Search results for 'Scientific method' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John T. Sanders, Dynamical Systems and Scientific Method.score: 240.0
    Progress in the last few decades in what is widely known as “Chaos Theory” has plainly advanced understanding in the several sciences it has been applied to. But the manner in which such progress has been achieved raises important questions about scientific method and, indeed, about the very objectives and character of science. In this presentation, I hope to engage my audience in a discussion of several of these important new topics.
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  2. Paul Humphreys (1995). Computational Science and Scientific Method. Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.score: 216.0
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
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  3. A. Campbell Garnett (1942). Scientific Method and the Concept of Emergence. Journal of Philosophy 39 (August):477-86.score: 210.0
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  4. H. Rogosin (1942). Scientific Method in Current Psychology. Philosophy of Science 9 (April):183-188.score: 210.0
  5. James Scott Johnston (2002). John Dewey and the Role of Scientific Method in Aesthetic Experience. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):1-15.score: 192.0
    In this paper I examine a controversy ongoingwithin current Deweyan philosophy of educationscholarship regarding the proper role and scopeof science in Dewey's concept of inquiry. Theside I take is nuanced. It is one that issensitive to the importance that Dewey attachesto science as the best method of solvingproblems, while also sensitive to thosestatements in Dewey that counter a wholesalereductivism of inquiry to scientific method. Iutilize Dewey's statements regarding the placeaccorded to inquiry in aesthetic experiences ascharacteristic of his (...)
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  6. Nicholas Maxwell (1972). A Critique of Popper's Views on Scientific Method. Philosophy of Science 39 (2):131-152.score: 180.0
    This paper considers objections to Popper's views on scientific method. It is argued that criticism of Popper's views, developed by Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos, are not too damaging, although they do require that Popper's views be modified somewhat. It is argued that a much more serious criticism is that Popper has failed to provide us with any reason for holding that the methodological rules he advocates give us a better hope of realizing the aims of science than any (...)
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  7. Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.) (2000). After Popper, Kuhn, and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 180.0
    Some think that issues to do with scientific method are last century's stale debate; Popper was an advocate of methodology, but Kuhn, Feyerabend, and others are alleged to have brought the debate about its status to an end. The papers in this volume show that issues in methodology are still very much alive. Some of the papers reinvestigate issues in the debate over methodology, while others set out new ways in which the debate has developed in the last (...)
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  8. Jesus P. Zamora Bonilla (2000). Truthlikeness, Rationality And Scientific Method. Synthese 122 (3):321-335.score: 180.0
    I. A. Kieseppä's criticism of the methodological use of the theory of verisimilitude, and D. B. Resnik's arguments against the explanation of scientific method by appeal to scientific aims are critically considered. Since the notion of verisimilitude was introduced as an attempt to show that science can be seen as a rational enterprise in the pursuit of truth, defenders of the verisimilitude programme need to show that scientific norms can be interpreted (at least in principle) as (...)
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  9. James Blachowicz (2009). How Science Textbooks Treat Scientific Method: A Philosopher's Perspective. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):303--344.score: 180.0
    This paper examines, from the point of view of a philosopher of science, what it is that introductory science textbooks say and do not say about 'scientific method'. Seventy introductory texts in a variety of natural and social sciences provided the material for this study. The inadequacy of these textbook accounts is apparent in three general areas: (a) the simple empiricist view of science that tends to predominate; (b) the demarcation between scientific and non-scientific inquiry and (...)
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  10. Katherine Dunlop (2013). Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology by William L. Harper (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (3):489-491.score: 180.0
    Not a full treatment of Newton’s scientific method, this book discusses his optical research only in passing (342–43). Its subtitle better indicates its scope: it focuses narrowly on the argument for universal gravitation in Book III of the Principia. The philosophical project is to set out an “ideal of empirical success” realized by the argument. Newton claims his method is to “deduce” propositions “from phenomena.” On Harper’s interpretation Newton’s phenomena are patterns of data, which are used to (...)
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  11. Willem R. de Jong (1986). Hobbes's Logic: Language and Scientific Method. History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (2):123-142.score: 180.0
    This paper analyses the relationship between Hobbes's theory of language and his theory of science and method. It is shown that Hobbes, at least in his Computatio sive Logica (1655), deviates in some measure from the traditional (Aristotelian) model of language. In this model speech is considered to be a fairly unproblematic expression of thought, which itself is independent of language. Basing himself on a nominalist account of universals, Hobbes states that the demonstration or assertion of universal propositions presupposes (...)
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  12. Darrin W. Belousek (1998). Husserl on Scientific Method and Conceptual Change: A Realist Appraisal. Synthese 115 (1):71-98.score: 180.0
    Husserl claimed that all theoretical scientific concepts originate in and are valid in reference to 'life-world' experience and that scientific traditions preserve the sense and validity of such concepts through unitary and cumulative change. Each of these claims will, in turn, be sympathetically laid out and assessed in comparison with more standard characterizations of scientific method and conceptual change as well as the history of physics, concerning particularly the challenge they may pose for scientific realism. (...)
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  13. William T. Lynch (2005). The Ghost of Wittgenstein: Forms of Life, Scientific Method, and Cultural Critique. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):139-174.score: 180.0
    In developing an "internal" sociology of science, the sociology of scientific knowledge drew on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy to reinterpret traditional epistemological topics in sociological terms. By construing scientific reasoning as rule following within a collective, sociologists David Bloor and Harry Collins effectively blocked outside criticism of a scientific field, whether scientific, philosophical, or political. Ethnomethodologist Michael Lynch developed an alternative, Wittgensteinian reading that similarly blocked philosophical or political critique, while also disallowing analytical appeals to historical or (...)
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  14. Steven Gimbel (ed.) (2011). Exploring the Scientific Method: Cases and Questions. The University of Chicago Press.score: 180.0
    This is not how science works. But science does work, and here award-winning teacher and scholar Steven Gimbel provides students the tools to answer for themselves this question: What actually is the scientific method?
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  15. Abraham D. Stone, On Scientific Method As a Method for Testing the Legitimacy of Concepts.score: 180.0
    Traditional attempts to delineate the distinctive rationality of modern science have taken it for granted that the purpose of empirical research is to test judgments. The choice of concepts to use in those judgments is therefore seen either a matter of indifference (Popper) or as important choice which must be made, so to speak, in advance of all empirical research (Carnap). I argue that scientific method aims precisely at empirical testing of concepts, and that even the simplest (...) ex- periment or observation results in conceptual change. (shrink)
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  16. P. Kosso (2009). The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method. Science and Education 18 (1):33-42.score: 180.0
    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media (...)
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  17. Gary G. Tibbetts (2013). How the Great Scientists Reasoned: The Scientific Method in Action. Elsevier.score: 180.0
    1. Introduction : humanity's urge to understand -- 2. Elements of scientific thinking : skepticism, careful reasoning, and exhaustive evaluation are all vital. Science Is universal -- Maintaining a critical attitude. Reasonable skepticism -- Respect for the truth -- Reasoning. Deduction -- Induction -- Paradigm shifts -- Evaluating scientific hypotheses. Ockham's razor -- Quantitative evaluation -- Verification by others -- Statistics : correlation and causation -- Statistics : the indeterminacy of the small -- Careful definition -- Science at (...)
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  18. Jesus P. Zamora Bonilla (2000). Truthlikeness, Rationality and Scientific Method. Synthese 122 (3):321 - 335.score: 180.0
    I. A. Kieseppä's criticism of the methodological use of the theory of verisimilitude, and D. B. Resnik's arguments against the explanation of scientific method by appeal to scientific aims are critically considered. Since the notion of verisimilitude was introduced as an attempt to show that science can be seen as a rational enterprise in the pursuit of truth, defenders of the verisimilitude programme need to show that scientific norms can be interpreted (at least in principle) as (...)
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  19. Robert Nola (2007). Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction. Acumen.score: 180.0
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? -/- Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just “pick up” in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is (...)
     
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  20. Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.) (1973). Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington,Indiana University Press.score: 180.0
     
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  21. Donald Gillies (1996). Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method. OUP Oxford.score: 180.0
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. -/- Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies focuses on two key topics within AI: machine learning in the Turing tradition and the development of logic programming and its connection with non-monotonic logic. Demonstrating how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, he goes on to suggest (...)
     
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  22. L. Pearce Williams (1973). Kant, Naturphilosophie, and Scientific Method. In Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.), Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington,Indiana University Press. 3--22.score: 180.0
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  23. Carol Cleland, Historical Science, Experimental Science, and the Scientific Method.score: 174.0
    Many scientists believe that there is a uniform, interdisciplinary method for the prac- tice of good science. The paradigmatic examples, however, are drawn from classical ex- perimental science. Insofar as historical hypotheses cannot be tested in controlled labo- ratory settings, historical research is sometimes said to be inferior to experimental research. Using examples from diverse historical disciplines, this paper demonstrates that such claims are misguided. First, the reputed superiority of experimental research is based upon accounts of scientific methodology (...)
     
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  24. Salim Rashid (1994). John von Neumann, Scientific Method and Empirical Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 1 (2):279-294.score: 174.0
    The evolution of John von Neumann's scientific interests and a study of his writings show that von Neumann increasingly supported an empirical, computational method. This is in stark contrast with the extant view of von Neumann as a pure theorist.
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  25. H. Heath Bawden (1904). The Necessity From the Standpoint of Scientific Method of a Reconstruction of the Ideas of the Psychical and the Physical. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1 (3):62-68.score: 164.0
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  26. Ralph M. Blake (1960/1989). Theories of Scientific Method: The Renaissance Through the Nineteenth Century. Gordon and Breach.score: 164.0
    This historical compendium investigates scientific methods conceived between the Renaissance and the nineteenth century. Beginning with attacks on Scholasticism and the rist of the New Science, the authors explain the roles of both major andminor figures in describing scientific methods. Although the chapters are interrelated and contain explicit comparisons, each chapter is a complete study in itself. The authors' emphasis on writing for the non-specialist and their liberal use of primary sources make this an outstanding textbook.
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  27. Alban D. Sorensen (1904). A Criticism of Scientific Method as Applied by Sociologists. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1 (6):141-148.score: 164.0
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  28. J. Doyne Farmer (2014). Hypotheses Non Fingo: Problems with the Scientific Method in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (4):377-385.score: 164.0
    Although it is often said that economics is too much like physics, to a physicist economics is not at all like physics. The difference is in the scientific methods of the two fields: theoretical economics uses a top down approach in which hypothesis and mathematical rigor come first and empirical confirmation comes second. Physics, in contrast, embraces the bottom up ‘experimental philosophy’ of Newton, in which ‘hypotheses are inferred from phenomena, and afterward rendered general by induction’. Progress would accelerates (...)
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  29. William Ernest Hocking (1910). Analogy and Scientific Method in Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 7 (6):161.score: 164.0
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  30. Henry Heath Bawden (1919). Psychology and Scientific Method. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 16 (22):603-609.score: 164.0
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  31. Luca Moretti (2014). String Theory and the Scientific Method: Interview with Richard Dawid. The Reasoner 8 (8):87-89.score: 162.0
  32. Paul Feyerabend (1981). Realism, Rationalism, and Scientific Method. Cambridge University Press.score: 162.0
    Over the past thirty years Paul Feyerabend has developed an extremely distinctive and influentical approach to problems in the philosophy of science. The most important and seminal of his published essays are collected here in two volumes, with new introductions to provide an overview and historical perspective on the discussions of each part. Volume 1 presents papers on the interpretation of scientific theories, together with papers applying the views developed to particular problems in philosophy and physics. The essays in (...)
     
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  33. Barry Gower (1997). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.score: 156.0
    The results, conclusions and claims of science are often taken to be reliable because they arise from the use of a distinctive method. Yet today, there is widespread skepticism as to whether we can validly talk of method in modern science. This outstanding survey explains how this controversy has developed since the 17th century, and explores its philosophical basis.
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  34. Paul Feyerabend (1980). Democracy, Elitism, and Scientific Method. Inquiry 23 (1):3 – 18.score: 156.0
    Scientific standards cannot be separated from the practice of science and their use presupposes immersion in this practice. The demand to base political action on scientific standards therefore leads to elitism. Democratic relativism, on the other hand, demands equal rights for all traditions or, conversely, a separation between the state and any one of the traditions it contains; for example, it demands the separation of state and science, state and humanitarianism, state and Christianity. Democratic relativism defends the rights (...)
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  35. A. T. Nuyen (1990). Truth, Method, and Objectivity Husserl and Gadamer on Scientific Method. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 20 (4):437-452.score: 156.0
    There is a common concern in some of the writings of Husserl and Gadamer. It is the concern to defend the legitimacy and dignity of the "human sciences." They argue from the methodological standpoint that the method of the natural sciences leaves out the relationship between the object of inquiry and the inquirer. This relationship plays a key role in "understanding," which is the concem of the human sciences. In explicating it, Husserl and Gadamer stress the role of the (...)
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  36. Allan Gotthelf (2012). Teleology, First Principles, and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Biology. OUP Oxford.score: 156.0
    This volume presents an interconnected set of sixteen essays, four of which are previously unpublished, by Allan Gotthelf--one of the leading experts in the study of Aristotle's biological writings. Gotthelf addresses three main topics across Aristotle's three main biological treatises. Starting with his own ground-breaking study of Aristotle's natural teleology and its illuminating relationship with the Generation of Animals, Gotthelf proceeds to the axiomatic structure of biological explanation (and the first principles such explanation proceeds from) in the Parts of Animals. (...)
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  37. Fedde Benedictus (2014). String Theory & the Scientific Method. Foundations of Physics 44 (6):589-593.score: 156.0
    The PreambleIn the early seventies the newly discovered gauge symmetries had made it possible to give a unified description of three of the four basic forces in nature.Dawid [1]. However, it remained a mystery how the force of gravity was to be incorporated in the resulting standard model. In 1974 it was proposed by Joel Scherk and John Schwarz that string theory—which until then was regarded as a theory only of hadrons—was a theory that could unite the whole of microphysics. (...)
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  38. Francisco J. Ayala (1994). On the Scientific Method, Its Practice and Pitfalls. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):205 - 240.score: 156.0
    This paper sets forth a familiar theme, that science essentially consists of two interdependent episodes, one imaginative, the other critical. Hypotheses and other imaginative conjectures are the initial stage of scientific inquiry because they provide the incentive to seek the truth and a clue as to where to find it. But scientific conjectures must be subject to critical examination and empirical testing. There is a dialogue between the two episodes; observations made to test a hypothesis are the inspiration (...)
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  39. Imre Lakatos, Paul Feyerabend & Matteo Motterlini (2000). For and Against Method: Including Lakatos's Lectures on Scientific Method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend Correspondence. University of Chicago Press.score: 156.0
    The work that helped to determine Paul Feyerabend's fame and notoriety, Against Method,stemmed from Imre Lakatos's challenge: "In 1970 Imre cornered me at a party. 'Paul,' he said, 'you have such strange ideas.
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  40. Peter Achinstein (1992). Waves and Scientific Method. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:193 - 204.score: 156.0
    Laudan and Cantor maintain that there exists a methodological gulf between 19th century wave theorists of light, who employed a method of hypothesis, and 18th and 19th century particle theorists, who were inductivists. This paper examines how in fact wave theorists typically argued for their theory, in order to see to what extent their reasoning corresponds to the method of hypothesis or to inductivism in sophisticated versions of these doctrines offered by Whewell and Mill. It also examines how, (...)
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  41. Morris Raphael Cohen (1944). An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method. [Madison, Wis.]Pub. For the United States Armed Forces Institute by Harcourt, Brace and Company.score: 156.0
    A text that would find a place for the realistic formalism of Aristotle, the scientific penetration of Peirce, the pedagogical soundness of Dewey, and the ...
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  42. Matthias Kuhle & Sabine Kuhle (2010). Connecting Information with Scientific Method: Darwin's Significance for Epistemology. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (2):333 - 357.score: 156.0
    Theories of epistemology make reference—via the perspective of an observer—to the structure of information transfer, which generates reality, of which the observer himself forms a part. It can be shown that any epistemological approach which implies the participation of tautological structural elements in the information transfer necessarily leads to an antinomy. Nevertheless, since the time of Aristotle the paradigm of mathematics—and thus tautological structure—has always been a hidden ingredient in the various concepts of knowledge acquisition or general theories of information (...)
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  43. Philip McShane (2004). Lonergan's Meaning of Complete in the Fifth Canon of Scientific Method. Journal of Macrodynamic Analysis 4.score: 156.0
    I follow the editor’s suggestion in dividing this essay into sections dealing with a) content, b) context, c) personal context. However, I break the personal reflections into two sections that bracket the presentation of content and context. So, sections 1 and 4 present my personal perspective; section 2 is a shot at a hypothetical expression of the content of Lonergan’s meaning of complete; section 3 handles the context problem. The immediately relevant expressed contexts for the effort here are The Sketch (...)
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  44. Some Key Elements in Scientific Thinking (1985). Scientific Method in Geography1 Alan Hay. In R. J. Johnston (ed.), The Future of Geography. Methuen.score: 156.0
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  45. John Stuart Mill (1950/2005). Philosophy of Scientific Method. Dover Publications.score: 152.0
    The dominant figure of mid-nineteenth-century British political economy, John Stuart Mill exercised a lasting influence on philosophical thought. This compact statement of Mill's doctrines starts with an informative Introduction by editor Ernest Nagel and proceeds with extracts from A System of Logic that clarify Mill's processes of reasoning. The following five-part treatment draws upon the philosopher's major works to consider names and propositions; reasoning; induction; operations subsidiary to induction; and the logic of the moral sciences. Selections from An Examination of (...)
     
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  46. Philip L. Quinn (1979). Book Review:Religion and Scientific Method George Schlesinger. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 46 (1):170-.score: 150.0
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  47. Joseph Becker (1993). The Essential Nature of the Method of the Natural Sciences: Response to A. T. Nuyen's "Truth, Method, and Objectivity: Husserl and Gadamer on Scientific Method&Quot;. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (1):73-76.score: 150.0
  48. Nancy Cartwright (1995). False Idealisation: A Philosophical Threat to Scientific Method. Philosophical Studies 77 (2-3):339 - 352.score: 150.0
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  49. Bertrand Russell (1914/2009). Our Knowledge of the External World: As a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. Routledge.score: 150.0
    Philosophy, from the earliest times, has made greater claims, and achieved fewer results, than any other branch of learning. In Our Knowledge of the External World , Bertrand Russell illustrates instances where the claims of philosophers have been excessive, and examines why their achievements have not been greater.
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