Search results for 'Science Technological innovations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. National Committee for Research Ethics in Science & Technology (2009). Guidelines for Research Ethics in Science and Technology. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).score: 320.0
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  2. M. G. Jones, T. Andre, D. Kubasko, A. Bokinsky, T. Tretter, A. Negishi, R. Taylor & R. Superfine (2004). Remote Atomic Force Microscopy of Microscopic Organisms: Technological Innovations for Hands‐on Science with Middle and High School Students. Science Education 88 (1):55-71.score: 270.0
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  3. M. J. Mulkay (1972). The Social Process of Innovation: A Study in the Sociology of Science. London,Macmillan.score: 228.0
     
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  4. Soraya Nour & Olivier Remaud (eds.) (2010). War and Peace: The Role of Science and Art. Duncker & Humblot.score: 210.0
    Violence -- Poliltical philosophy -- Critical theory -- Science and arts in international relations -- Psyche -- Aesthetics -- Tolstoi's War and peace.
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  5. Alfred Nordmann, Hans Radder & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) (2011). Science Transformed?: Debating Claims of an Epochal Break. University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 207.0
    This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives.
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  6. Jon Elster (1983). Explaining Technical Change: A Case Study in the Philosophy of Science. Universitetsforlaget.score: 201.0
    In this volume, first published in 1983, Jon Elster approaches the study of technical change from an epistemological perspective.
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  7. Hugh Lacey (2012). Reflections on Science and Technoscience. Scientiae Studia 10 (SPE):103-128.score: 180.0
    Technoscientific research, a kind of scientific research conducted within the decontextualized approach (DA), uses advanced technology to produce instruments, experimental objects, and new objects and structures, that enable us to gain knowledge of states of affairs of novel domains, especially knowledge about new possibilities of what we can do and make, with the horizons of practical, industrial, medical or military innovation, and economic growth and competition, never far removed from view. The legitimacy of technoscientific innovations can be appraised only (...)
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  8. Diana Senechal (2011). Republic of Noise: The Loss of Solitude in Schools and Culture. R&L Education.score: 174.0
    Machine generated contents note: Chapter 1 Acknowledgments -- Chapter 2 Introduction: The Chatter of the Present -- Chapter 3 Definitions of Solitude -- Chapter 4 Distraction: The Flip Side of Engagement -- Chapter 5 Antigone: Literature as "Thinking Apart" -- Chapter 6 The Workshop Model in New York City -- Chapter 7 The Folly of the "Big Idea" -- Chapter 8 The Cult of Success -- Chapter 9 Mass Personalization and the "Underground Man" -- Chapter 10 The Need for Loneliness (...)
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  9. Martyn D. Pickersgill (2013). From 'Implications' to 'Dimensions': Science, Medicine and Ethics in Society. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (1):31-42.score: 174.0
    Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of (...)
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  10. Huub Dijstelbloem (2008). Politiek Vernieuwen: Op Zoek Naar Publiek in de Technologische Samenleving. Van Gennep.score: 174.0
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  11. Martina Merz & Peter Biniok (2010). How Technological Platforms Reconfigure Science-Industry Relations: The Case of Micro- and Nanotechnology. [REVIEW] Minerva 48 (2):105-124.score: 144.0
    With reference to the recent science studies debate on the nature of science-industry relationship, this article focuses on a novel organizational form: the technological platform. Considering the field of micro- and nanotechnology in Switzerland, it investigates how technological platforms participate in framing science-industry activities. On the basis of a comparative analysis of three technological platforms, it shows that the platforms relate distinctly to academic and to industrial users. It distinguishes three pairs of user models, (...)
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  12. Fern Wickson, Roger Strand & Kamilla Lein Kjølberg (forthcoming). The Walkshop Approach to Science and Technology Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.score: 140.0
    In research and teaching on ethical aspects of emerging sciences and technologies, the structure of working environments, spaces and relationships play a significant role. Many of the routines and standard practices of academic life, however, do little to actively explore and experiment with these elements. They do even less to address the importance of contextual and embodied dimensions of thinking. To engage these dimensions, we have benefitted significantly from practices that take us out of seminar rooms, offices and laboratories as (...)
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  13. Steven M. Flipse, Maarten C. A. Van der Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer (2014). Setting Up Spaces for Collaboration in Industry Between Researchers From the Natural and Social Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):7-22.score: 139.0
    Policy makers call upon researchers from the natural and social sciences to collaborate for the responsible development and deployment of innovations. Collaborations are projected to enhance both the technical quality of innovations, and the extent to which relevant social and ethical considerations are integrated into their development. This could make these innovations more socially robust and responsible, particularly in new and emerging scientific and technological fields, such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Some researchers from both fields (...)
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  14. D. E. Stokes (1997). Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Brookings Inst Pr.score: 135.0
    In this book, Donald Stokes challenges Bush's view and maintains that we can only rebuild the relationship between government and the scientific community when we understand what is wrong with that view.Stokes begins with an analysis of the ...
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  15. Robert Lewis (1984). Hierarchy and Technological Innovation in Soviet Industry: The Science-Production Associations. [REVIEW] Minerva 22 (2):129-159.score: 135.0
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  16. Marianne Benard, Huib de Vriend, Paul van Haperen & Volkert Beekman (2010). Science and Society in Dialogue About Marker Assisted Selection. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (4):317-329.score: 132.0
    Analysis of a European Union funded biotechnology project on plant genomics and marker assisted selection in Solanaceous crops shows that the organization of a dialogue between science and society to accompany technological innovations in plant breeding faces practical challenges. Semi-structured interviews with project participants and a survey among representatives of consumer and other non-governmental organizations show that the professed commitment to dialogue on science and biotechnology is rather shallow and has had limited application for all involved. (...)
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  17. James Phillips (ed.) (2009). Philosophical Perspectives on Technology and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.score: 129.0
    Our lives are dominated by technology. We live with and through the achievements of technology. What is true of the rest of life is of course true of medicine. Many of us owe our existence and our continued vigour to some achievement of medical technology. And what is true in a major way of general medicine is to a significant degree true of psychiatry. Prozac has long since arrived, and in its wake an ever-growing armamentarium of new psychotropics; beyond that, (...)
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  18. Dane Scott (2011). The Technological Fix Criticisms and the Agricultural Biotechnology Debate. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (3):207-226.score: 126.0
    A common tactic in public debates over science and technology is to dismissively label innovations as mere technological fixes. This tactic can be readily observed in the long debate over agricultural biotechnology. While these criticisms are often superficial rhetorical tactics, they point to deeper philosophical disagreements about the role of technology in society. Examining the technological fix criticism can clarify these underlying philosophical disagreements and the debate over biotechnology. The first part of this essay discusses the (...)
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  19. Karl Rogers (2008). Participatory Democracy, Science and Technology: An Exploration in the Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 125.0
    Taking insights from the philosophy of science and technology, theories of participatory democracy and Critical Theory, the author tackles and explores how democratic participation in scientific research and technological innovation could be possible, as a deliberative means of improving the rational basis for the development of modern society.
     
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  20. Sang-Chul Park (2012). Competitiveness of East Asian Science Cities: Discourse on Their Status as Global or Local Innovative Clusters. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (4):451-464.score: 123.0
    In a knowledge-based economy of the globalizing economic order, the role of regions is very significant in order to create and to disperse knowledge. Particularly, geographical clusters of firms in a single sub-national region may contribute to transmitting certain kinds of knowledge between and among firms. In addition, markets prefer to favor specialized firms with a coherent body of knowledge when knowledge creation and the use of new knowledge become increasingly important for maintaining and improving a firm’s competitiveness. Therefore, regional (...)
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  21. Vincent di Norcia (2005). Intellectual Property and the Commercialization of Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):203-219.score: 122.3
    Concern about the commercialization of research is rising, notably in testing new drugs. The problem involves oversimplified, polarizing assumptions about research and development (R&D) and intellectual property (IP). To address this problem this paper sets forth a more complex three phase RT&D process, involving Scientific Research (R), Technological Innovation (T), and Commercial Product Development (D) or the RT&D process. Scientific research and innovation testing involve costly intellectual work and do not produce free goods, but rather require IP regulation. RT&D (...)
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  22. Vincent Norcia (2005). Intellectual Property and the Commercialization of Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):203-219.score: 122.3
    Concern about the commercialization of research is rising, notably in testing new drugs. The problem involves oversimplified, polarizing assumptions about research and development (R&D) and intellectual property (IP). To address this problem this paper sets forth a more complex three phase RT&D process, involving Scientific Research (R), Technological Innovation (T), and Commercial Product Development (D) or the RT&D process. Scientific research and innovation testing involve costly intellectual work and do not produce free goods, but rather require IP regulation. RT&D (...)
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  23. Charles Weiss (2012). On the Teaching of Science, Technology and International Affairs. Minerva 50 (1):127-137.score: 120.0
    Despite the ubiquity and critical importance of science and technology in international affairs, their role receives insufficient attention in traditional international relations curricula. There is little literature on how the relations between science, technology, economics, politics, law and culture should be taught in an international context. Since it is impossible even for scientists to master all the branches of natural science and engineering that affect public policy, the learning goals of students whose primary training is in the (...)
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  24. A. Wolf (1935/1999). A History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. Thoemmes Press.score: 114.0
    Wolf's study represents an incredible work of scholarship. A full and detailed account of three centuries of innovation, these two volumes provide a complete portrait of the foundations of modern science and philosophy. Tracing the origins and development of the achievements of the modern age, it is the story of the birth and growth of the modern mind. A thoroughly comprehensive sourcebook, it deals with all the important developments in science and many of the innovations in the (...)
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  25. Steven M. Flipse, Maarten C. A. Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer (2013). The Why and How of Enabling the Integration of Social and Ethical Aspects in Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):703-725.score: 112.0
    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations (...)
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  26. Steven M. Flipse, Maarten Ca van der Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer (2013). The Why and How of Enabling the Integration of Social and Ethical Aspects in Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):703-725.score: 112.0
    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations (...)
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  27. Alan Irwin & Brian Wynne (eds.) (1996). Misunderstanding Science?: The Public Reconstruction of Science and Technology. Cambridge University Press.score: 107.0
    Misunderstanding Science? offers a challenging new perspective on the public understanding of science. In so doing, it also challenges existing ideas of the nature of science and its relationships with society. Its analysis and case presentation are highly relevant to current concerns over the uptake, authority, and effectiveness of science as expressed, for example, in areas such as education, medical/health practice, risk and the environment, technological innovation. Based on several in-depth case-studies, and informed theoretically by (...)
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  28. Benoît Godin (2010). Innovation Without the Word: William F. Ogburn's Contribution to the Study of Technological Innovation. [REVIEW] Minerva 48 (3):277-307.score: 105.0
    The history of innovation as a category is dominated by economists and by the contribution of J. A. Schumpeter. This paper documents the contribution of a neglected but influential author, the American sociologist William F. Ogburn. Over a period of more than 30 years, Ogburn developed pioneering ideas on three dimensions of technological innovation: origins, diffusion, and effects. He also developed the first conceptual framework for innovation studies—based on the concept of cultural lags—which led to studying and forecasting the (...)
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  29. David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.) (1997). The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press.score: 105.0
    The basic idea of the particular way of understanding mental phenomena that has inspired the "cognitive revolution" is that, as a result of certain relatively recent intellectual and technological innovations, informed theorists now possess a more powerfully insightful comparison or model for mind than was available to any thinkers in the past. The model in question is that of software, or the list of rules for input, output, and internal transformations by which we determine and control the workings (...)
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  30. Joseph Howard Spear (2004). Cumulative Change in Scientific Production: Research Technologies and the Structuring of New Knowledge. Perspectives on Science 12 (1):55-85.score: 99.0
    : This paper seeks to contribute to the development of a sociological understanding of scientific change. It first presents a conceptual framework for defining and understanding the conditions that give rise to episodes of cumulative change (both as the selective reconstruction of events and as the patterned structuring of innovations over time and across different settings). It argues that one of the most powerful structuring mechanisms is the existence of standardized research technologies. Then, the development of electroencephalography (EEG) is (...)
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  31. Michael Davis & Kelly Laas (2013). “Broader Impacts” or “Responsible Research and Innovation”? A Comparison of Two Criteria for Funding Research in Science and Engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-21.score: 98.0
    Our subject is how the experience of Americans with a certain funding criterion, “broader impacts” (and some similar criteria) may help in efforts to turn the European concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into a useful guide to funding Europe’s scientific and technical research. We believe this comparison may also be as enlightening for Americans concerned with revising research policy. We have organized our report around René Von Schomberg’s definition of RRI, since it seems both to cover what the (...)
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  32. Weimin Sun (2009). Chinese Logic and the Absence of Theoretical Sciences in Ancient China. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (4).score: 96.0
    In this essay, I examine the nature of Chinese logic and Chinese sciences in the history of China. I conclude that Chinese logic is essentially analogical, and that the Chinese did not have theoretical sciences. I then connect these together and explain why the Chinese failed to develop theoretical sciences, even though they enjoyed an advanced civilization and great scientific and technological innovations. This is because a deductive system of logic is necessary for the development of theoretical sciences, (...)
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  33. Rachelle D. Hollander (2002). Social Genomics: Genomic Inventions in Society. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (4):485-496.score: 96.0
    This paper identifies several kinds of intellectual mistakes that proponents of genetic engineering make, in defending their views and characterizing the views of their opponents. Results from research in the social sciences and humanities illuminate the nature of these mistakes. The mistakes themselves play a role in allowing proponents to gather support from other protagonists in the social controversies involving science and technology. Understanding the controversies requires understanding that innovations are components of complex and ill-structured social problems; the (...)
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  34. Lorenzo Magnani, Walter Carnielli & Claudio Pizzi (eds.) (2010). MODEL-BASED REASONING IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Springer.score: 93.0
    This volume is based on the papers presented at the international conference Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology (MBR09_BRAZIL), held at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil, December 2009. The presentations given at the conference explored how scientific cognition, but several other kinds as well, use models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. Some speakers addressed the problem of model-based reasoning in technology, and stressed the issue of science and (...)
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  35. Karen Kastenhofer (2010). Do We Need a Specific Kind of Technoscience Assessment? Taking the Convergence of Science and Technology Seriously. Poiesis and Praxis 7 (1-2):37-54.score: 93.0
    The presented paper addresses the concept of technoscience and its possible implications for technology assessment. Drawing on the discourse about converging technologies, it formulates the assumption that a general shift within science from epistemic cultures to techno-epistemic cultures lies at the heart of the propagated convergence between nano-, bio-, info- and cogno-sciences and technologies. This shift is adequately captured—so the main thesis—by the technoscience label. The paper elaborates on the shared characteristics of the new technosciences, especially their hybrid character (...)
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  36. Hans Radder (2013). Exploring Philosophical Issues in the Patenting of Scientific and Technological Inventions. Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):283-300.score: 92.0
    Thus far, the philosophical study of patenting has primarily focused on sociopolitical, legal, and ethical issues, such as the moral justifiability of patenting living organisms or the nature of (intellectual) property. In addition, however, the theory and practice of patenting entails many important problems that can be fruitfully studied from the perspective of the philosophy of science and technology. The principal aim of this article is to substantiate the latter claim. For this purpose, I first provide a concise review (...)
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  37. Luciano Kay (2012). Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Innovation Prizes as a Government Policy Instrument. Minerva 50 (2):191-196.score: 92.0
    Inducement prizes have been long used to stimulate individuals and groups to accomplish diverse goals. Lately, governments have become more and more interested in these prizes and sought to include this kind of incentives within the set of policy tools available to promote science, technology, and innovation. To date, however, there has been little empirically-based scientific knowledge on how to design, manage, and evaluate innovation prizes. This note discusses aspects of the prize phenomenon and the opportunities and challenges related (...)
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  38. Barry J. Fishman & Joseph Krajcik (2003). What Does It Mean to Create Sustainable Science Curriculum Innovations? A Commentary. Science Education 87 (4):564-573.score: 90.0
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  39. K. Sylwester (2001). The Political Economy of Science, Technology and Innovation. Knowledge Technology and Policy 13 (4):130-132.score: 90.0
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  40. Weimin Xu, Zheng Cui & Li Zhang (2012). Big Science and the Contemporary Paradigm Shift of Technology Innovation. Science and Society 1:014.score: 90.0
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  41. John S. Gardenier (2003). Shackling the Shoulders of Giants. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (3):425-434.score: 88.0
    This paper informally summarizes a two-day symposium held at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., September 5–6, 2002. The issue was to what extent the progress of science and societal capacity for continued technological innovation are threatened by excessive protection of intellectual property. Excessive protection creates disadvantages not only for scientists and inventors but also for educators/students and for librarians/clientele. Speakers from a variety of disciplines and institutions agreed unanimously that scientific and technological (...)
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  42. Ricard V. Solée, Sergi Valverde, Marti Rosas Casals, Stuart A. Kauffman, Doyne Farmer & Niles Eldredge (2013). The Evolutionary Ecology of Technological Innovations. Complexity 18 (4):15-27.score: 88.0
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  43. Fabrice Jotterand (2008). Beyond Therapy and Enhancement: The Alteration of Human Nature. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 2 (1):15-23.score: 87.0
    With the rapid progress and considerable promise of nanobiotechnology/neurosciences there is the potential of transforming the very nature of human beings and of how humans can conceive of themselves as rational animals through technological innovations. The interface between humans and machines (neuro-digital interface), can potentially alter what it means to be human, i.e., the very idea of human nature and of normal functioning will be changed. In this paper, I argue that we are potentially on the verge of (...)
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  44. Andrew Jamison (2009). Can Nanotechnology Be Just? On Nanotechnology and the Emerging Movement for Global Justice. Nanoethics 3 (2):129-136.score: 87.0
    Because of the overly market-oriented way in which technological development is carried out, there is a great amount of hubris in regard to how scientific and technological achievements are used in society. There is a tendency to exaggerate the potential commercial benefits and willfully neglect the social, cultural, and environmental consequences of most, if not all innovations, especially in new fields such as nanotechnology. At the same time, there are very few opportunities, or sites, for ensuring that (...)
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  45. J. L. Heilbron (ed.) (2005). The Oxford Guide to the History of Physics and Astronomy. Oxford University Press.score: 87.0
    With over 150 alphabetically arranged entries about key scientists, concepts, discoveries, technological innovations, and learned institutions, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy traces the history of physics and astronomy from the Renaissance to the present. For students, teachers, historians, scientists, and readers of popular science books such as Galileo's Daughter, this guide deciphers the methods and philosophies of physics and astronomy as well as the historical periods from which they emerged. Meant to serve the lay reader (...)
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  46. Erik Fisher (2011). Editorial Overview. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):607-620.score: 86.0
    Science policy mandates across the industrialized world insinuate more active roles for publics, their earlier participation in policy decisions, and expanded notions of science and technology governance. In response to these policies, engaged scholars in science studies have sought to design and conduct exercises aimed at better attuning science to its public contexts. As demand increases for innovative and potentially democratic forms of public engagement with science and technology, so also do the prospects for insights (...)
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  47. Thomas Nickles (2009). Life at the Frontier: The Relevance of Heuristic Appraisal to Policy. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 19 (4):441-464.score: 85.0
    Economic competitive advantage depends on innovation, which in turn requires pushing back the frontiers of various kinds of knowledge. Although understanding how knowledge grows ought to be a central topic of epistemology, epistemologists and philosophers of science have given it insufficient attention, even deliberately shunning the topic. Traditional confirmation theory and general epistemology offer little help at the frontier, because they are mostly retrospective rather than prospective. Nor have philosophers been highly visible in the science and technology policy (...)
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  48. Rosalyn W. Berne (2004). Towards the Conscientious Development of Ethical Nanotechnology. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):627-638.score: 84.0
    Nanotechnology, the emerging capability of human beings to observe and organize matter at the atomic level, has captured the attention of the federal government, science and engineering communities, and the general public. Some proponents are referring to nanotechnology as “the next technological revolution”. Applications projected for this new evolution in technology span a broad range from the design and fabrication of new membranes, to improved fuel cells, to sophisticated medical prosthesis techniques, to tiny intelligent machines whose impact on (...)
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  49. Mary Tiles (2009). Technology and the Possibility of Global Environmental Science. Synthese 168 (3):433 - 452.score: 84.0
    Global environmental science, in its current configuration as predominantly interdisciplinary earth systems analysis, owes its existence to technological development in three respects. (1) Environmental impacts of globalization of corporate and military industrial development linked to widespread use of new technologies prompted investigation of ways to understand and anticipate the global nature of such impacts. (2) Extension of the reach of technology itself demands extension of attempts to anticipate and control the environment in which the technology is to function. (...)
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  50. Mark A. Bedau (2013). Minimal Memetics and the Evolution of Patented Technology. Foundations of Science 18 (4):791-807.score: 84.0
    The nature and status of cultural evolution and its connection with biological evolution are controversial in part because of Richard Dawkin’s suggestion that the scientific study of culture should include “memetics,” an analog of genetics in which genes are replaced by “memes”—the hypothetical units of cultural evolution. Memetics takes different forms; I focus on its minimal form, which claims merely that natural selection shapes to some extent the evolution of some aspects of culture. Advocates and critics of memetics disagree about (...)
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