contributions to this special issue, inspired by Jaspers's (1963) suggestion that a profound impairment in the ability to engage in interpersonal and social relations is a key factor in psychiatric disorders. It is argued that this suggestion can help solve a central dilemma in psychopathology, which is to make (...)
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  4. T. T. J. Kircher & D. Leube (2003). Self-Consciousness, Self-Agency, and Schizophrenia. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):656-669.score: 24.0
    Empirical approaches on topics such as consciousness, self-awareness, or introspective perspective, need a conceptual framework so that the emerging, still unconnected findings can be integrated and put into perspective. We introduce a model of self-consciousness derived from phenomenology, philosophy, the cognitive, and neurosciences. We will then give an overview of research data on one particular aspect of our model, self-agency, trying to link findings from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Finally, we will expand on pathological aspects of self-agency, and in particular (...)
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  5. E. Bacon, J. M. Danion, F. Kauffmann-Muller & A. Bruant (2001). Consciousness in Schizophrenia: A Metacognitive Approach to Semantic Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):473-484.score: 24.0
    Recent studies have shown that schizophrenia may be a disease affecting the states of consciousness. The present study is aimed at investigating metamemory, i.e., the knowledge about one's own memory capabilities, in patients with schizophrenia. The accuracy of the Confidence level (CL) in the correctness of the answers provided during a recall phase, and the predictability of the Feeling of Knowing (FOK) when recall fails were measured using a task consisting of general information questions and assessing semantic memory. (...)
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  6. Mads Gram Henriksen (2013). On Incomprehensibility in Schizophrenia. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):105-129.score: 24.0
    This article examines the supposedly incomprehensibility of schizophrenic delusions. According to the contemporary classificatory systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10), some delusions typically found in schizophrenia are considered bizarre and incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to discuss the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that (...)
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  7. R. P. Behrendt & C. Young (2004). Hallucinations in Schizophrenia, Sensory Impairment, and Brain Disease: A Unifying Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):771-787.score: 24.0
    Based on recent insight into the thalamocortical system and its role in perception and conscious experience, a unified pathophysiological framework for hallucinations in neurological and psychiatric conditions is proposed, which integrates previously unrelated neurobiological and psychological findings. Gamma-frequency rhythms of discharge activity from thalamic and cortical neurons are facilitated by cholinergic arousal and resonate in networks of thalamocortical circuits, thereby transiently forming assemblies of coherent gamma oscillations under constraints of afferent sensory input and prefrontal attentional mechanisms. If perception is based (...)
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  8. Yasuhiko Murakami (2013). Affection of Contact and Transcendental Telepathy in Schizophrenia and Autism. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):179-194.score: 24.0
    This paper seeks to demonstrate the structural difference in communication of schizophrenia and autism. For a normal adult, spontaneous communication is nothing but the transmission of phantasía (thought) by means of perceptual objects or language. This transmission is first observed in a make-believe play of child. Husserl named this function “perceptual phantasía,” and this function presupposes as its basis the “internalized affection of contact” (which functions empirically in eye contact, body contact, or voice calling me). Regarding autism, because of (...)
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  9. Wayne Wu & Raymond Cho (2013). Mechanisms of Auditory Verbal Hallucination in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Schizophrenia 4.score: 24.0
    Recent work on the mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been heavily informed by self-monitoring accounts that postulate defects in an internal monitoring mechanism as the basis of AVH. A more neglected alternative is an account focusing on defects in auditory processing, namely a spontaneous activation account of auditory activity underlying AVH. Science is often aided by putting theories in competition. Accordingly, a discussion that systematically contrasts the two models of AVH can generate sharper questions that will lead to (...)
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  10. Jeanette Hewitt (2010). Schizophrenia, Mental Capacity, and Rational Suicide. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):63-77.score: 24.0
    A diagnosis of schizophrenia is often taken to denote a state of global irrationality within the psychiatric paradigm, wherein psychotic phenomena are seen to equate with a lack of mental capacity. However, the little research that has been undertaken on mental capacity in psychiatric patients shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely to experience isolated, rather than constitutive, irrationality and are therefore not necessarily globally incapacitated. Rational suicide has not been accepted as a valid choice for people (...)
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  11. David Rhys Birks (2013). Wellbeing, Schizophrenia and Experience Machines. Bioethics 27 (2):81-88.score: 24.0
    In the USA and England and Wales, involuntary treatment for mental illness is subject to the constraint that it must be necessary for the health or safety of the patient, if he poses no danger to others. I will argue against this necessary condition of administering treatment and propose that the category of individuals eligible for involuntary treatment should be extended. I begin by focusing on the common disorder of schizophrenia and proceed to demonstrate that it can be a (...)
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  12. Alice Medalia & Rosa W. Lim (2004). Self-Awareness of Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 71 (2):331-338.score: 24.0
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  13. J. P. M. A. Maes & A. R. Van Gool (2008). Misattribution of Agency in Schizophrenia: An Exploration of Historical First-Person Accounts. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):191-202.score: 24.0
    This paper provides a concise description and discussion of bottom–up and top–down approaches to misattribution of agency in schizophrenia. It explores if first-person accounts of passivity phenomena can provide support for one of these approaches. The focus is on excerpts in which the writers specifically examine their experiences of external influence. None of the accounts provides arguments that fit easily with only one of the possible approaches, which is in line with current attempts to theoretical integration.
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  14. William A. Phillips & Steven M. Silverstein (2003). Convergence of Biological and Psychological Perspectives on Cognitive Coordination in Schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):65-82.score: 24.0
    The concept of locally specialized functions dominates research on higher brain function and its disorders. Locally specialized functions must be complemented by processes that coordinate those functions, however, and impairment of coordinating processes may be central to some psychotic conditions. Evidence for processes that coordinate activity is provided by neurobiological and psychological studies of contextual disambiguation and dynamic grouping. Mechanisms by which this important class of cognitive functions could be achieved include those long-range connections within and between cortical regions that (...)
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  15. Jonathan Kenneth Burns (2004). An Evolutionary Theory of Schizophrenia: Cortical Connectivity, Metarepresentation, and the Social Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):831-855.score: 24.0
    Schizophrenia is a worldwide, prevalent disorder with a multifactorial but highly genetic aetiology. A constant prevalence rate in the face of reduced fecundity has caused some to argue that an evolutionary advantage exists in unaffected relatives. Here, I critique this adaptationist approach, and review – and find wanting – Crow's “speciation” hypothesis. In keeping with available biological and psychological evidence, I propose an alternative theory of the origins of this disorder. Schizophrenia is a disorder of the social brain, (...)
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  16. Michela Summa (2014). The Disoriented Self. Layers and Dynamics of Self-Experience in Dementia and Schizophrenia. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):477-496.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the question concerning the relationship between basic and higher layers of experience and self-experience. The latter distinction implicitly presupposes the idea of a univocal foundation. After explaining the formal ontological law of foundation, an attempt is made to clarify how the idea of foundation may be suitable to understand the relationship among moments, or layers, of self-experience. To this aim, the phenomenological descriptions of self- and world-experience in dementia and schizophrenia are compared. The comparison between these (...)
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  17. Marcin Zajenkowski, Rafał Styła & Jakub Szymanik (2011). A Computational Approach to Quantifiers as an Explanation for Some Language Impairments in Schizophrenia. Journal of Communication Disorder 44:2011.score: 24.0
    We compared the processing of natural language quantifiers in a group of patients with schizophrenia and a healthy control group. In both groups, the difficulty of the quantifiers was consistent with computational predictions, and patients with schizophrenia took more time to solve the problems. However, they were significantly less accurate only with proportional quantifiers, like more than half. This can be explained by noting that, according to the complexity perspective, only proportional quantifiers require working memory engagement.
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  18. Louis Sass & Elizabeth Pienkos (2013). Beyond Words: Linguistic Experience in Melancholia, Mania, and Schizophrenia. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-21.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we use a phenomenological approach to compare the unusual ways in which language can be experienced by individuals with schizophrenia or severe mood disorders, specifically mania and melancholia (psychotic depression). Our discussion follows a tripartite/dialectical format: first we describe traditionally observed distinctions (i.e., decrease or increase in amount or rate of speech in the affective conditions, versus alterations of coherence, clarity, or interpersonal anchoring in schizophrenia); then we consider some apparent similarities in the experience of (...)
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  19. Paul Henry Lysaker, Jason K. Johannesen & John Timothy Lysaker (2005). Schizophrenia and the Experience of Intersubjectivity as Threat. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):335-352.score: 24.0
    Many with schizophrenia find social interactions a profound and terrifying threat to their sense of self. To better understand this we draw upon dialogical models of the self that suggest that those with schizophrenia have difficulty sustaining dialogues among diverse aspects of self. Because interpersonal exchanges solicit and evoke movement among diverse aspects of self, many with schizophrenia may consequently find those exchanges overwhelming, resulting in despair, the sensation of fusion with another, and/or self-dissolution. In short, compromised (...)
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  20. Kristin Suzanne Cadenhead, Karen Dobkins, Jessica McGovern & Kathleen Shafer (2013). Schizophrenia Spectrum Participants Have Reduced Visual Contrast Sensitivity to Chromatic (Red/Green) and Luminance (Light/Dark) Stimuli: New Insights Into Information Processing, Visual Channel Function, and Antipsychotic Effects. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Background: Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses have deficient visual information processing as assessed by a variety of paradigms including visual backward masking, motion perception and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS). In the present study, the VCS paradigm was used to investigate potential differences in magnocellular (M) versus parvocellular (P) channel function that might account for the observed information processing deficits of schizophrenia spectrum patients. Specifically, VCS for near threshold luminance (black/white) stimuli is known to be governed primarily by the (...)
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  21. Vince D. Calhoun & Kenneth Hugdahl (2012). Cognition and Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Cognition and Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia.
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  22. William T. Carpenter Jr (2012). The Future of Schizophrenia Pharmacotherapeutics: Not so Bleak. Mens Sana Monographs 10 (1):13.score: 24.0
    Chlorpromazine efficacy in schizophrenia was observed 60 years ago. Advances in pharmacotherapy of this disorder have been modest with effectiveness still limited to the psychosis psychopathology and mechanism still dependent on dopamine antagonism. While a look backward may generate pessimism, future discovery may be far more robust. The near future will see significant changes in paradigms applied in discovery. Rather than viewing schizophrenia as a disease entity represented by psychosis, the construct will be deconstructed into component psychopathology domains. (...)
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  23. Jason Scott Robert (2000). Schizophrenia Epigenesis? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):191-215.score: 24.0
    I begin by examining how genetics drivesschizophrenia research, and raise both familiar andrelatively novel criticisms of the evidence putativelysupporting the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Inparticular, I call attention to a set of concernsabout the effects of placentation on concordance ratesof schizophrenia in monozygotic twins, which furtherweakens the case for schizophrenia''s so-called stronggenetic component. I then underscore two criticalpoints. First, I emphasize the importance of takingseriously considerations about the complexity of bothontogenesis and the development of hereditarydiseases. The recognition (...)
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  24. Honghui Yang, Jingyu Liu, Jing Sui, Godfrey Pearlson & Vince D. Calhoun (2010). A Hybrid Machine Learning Method for Fusing fMRI and Genetic Data: Combining Both Improves Classification of Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:192.score: 24.0
    We demonstrate a hybrid machine learning method to classify schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The method consists of four stages: (1) SNPs with the most discriminating information between the healthy controls and schizophrenia patients are selected to construct a support vector machine ensemble (SNP-SVME). (2) Voxels in the fMRI map contributing to classification are selected to build another SVME (Voxel-SVME). (3) Components of fMRI activation obtained with (...)
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  25. Alan Anticevic & Philip R. Corlett (2012). Cognition-Emotion Dysinteraction in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Evolving theories of schizophrenia emphasize a ‘disconnection’ in distributed fronto-striatal-limbic neural systems, which may give rise to breakdowns in cognition and emotional function. We discuss these diverse domains of function from the perspective of disrupted neural circuits involved in ‘cold’ cognitive vs. ‘hot’ affective operations and the interplay between these processes. We focus on three research areas that highlight cognition-emotion dysinteractions in schizophrenia: First, we discuss the role of cognitive deficits in the ‘maintenance’ of emotional information. We review (...)
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  26. Mark S. Cohen Ariana Anderson (2013). Decreased Small-World Functional Network Connectivity and Clustering Across Resting State Networks in Schizophrenia: An fMRI Classification Tutorial. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Functional network connectivity is a method of analyzing the temporal relationship of anatomical brain components, comparing the synchronicity between patient groups or conditions. We use functional-connectivity measures between independent components to classify between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during resting-state. Connectivity is measured using a variety of graph-theoretic connectivity measures such as graph density, average path length, and small-worldness. The Schizophrenia patients showed significantly less clustering (transitivity) among components than healthy controls (p<.05, corrected) with networks less likely to (...)
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  27. Sarah-Jayne Blakemore Jennifer Cook, Guillaume Barbalat (2012). Top-Down Modulation of the Perception of Other People in Schizophrenia and Autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Accurately and efficiently perceiving social cues such as body movements and facial expressions is important in social interaction. Accurate social perception of this kind does not solely rely on ‘bottom-up’ visual processing but is also subject to modulation by ‘top-down’ signals. For example, if instructed to look for signs of happiness rather than fear, participants are more likely to categorise facial expressions as happy – this prior expectation biases subsequent perception. Top down modulation is also important in our reactions to (...)
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  28. Daniel H. Mathalon, Ralph E. Hoffman, Todd D. Watson, Ryan M. Miller, Brian J. Roach & Judith M. Ford (2010). Neurophysiological Distinction Between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:70.score: 24.0
    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG (...)
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  29. Emmanuel Stip Peter Scherzer, Edith Leveillé, André Achim, Emilie Boisseau (2012). A Study of Theory of Mind in Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Theory or Many Theories? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Social cognitive psychologists (Frith, 1992; Hardy-Baylé et al, 2003) sought to explain the social problems and clarify the clinical picture of schizophrenia by proposing a model that relates many of the symptoms to a problem of metarepresentation i.e. theory of mind (ToM). Given the differences in clinical samples and results between studies, and considering the wide range of what is considered to constitute ToM, the question is, is there a core function, or is ToM multifaceted with dissociable facets? If (...)
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  30. Peter C. Williamson & John M. Allman (2012). A Framework for Interpreting Functional Networks in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Some promising genetic correlates of schizophrenia have emerged in recent years but none explain more than a small fraction of cases. The challenge of our time is to characterize the neuronal networks underlying schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. It has been proposed that schizophrenia arises from a uniquely human brain network associated with directed effort including the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, auditory cortex, and hippocampus and while mood disorders arise from a different brain network associated (...)
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  31. Yazan Abu Ghazal (2014). Perspectivity in Psychiatric Research: The Psychopathology of Schizophrenia in Postwar Germany (1955–1961). [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):103-111.score: 24.0
    The reorganization of psychiatric knowledge at the turn of the twentieth century derived from Emil Kraepelin’s clinical classification of psychoses. Surprisingly, within just few years, Kraepelin’s simple dichotomy between dementia praecox (schizophrenias) and manic-depressive psychosis (bipolar disorders) succeeded in giving psychiatry a new framework that is still used until the present day. Unexpectedly, Kraepelin’s simple clinical scheme based on the dichotomy replaced the significantly more differentiated nosography that dominated psychiatric research in the last three decades of the nineteenth century (Janzarik (...)
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  32. Jeanette Hewitt (2010). Rational Suicide: Philosophical Perspectives on Schizophrenia. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):25-31.score: 24.0
    Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive (...)
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  33. Agustin Ibanez Lucia Amoruso, Juan Cardona, Margherita Melloni, Lucas Sedeño (2012). Contextual Impairments in Schizophrenia and the FN400. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Contextual Impairments in Schizophrenia and the FN400.
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  34. Vittorio Gallese Mariateresa Sestito, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Giancarlo De Paola, Renata Fortunati, Andrea Raballo, Emanuela Leuci, Simone Maffei, Matteo Tonna, Mario Amore, Carlo Maggini (2013). Facial Reactions in Response to Dynamic Emotional Stimuli in Different Modalities in Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia: A Behavioral and EMG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Emotional facial expression is an important low-level mechanism contributing to the experience of empathy, thereby lying at the core of social interaction. Schizophrenia is associated with pervasive social cognitive impairments, including emotional processing of facial expressions. In this study we test a novel paradigm in order to investigate the evaluation of the emotional content of perceived emotions presented through dynamic expressive stimuli, facial mimicry evoked by the same stimuli, and their functional relation. Fifteen healthy controls and 15 patients diagnosed (...)
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  35. Robert Sweet, Kenneth N. Fish & David Lewis (2010). Mapping Synaptic Pathology Within Cerebral Cortical Circuits in Subjects with Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:44.score: 24.0
    Converging lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by impairments of synaptic machinery within cerebral cortical circuits. Efforts to localize these alterations in brain tissue from subjects with schizophrenia have frequently been limited to the quantification of structures that are non-selectively identified (e.g. dendritic spines labeled in Golgi preparations, axon boutons labeled with synaptophysin), or to quantification of proteins using methods unable to resolve relevant cellular compartments. Multiple label fluorescence confocal microscopy represents a means to circumvent many (...)
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  36. Christian Sorg Andrei Manoliu, Valentin Riedl, Anselm Doll, Josef Georg Bäuml, Mark Mühlau, Dirk Schwerthöffer, Martin Scherr, Claus Zimmer, Hans Förstl, Josef Bäuml, Afra M. Wohlschläger, Kathrin Koch (2013). Insular Dysfunction Reflects Altered Between-Network Connectivity and Severity of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia During Psychotic Remission. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Schizophrenia is characterized by aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), including the Default Mode- (DMN), Salience- (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN). The anterior insula (AI) of the SN has been demonstrated to modulate DMN/CEN interactions. Recently, we found that the dependence of DMN/CEN interactions on SN´s right AI activity is altered in patients with schizophrenia in acute psychosis and related to psychotic symptoms, indicating a link between aberrant AI, DMN, CEN and (...)
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  37. Chittaranjan Andrade, Rajiv Radhakrishnan & Praveen P. Fernandes (2012). Psychopharmacology of Schizophrenia: The Future Looks Bleak. Mens Sana Monographs 10 (1):4.score: 24.0
    Introduction: More than half a century after the introduction of effective pharmacotherapy for the illness, in most patients schizophrenia remains a chronic, relapsing condition with poor long-term outcomes. Methods: We examine the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia from different perspectives to understand why there have not been significant advances, and to consider what the future might hold in store. Results: We argue that the treatment of schizophrenia addresses the phenotype and not the cause; that the causes may not (...)
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  38. Mark A. Elliott Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Mitsouko van Assche (2013). On Disturbed Time Continuity in Schizophrenia: An Elementary Impairment in Visual Perception? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Schizophrenia is associated with a series of visual perception impairments, which might impact on the patients’ every day life and be related to clinical symptoms. However, the heterogeneity of the visual disorders make it a challenge to understand both the mechanisms and the consequences of these impairments, i.e. the way patients experience the outer world. Based on earlier psychiatry literature, we argue that issues regarding time might shed a new light on the disorders observed in patients with schizophrenia. (...)
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  39. Pamela D. Butler, Ilana Y. Abeles, Steven M. Silverstein, Elisa C. Dias, Nicole G. Weiskopf, Daniel C. Calderone & Pejman Sehatpour (2013). An Event-Related Potential Examination of Contour Integration Deficits in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Perceptual organization, which refers to the ability to integrate fragments of stimuli to form a representation of a whole edge, part, or object, is impaired in schizophrenia. A contour integration paradigm, involving detection of a set of Gabor patches forming an oval contour pointing to the right or left embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabors, has been developed for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to assess contributions of early (...)
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  40. Bruce K. Christensen, Justine Margret Yau Spencer, Jelena P. King, Allison B. Sekuler & Patrick J. Bennett (2013). Noise as a Mechanism of Anomalous Face Processing Among Persons with Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    There is substantial evidence that people with Schizophrenia (SCZ) have altered visual perception and cognition, including impaired face processing. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this observation are not yet known. Eye movement studies have found that people with SCZ do not direct their gaze to the most informative regions of the face (e.g., the eyes). This suggests that SCZ patients may be less able to extract the most relevant face information and therefore have decreased calculation efficiency. In addition, research with (...)
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  41. Elisa C. Dias, Stephan Bickel, Michael L. Epstein, Pejman Sehatpour & Daniel C. Javitt (2013). Abnormal Task Modulation of Oscillatory Neural Activity in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Schizophrenia patients have deficits in cognitive function that are a core feature of the disorder. AX-CPT is commonly used to study cognition in schizophrenia, and patients have characteristic pattern of behavioral and ERP response. In AX-CPT subjects respond when a flashed cue “A” is followed by a target “X”, ignoring other letter combinations. Patients show reduced hit rate to “go” trials, and increased false alarms to sequences that require inhibition of a prepotent response. EEG recordings show reduced sensory (...)
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  42. Lisa Diedrich (2010). Being the Shadow: Witnessing Schizophrenia. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (2):91-109.score: 24.0
    This essay discusses Susan Smiley’s documentary film, Out of the Shadow (2004), and Tina Kotulski’s memoir, Saving Millie: A Daughter’s Story of Surviving Her Mother’s Schizophrenia, as filmic and narrative treatments of their mother’s schizophrenia. Mildred Smiley, and her diagnosis of and treatment for schizophrenia, is at the center of both her daughters’ treatments of mental illness, and in these texts, all three become witnesses to the multiple experiences of mental illness and the multiple events of psychiatric (...)
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  43. Giancarlo Dimaggio, Giampaolo Salvatore, Raffaele Popolo & Paul H. Lysaker (2012). Autobiographical Memory and Mentalizing Impairment in Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia: Clinical and Research Implications. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Autobiographical memory and mentalizing impairment in personality disorders and schizophrenia: clinical and research implications.
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  44. S. Englisch & M. Zink (2012). Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Evidence-Based Strategies. Mens Sana Monographs 10 (1):20.score: 24.0
    Treatment-resistant symptoms complicate the clinical course of schizophrenia, and a large proportion of patients do not reach functional recovery. In consequence, polypharmacy is frequently used in treatment-refractory cases, addressing psychotic positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, treatment-emergent side effects caused by antipsychotics and comorbid depressive or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To a large extent, such strategies are not covered by pharmacological guidelines which strongly suggest antipsychotic monotherapy. Add-on strategies comprise combinations of several antipsychotic agents and augmentations with mood stabilizers; moreover, antidepressants and (...)
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  45. Anne Giersch, Hélène Wilquin, Rémi L. Capa & Yvonne Nathalie Delevoye-Turrell (2013). Combined Visual and Motor Disorganization in Patients with Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Cognitive impairments are difficult to relate to clinical symptoms in schizophrenia, partly due to insufficient knowledge on how cognitive impairments interact with one another. Here, we devised a new sequential pointing task requiring both visual organization and motor sequencing. Six circles were presented simultaneously on a touch screen around a fixation point. Participants pointed with the finger each circle one after the other, in synchrony with auditory tones. We used an alternating rhythmic 300/600 ms pattern so that participants performed (...)
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  46. Kenneth Hugdahl, Else-Marie Løberg, Karsten Specht, Vidar M. Steen, Heidi van Wageningen & Hugo A. Jørgensen (2007). Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: The Role of Cognitive, Brain Structural and Genetic Disturbances in the Left Temporal Lobe. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 24.0
    In this article we review research in our laboratory on auditory hallucinations using behavioral and MRI measure. The review consists of both previously published and new data that for the fi rst time is presented together in a cohesive way. Auditory hallucinations are among the most common symptoms in schizophrenia, affecting more than 70% of the patients. We here advance the hypothesis that auditory hallucinations are internally generated speech perceptions that are lateralized to the left temporal lobe, in the (...)
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  47. Iii Jazmin Camchong, Kelvin O. Lim, Scott R. Sponheim, Angus W. Macdonald (2009). Frontal White Matter Integrity as an Endophenotype for Schizophrenia: Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Monozygotic Twins and Patients' Nonpsychotic Relatives. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 24.0
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides anatomical connectivity information by examining the directional organization of white matter microstructure. Anatomical connectivity and its abnormalities may be heritable traits associated with schizophrenia. To further examine this hypothesis, two studies were conducted to compare anatomical connectivity between (a) monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and random pairings among twins and (b) first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and a healthy control group. Analyses focused on frontal regions of the brain following previous findings of anatomical connectivity (...)
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  48. Melissa J. Green Jesseca E. Rowland, Meelah K. Hamilton, Nicholas Vella, Bianca J. Lino, Philip B. Mitchell (2012). Adaptive Associations Between Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation Are Absent in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who (...)
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  49. Matcheri S. Keshavan, Shreedhar R. Kulkarni, Tejas Bhojraj, Alan Francis, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Debra M. Montrose, Larry Seidman & John Sweeney (2010). Premorbid Cognitive Deficits in Young Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 24.0
    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also (...)
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  50. Else-Marie Løberg & Kenneth Hugdahl (2009). Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 24.0
    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were (...)
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