Search results for 'Scientist' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. A. T. Scientist (2011). The Social Scientist at Nazarene Institutions. Telos: The Destination for Nazarene Higher Education 1.
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  2.  36
    Massimo Pigliucci (2015). Scientism and Pseudoscience: A Philosophical Commentary. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):569-575.
    The term “scientism” is used in a variety of ways with both negative and positive connotations. I suggest that some of these uses are inappropriate, as they aim simply at dismissing without argument an approach that a particular author does not like. However, there are legitimate negative uses of the term, which I explore by way of an analogy with the term “pseudoscience.” I discuss these issues by way of a recent specific example provided by a controversy in the field (...)
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  3. Ian James Kidd (forthcoming). Is Scientism Epistemically Vicious? In Jeroen de Ridder, Rik Peels & René van Woudenberg (eds.), Scientism: Prospects and Problems. Oxford University Press
    This chapter offers a virtue epistemological framework for making sense of the common complaint that scientism is arrogant, dogmatic, or otherwise epistemically vicious. After characterising scientism in terms of stances , I argue that their components can include epistemically vicious dispositions, with the consequence that an agent who adopts such stances can be led to manifest epistemic vices. The main focus of the chapter is the vice of closed-mindedness, but I go on to consider the idea that arrogance and dogmatism (...)
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  4.  1
    Scott J. Fitzpatrick (2015). Scientism as a Social Response to the Problem of Suicide. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):613-622.
    As one component of a broader social and normative response to the problem of suicide, scientism served to minimize sociopolitical and religious conflict around the issue. As such, it embodied, and continues to embody, a number of interests and values, as well as serving important social functions. It is thus comparable with other normative frameworks and can be appraised, from an ethical perspective, in light of these values, interests, and functions. This work examines the key values, interests, and functions of (...)
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  5. Camisha Russell (2015). The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):601-612.
    This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race (...)
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  6.  74
    Michael Loughlin, George Lewith & Torkel Falkenberg (2013). Science, Practice and Mythology: A Definition and Examination of the Implications of Scientism in Medicine. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (2):130-145.
    Scientism is a philosophy which purports to define what the world ‘really is’. It adopts what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called ‘an epistemological criterion of reality’, defining what is real as that which can be discovered by certain quite specific methods of investigation. As a consequence all features of experience not revealed by those methods are deemed ‘subjective’ in a way that suggests they are either not real, or lie beyond the scope of meaningful rational inquiry. This devalues capacities that (...)
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  7. Ian James Kidd (2015). Doing Science an Injustice: Midgley on Scientism. In Ian James Kidd & Elizabeth McKinnell (eds.), Science and the Self: Animals, Evolution, and Ethics: Essays in Honour of Mary Midgley. Routledge 151-167.
    In this chapter, I offer an account of Midgley‘s critique of scientism that converges on the claim that, among its many faults, scientism is objectionable because it does science an injustice.
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  8. Gregory M. Nixon (2013). Scientism, Philosophy and Brain-Based Learning. Northwest Journal of Teacher Education 11 (2):113-144.
    [This is an edited and improved version of "You Are Not Your Brain: Against 'Teaching to the Brain'" previously published in *Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning* 5(15), Summer 2012.] Since educators are always looking for ways to improve their practice, and since empirical science is now accepted in our worldview as the final arbiter of truth, it is no surprise they have been lured toward cognitive neuroscience in hopes that discovering how the brain learns will provide a nutshell explanation (...)
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  9.  65
    Rik Peels, A Conceptual Map of Scientism.
    I argue that scientism in general is best understood as the thesis that the boundaries of the natural sciences should be expanded in order to include academic disciplines or realms of life that are widely considered not to belong to the realm of science. However, every adherent and critic of scientism should make clear which of the many varieties of scientism she adheres to or criticizes. In doing so, she should specify whether she is talking about (a) academic or universal (...)
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  10.  50
    Tom Sorell (1991). Scientism: Philosophy and the Infatuation with Science. Routledge.
    SCIENTISM AND 'SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM' WHAT IS SCIENTISM? Scientism is the belief that science, especially natural science, is much the most valuable part of ...
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  11.  4
    Christopher R. Mayes & Donald B. Thompson (2015). What Should We Eat? Biopolitics, Ethics, and Nutritional Scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):587-599.
    Public health advocates, government agencies, and commercial organizations increasingly use nutritional science to guide food choice and diet as a way of promoting health, preventing disease, or marketing products. We argue that in many instances such references to nutritional science can be characterized as nutritional scientism. We examine three manifestations of nutritional scientism: the simplification of complex science to increase the persuasiveness of dietary guidance, superficial and honorific references to science in order to justify cultural or ideological views about food (...)
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  12.  5
    Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary concern (...)
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  13.  61
    Athony A. Derksen (2001). The Seven Strategies of the Sophisticated Pseudo-Scientist: A Look Into Freud's Rhetorical Tool Box. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 32 (2):329-350.
    In my ‘Seven Sins of Pseudo-Science’ (Journal for General Philosophy of Science 1993) I argued against Grünbaum that Freud commits all Seven Sins of Pseudo-Science. Yet how does Freud manage to fool many people, including such a sophisticated person as Grünbaum? My answer is that Freud is a sophisticated pseudo-scientist, using all Seven Strategies of the Sophisticated Pseudo-Scientist to keep up appearances, to wit, (1) the Humble Empiricist, (2) the Severe Selfcriticism, (3) the Unbiased Me, (4) the Striking (...)
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  14.  29
    Martha Mackay (2009). Why Nursing has Not Embraced the Clinician–Scientist Role. Nursing Philosophy 10 (4):287-296.
    Reasons for the limited uptake of the clinician–scientist role within nursing are examined, specifically: the lack of consensus about the nature of nursing science; the varying approaches to epistemology; and the influence of post-modern thought on knowledge development in nursing. It is suggested that under-development of this role may be remedied by achieving agreement that science is a necessary, worthy pursuit for nursing, and that rigorous science conducted from a clinical perspective serves nursing well. Straddling practice and research is (...)
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  15.  7
    Nicholas Capaldi (1995). Scientism, Deconstruction, and Nihilism. Argumentation 9 (4):563-575.
    I show how scientism leads to deconstruction and both, in turn, lead to nihilism. Nihilism constitutes a denial both of the existence of fallacious moral reasoning and the existence of a moral dimension to fallacious reasoning. I argue against all of these positions by maintaining that (1) there is a pre-theoretical framework of norms within which technical thinking function, (2) the pre-theoretical framework cannot itself be technically conceptualized, and (3) the explication of this framework permits us to identify both fallacies (...)
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  16.  14
    Bill Wringe (2011). Cognitive Individualism and the Child as Scientist Program. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):518-529.
    n this paper, I examine the charge that Gopnik and Meltzoff’s ‘Child as Scientist’ program, outlined and defended in their 1997 book Words, Thoughts and Theories is vitiated by a form of ‘cognitive individualism’ about science. Although this charge has often been leveled at Gopnik and Meltzoff’s work, it has rarely been developed in any detail. -/- I suggest that we should distinguish between two forms of cognitive individualism which I refer to as ‘ontic’ and ‘epistemic’ cognitive individualism (OCI (...)
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  17.  2
    Christopher Mayes, Claire Hooker & Ian Kerridge (2015). Bioethics and Epistemic Scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):565-567.
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  18.  33
    Markus Seidel (2015). Ludwik Fleck's Scientism. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 4 (8):79-88.
    In a recent paper in 'Social Epistemology' Dimitri Ginev aims to show that Ludwik Fleck uses transcendental arguments in two contexts in his work that are closely intertwined: the context of comparative cognitive sociology and the context of socio-historical epistemology. I am skeptical about Ginev’s interpretation and my aim is to show that at least the part of Ginev’s argument in which he aims to show Fleck’s use of transcendental arguments in the context of socio-historical epistemology is not convincing. To (...)
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  19. Ian G. Barbour (2001). Science and Scientism in Huston Smith's Why Religion Matters. Zygon 36 (2):207-214.
  20.  67
    Alison Gopnik (1997). The Scientist as Child. Philosophy of Science 63 (4):485-514.
    This paper argues that there are powerful similarities between cognitive development in children and scientific theory change. These similarities are best explained by postulating an underlying abstract set of rules and representations that underwrite both types of cognitive abilities. In fact, science may be successful largely because it exploits powerful and flexible cognitive devices that were designed by evolution to facilitate learning in young children. Both science and cognitive development involve abstract, coherent systems of entities and rules, theories. In both (...)
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  21.  97
    Michael A. Bishop (2002). The Theory Theory Thrice Over: The Child as Scientist, Superscientist, or Social Institution? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 33 (1):121-36.
    Alison Gopnik and Andrew Meltzoff have argued for a view they call the ‘theory theory’: theory change in science and children are similar. While their version of the theory theory has been criticized for depending on a number of disputed claims, we argue that there is a fundamental problem which is much more basic: the theory theory is multiply ambiguous. We show that it might be claiming that a similarity holds between theory change in children and (i) individual scientists, (ii) (...)
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  22.  5
    D. W. Y. Kwok (1971). Scientism in Chinese Thought, 1900-1950. New York,Biblo and Tannen.
  23. Richard McDonough (1998). Heidegger on Kant on the Alternative to the Scientism of the Enlightenment. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 28 (3):236-254.
    The paper argues that a philosopher who describes his main works as "critiques" of reason cannot be the simple defender of rational science that he is sometimes taken to be. Rather, as Heidegger argues, Kant's program is much deeper and more problematic.
     
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  24. Iain Cameron (1979). Scientific Images and Their Social Uses: An Introduction to the Concept of Scientism. Butterworth.
     
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  25.  16
    Jeffrey B. Adams & Ronald B. Miller (2008). Bridging Psychology's Scientist Vs. Practitioner Divide: Fruits of a Twenty-Five Year Dialogue. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):375-394.
    In 1988, the control of the American Psychological Association shifted to those advocating the interests of professional practice and a substantial segment of the scientific community in psychology seceded to form the American Psychological Society, devoted to scientific psychology and scientific-based practice. In this climate, it has become increasingly difficult for scientists and practitioners to maintain analytical discussions of the philosophical and methodological issues that divide these two groups. For over 25 years, the authors have been fortunate to have the (...)
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  26.  18
    Jiin-Yu Chen (2015). Virtue and the Scientist: Using Virtue Ethics to Examine Science’s Ethical and Moral Challenges. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (1):75-94.
    As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues (...)
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  27.  25
    Joseph Margolis (2003). The Unraveling of Scientism: American Philosophy at the End of the Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press.
    The Unraveling of Scientism, a companion to Joseph Margolis's Reinventing Pragmatism, follows the thread of American analytic philosophy through the second half ...
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  28.  40
    Brian Epstein (2010). The Diviner and the Scientist: Revisiting the Question of Alternative Standards of Rationality. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 78 (4):1048-1086.
    Are the standards of reasoning and rationality in divination, religious practice, and textual exegesis different from those in the sciences? Can there be different standards of reasoning and rationality at all? The intense “rationality debate” of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s focused on these questions and the related problems of relativism across cultures and systems of practice. Although philosophers were at the center of these debates at the time, they may appear to have abandoned the question in recent years. (...)
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  29. Mikael Stenmark (1997). What is Scientism? Religious Studies 33 (1):15-32.
    In this article I try to define more precisely what scientism is and how it is related to a traditional religion such as Christianity. By first examining the writing of a number of contemporary natural scientists (Francis Crick, Richard Dawkins, Stephen Hawking, Carl Sagan and Edward O. Wilson), I show that the concept can be given numerous different meanings. I propose and defend a distinction between epistemic, rationalistic, ontological, axiological and redemptive scientism and it is also explained why we should (...)
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  30. John Forge (2008). The Responsible Scientist. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    When Fat Boy, the first atomic bomb was detonated at Los Alamos, New Mexico in 1945, moral responsibility in science was forever thrust into the forefront of philosophical debate. The culmination of the famed Manhattan Project, which employed many of the world's best scientific minds, was a singular event that signaled a new age of science for power and profit and the monumental responsibility that these actions entailed. Today, the drive for technological advances in areas such as pharmaceuticals, biosciences, communications, (...)
     
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  31.  13
    Ian G. Barbour (2008). Taking Science Seriously Without Scientism: A Response to Taede Smedes. Zygon 43 (1):259-269.
    . In responding to Taede Smedes, I first examine his thesis that the recent dialogue between science and religion has been dominated by scientism and does not take theology seriously. I then consider his views on divine action, free will and determinism, and process philosophy. Finally I use the fourfold typology of Conflict, Independence, Dialogue, and Integration to discuss his proposal for the future of science and religion.
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  32.  22
    Lionel Milgrom & Kate Chatfield (2012). Is Homeopathy Really 'Morally and Ethically Unacceptable'? A Critique of Pure Scientism. Bioethics 26 (9):501-503.
    In this short response we show that Kevin Smith's moral and ethical rejections of homeopathy1 are fallacious and rest on questionable epistemology. Further, we suggest Smith's presumption of a utilitarian stance is an example of scientism encroaching into medicine.
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  33. John Forge (2000). Moral Responsibility and the 'Ignorant Scientist'. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (3):341-349.
    The question whether a scientist can be responsible for an outcome of her work which she does not foresee, and so is ignorant of, is addressed. It is argued that ignorance can be a ground for the attribution of responsibility, on condition that there are general principles, rules or norms, that the subject should be aware of. It is maintained that there are such rules which inform the practice of science as a social institution.
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  34.  9
    Henrique Schneider (2012). Reading Han Fei as "Social Scientist": A Case-Study in "Historical Correspondence". Comparative Philosophy 4 (1):90-102.
    Han Fei was one of the main proponents of Legalism in Qin -era China. Although his works are mostly read from a historic perspective, the aim of this paper is to advance an interpretation of Han Fei as a “social scientist”. The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship that study society and its institutions as a consequence of human behavior. Methodologically, social sciences combine abstract approaches in model-building with empiric investigations, seeking to prove the functioning of the (...)
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  35.  41
    A. F. Shishkin (1966). On the Ethics of the Scientist. Russian Studies in Philosophy 5 (2):3-14.
    Participants in conferences organized by the editors of our journal have repeatedly expressed the desire that questions pertaining to the ethics of the scientist be examined in its pages.
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  36.  38
    James Woelfel (2013). Challengers of Scientism Past and Present: William James and Marilynne Robinson. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 34 (2):175-187.
    Writing more than a century apart, William James and Marilynne Robinson are allies in forcefully and eloquently challenging the claims and widespread appeal of scientism or positivism: the belief that scientific knowledge provides a necessary and sufficient worldview and entails the reduction of all reality, including the world of human subjects, to physical processes. Both James and Robinson are particularly concerned with and critical of the efforts of scientistic reductionism to describe the human life-world entirely in terms of the prevailing (...)
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  37. Massimo Pigliucci (2002). Denying Evolution: Creation, Scientism, and the Nature of Science. Sinauer.
    Denying Evolution aims at taking a fresh look at the evolution–creation controversy. It presents a truly “balanced” treatment, not in the sense of treating creationism as a legitimate scientific theory (it demonstrably is not), but in the sense of dividing the blame for the controversy equally between creationists and scientists—the former for subscribing to various forms of anti-intellectualism, the latter for discounting science education and presenting science as scientism to the public and the media. The central part of the book (...)
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  38.  48
    James Maffie (1995). Naturalism, Scientism and the Independence of Epistemology. Erkenntnis 43 (1):1 - 27.
    Naturalists seek continuity between epistemology and science. Critics argue this illegitimately expands science into epistemology and commits the fallacy of scientism. Must naturalists commit this fallacy? I defend a conception of naturalized epistemology which upholds the non-identity of epistemic ends, norms, and concepts with scientific evidential ends, norms, and concepts. I argue it enables naturalists to avoid three leading scientistic fallacies: dogmatism, one dimensionalism, and granting science an epistemic monopoly.
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  39. C. Hakfoort (1992). Science Deified: Wilhelm Osstwald's Energeticist World-View and the History of Scientism. Annals of Science 49 (6):525-544.
    The life and work of the German chemist and philosopher Wilhelm Ostwald is studied from the angle of scientism. In Ostwald's case scientism amounted to: the construction of a unified science of nature ; its use as the ‘scientific’ basis for an all-embracing philosophy or world-view ; the programme to realize this philosophy in practice, as a secular religion to replace Christianity. Energetics, a generalized thermodynamics, was proposed by Ostwald and others to replace mechanics as the fundamental theory in physical (...)
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  40.  20
    Martin Clifford Underwood (2009). Joseph Rotblat and the Moral Responsibilities of the Scientist. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):129-134.
    Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat was one of the most distinguished scientists and peace campaigners of the post second world war period. He made significant contributions to nuclear physics and worked on the development of the atomic bomb. He then became one of the world’s leading researchers into the biological effects of radiation. His life from the early 1950s until his death in August 2005 was devoted to the abolition of nuclear weapons and peace. For this he was awarded the (...)
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  41.  7
    Irmline Veit-Brause (2002). The Making of Modern Scientific Personae: The Scientist as a Moral Person? Emil Du Bois-Reymond and His Friends. History of the Human Sciences 15 (4):19-49.
    This article examines the notion of the `scientist as a moral person' in the light of the early stages of the commodification of science and the transformation of research into a big enterprise, operating on the principle of the division of labour. These processes were set in train at the end of the 19th century. The article focuses on the concomitant changes in the public persona and the habitus of scientific entrepreneurs. I begin by showing the significance of the (...)
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  42.  28
    Dimitri Ginev (2013). Scrutinizing Scientism From a Hermeneutic Point of View. Social Epistemology 27 (1):68 - 89.
    The paper suggests a critique of scientism by revealing the existential genesis of knowledge-constitutive interests in scientific research. This scenario of overcoming scientism is spelled out in terms of the doctrine of cognitive existentialism. On the doctrine?s central claim, a knowledge-constitutive interest is not fixed and determined by a strongly situated epistemic position that is distinguished by invariant norms of theorizing, methodological devices, cognitive aims, goals, and values. In reflecting upon its situated transcendence, scientific research has a potentiality for discarding (...)
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  43.  35
    Michael Hampe (2007). Thinking, Calculation and Rationality: Remarks on Hobbes' Philosophy of Mind as a Paradigm of Failing Scientism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 89 (1):47-59.
    Looking at Hobbes ' theory of thinking as calculation and truth by convention shows that a certain type of scientism of the mind leads to fundamental problems. If truth is the artefact of social conventions about signs, and if thinking is nothing but the syntactical transformations of sign, a theory of thinking must have both: a strong concept of natural computation and a social theory of establishing sign-conventions. Hobbes does not, like modern physicalist theories of the mind, have both.
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  44.  28
    Hugh Lacey (2003). The Behavioral Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments. Behavior and Philosophy 31:209 - 223.
    I distinguish three matters about which decisions have to be made in scientific activities: (1) adoption of strategy; (2) acceptance of data, hypotheses, and theories; and (3) application of scientific knowledge. I argue that, contrary to the common view that only concerning (3) do values have a legitimate role, value judgments often play indispensable roles in connection with decisions concerning (1)—that certain values may not only be furthered by applications of the scientific knowledge gained under a strategy, but they may (...)
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  45.  11
    Richard McNeill Douglas (2009). The Green Backlash: Scepticism or Scientism? Social Epistemology 23 (2):145 – 163.
    Speakers of the “green backlash” movement frequently advertise their approach as one of rigorous scepticism, and themselves as defenders of scientific method. In reality, their use of scepticism is often highly flawed and inconsistent; this is clearly seen in case examples focusing on Philip Stott's arguments on climate change, and Julian Simon's arguments on physical limits to growth. What this discourse illustrates is that sceptical language is often used as a rhetorical tool for advancing an underlying political philosophy that is (...)
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  46.  1
    Hugh Marshall McHugh & Simon Thomas Walker (2015). “Personal Knowledge” in Medicine and the Epistemic Shortcomings of Scientism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):577-585.
    In this paper, we outline a framework for understanding the different kinds of knowledge required for medical practice and use this framework to show how scientism undermines aspects of this knowledge. The framework is based on Michael Polanyi’s claim that knowledge is primarily the product of the contemplations and convictions of persons and yet at the same time carries a sense of universality because it grasps at reality. Building on Polanyi’s ideas, we propose that knowledge can be described along two (...)
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  47.  4
    David Colander (1995). Is Milton Friedman an Artist or a Scientist? Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):105-122.
    Most economists will agree that Milton Friedman is a brilliant economist. Yet, the majority assessment is that his work is ideologically flawed, and that the Marshallian economics he advocates has been superseded by Walrasian economics. In this paper I argue that the reason for this negative assessment is that Friedman, like Alfred Marshall before him, tried to straddle a fence between policy and logical-deductive theory, combining the artistic science of the historical and institutional school with the logical-deductive science of economics (...)
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  48.  6
    Ján BAŇAS (2006). Albert the Great as a Scientist. Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 13 (1):16-31.
    In the paper the author provides a brief sketch of Albert the Great as a scientist. By quoting passages from his works he shows that Albert the Great had a well-elaborated understanding of science. It is argued that in some aspects Albert was not too far from modern criteria that science and its methodology should meet. Accepting Aristotelian model of science, Albert stressed the need for experience and repeated observation in scientific research. While valuing authority, he examined carefully what (...)
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  49.  6
    John Polanyi (2004). Michael Polanyi, The Scientist. Tradition and Discovery 31 (1):7-10.
    This short reflection comments on Michael Polanyi as a self-educated scientist and reviews the areas of science to which he contributed.
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  50.  16
    Christopher M. Brown (2011). Some Logical Problems for Scientism. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 85:189-200.
    This paper looks at nine different ways of defining scientism in order to show that potential definitions of the term conform to a general pattern: a definition of scientism either is self-defeating or else cannot really count as a construal of scientism in the first place. Advocates for the experimental sciences would therefore be better off accepting a middle position—one might say a broadly Thomistic approach to science—between the extremes of scientism on the one hand and a religious fundamentalism that (...)
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