Search results for 'Scientists Interviews' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. I. S. N. Berkeley (1996). Peter Baumgartner and Sabine Payr (Eds.), Speaking Minds: Interviews with Twenty Eminent Cognitive Scientists. Minds and Machines 6:273-276.score: 120.0
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  2. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1995). Peter Baumgartner and Sabine Payr, Eds., Speaking Minds: Interviews with Twenty Eminent Cognitive Scientists Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 15 (6):380-382.score: 120.0
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  3. Renée Weber (ed.) (1986). Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 90.0
     
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  4. Anna Folker, Lotte Holm & Peter Sandøe (2009). 'We Have to Go Where the Money Is'—Dilemmas in the Role of Nutrition Scientists: An Interview Study. [REVIEW] Minerva 47 (2):217-236.score: 84.0
    In Western societies scientists are increasingly expected to seek media exposure and cooperate with industry. Little attention has been given to the way such expectations affect the role of scientific experts in society. To investigate scientists’ own perspectives on these issues eight exploratory, in-depth interviews were conducted in Denmark with reputable nutrition scientists. Additionally, eight interviews were held with ‘key informants’ from the field of nutrition policy. It was found that nutrition scientists experience two (...)
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  5. Ademola A. Adenle (2014). Stakeholders' Perceptions of GM Technology in West Africa: Assessing the Responses of Policymakers and Scientists in Ghana and Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2):241-263.score: 66.0
    The perception of two key stakeholders such as policymakers and scientists on genetic modification (GM) technology was examined in Ghana and Nigeria using semi-structured interviews. A total sample of 20 policymakers (16 at ministries and 4 at parliament/cabinet) and 58 scientists (43 at research institutes and 15 at universities) participated at the interviews. This study revealed respondents perspectives on potential benefits and risks of GM technology, status and development of biosafety regulatory frameworks, role of science and (...)
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  6. K. Knorr-Cetina (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.score: 60.0
    In this book, Karin Knorr Cetina compares two of the most important and intriguing epistemic cultures of our day, those in high energy physics and molecular ...
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  7. Yulia Egorova (2007). The Meanings of Science: Conversations with Geneticists. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 15 (1):51-58.score: 60.0
    It is often suggested in the mass media and popular academic literature that scientists promote a secular and reductionist understanding of the implications of the life sciences for the concept of being human. Is adhering to this view considered to be one of the components of the notion of being a good scientist? This paper explores responses of geneticists interviewed in the UK, the USA and Russia about the cultural meanings of their work. When discussing this question the interviewees (...)
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  8. Lisl Marburg Goodman (1981/1983). Death and the Creative Life. Penguin Books.score: 60.0
  9. Horace Freeland Judson (1987). The Search for Solutions. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 60.0
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  10. Wim Kayzer (1997). A Glorious Accident: Understanding Our Place in the Cosmic Puzzle. W.H. Freeman.score: 60.0
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  11. David A. Rier (2004). Publication Visibility of Sensitive Public Health Data: When Scientists Bury Their Results. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):597-613.score: 58.0
    What happens when the scientific tradition of openness clashes with potential societal risks? The work of American toxic-exposure epidemiologists can attract media coverage and lead the public to change health practices, initiate lawsuits, or take other steps a study’s authors might consider unwarranted. This paper, reporting data from 61 semi-structured interviews with U.S. toxic-exposure epidemiologists, examines whether such possibilities shaped epidemiologists’ selection of journals for potentially sensitive papers. Respondents manifested strong support for the norm of scientific openness, but a (...)
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  12. Daniela M. Bailer-Jones (2002). Scientists' Thoughts on Scientific Models. Perspectives on Science 10 (3):275-301.score: 54.0
    : This paper contains the analysis of nine interviews with UK scientists on the topic of scientific models. Scientific models are an important, very controversially discussed topic in philosophy of science. A reasonable expectation is that philosophical conceptions of models ought to be in agreement with scientific practice. Questioning practicing scientists on their use of and views on models provides material against which philosophical positions can be measured.
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  13. Hauke Riesch (2010). Simple or Simplistic? Scientists' Views on Occam's Razor. Theoria 25 (1):75-90.score: 54.0
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a discourse analysis of 40 semi-structured interviews with scientists on their views of Occam's razor and simplicity. It finds that there are many different interpretations and thoughts about the precise meaning of the principle as well as many scientists who reject it outright, or only a very limited version. In light of the variation of scientists' opinions, the paper looks at the discursive uses of simplicity in scientists' thinking and how (...)' interpretations of Occam's razor impact on philosophy's representation of the principle and affects the communication between philosophy and science. (shrink)
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  14. Guy Cook, Elisa Pieri & Peter T. Robbins, The Scientists Think and the Public Feels : Expert Perceptions of the Discourse of GM Food.score: 54.0
    Debates about new technologies, such as crop and food genetic modification (GM), raise pressing questions about the ways ‘experts’ and ‘ nonexperts’ communicate. These debates are dynamic, characterized by many voices contesting numerous storylines. The discoursal features, including language choices and communication strategies, of the GM debate are in some ways taken for granted and in others actively manipulated by participants. Although there are many voices, some have more influence than others. This study makes use of 50 hours of in-depth (...)
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  15. J. M. Ladd, M. D. Lappe, J. B. McCormick, A. M. Boyce & M. K. Cho (2009). The "How" and "Whys" of Research: Life Scientists' Views of Accountability. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (12):762-767.score: 54.0
    Objectives: To investigate life scientists’ views of accountability and the ethical and societal implications of research. Design: Qualitative focus group and one-on-one interviews. Participants: 45 Stanford University life scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty. Results: Two main themes were identified in participants’ discussions of accountability: (1) the “how” of science and (2) the “why” of science. The “how” encompassed the internal conduct of research including attributes such as honesty and independence. The “why,” or the motivation (...)
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  16. Barry L. Shumpert, Amy K. Wolfe, David J. Bjornstad, Stephanie Wang & Maria Fernanda Campa (2014). Specificity and Engagement: Increasing ELSI's Relevance to Nano–Scientists. NanoEthics 8 (2):193-200.score: 54.0
    Scholars studying the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) associated with emerging technologies maintain the importance of considering these issues throughout the research and development cycle, even during the earliest stages of basic research. Embedding these considerations within the scientific process requires communication between ELSI scholars and the community of physical scientists who are conducting that basic research. We posit that this communication can be effective on a broad scale only if it links societal issues directly to characteristics of (...)
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  17. Laurel Smith-Doerr (2008). Decoupling Policy and Practice: How Life Scientists Respond to Ethics Education. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (1):1-16.score: 54.0
    Many graduate programmes in science now require courses in ethics. However, little is known about their reception or use. Using websites and interviews, this essay examines ethics requirements in the field of biosciences in three countries (the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Italy) between 2000 and 2005. Evidence suggests that current policies may be ineffective, and that scientists who take ethical issues seriously are seen as exceptional.
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  18. Hossein Bashiriyeh (2010). Counter-Revolution and Revolt in Iran: An Interview with Iranian Political Scientist Hossein Bashiriyeh. Constellations 17 (1):61-77.score: 40.0
  19. Cristine Russell & Paul Ehrlich (1975). Interview: Paul Ehrlich: Scientist as Social Prophet. BioScience 25 (2):77-133.score: 40.0
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  20. Shaun Gallagher (2004). The Minds, Machines, and Brains of a Passionate Scientist: An Interview with Michael Arbib. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (12):50-67.score: 40.0
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  21. Rose Weitz (1987). The Interview as Legacy: A Social Scientist Confronts AIDS. Hastings Center Report 17 (3):21-23.score: 40.0
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  22. P. J. Allmark, J. Boote, E. Chambers, A. Clarke, A. McDonnell, A. Thompson & A. Tod (2009). Ethical Issues in the Use of in-Depth Interviews: Literature Review and Discussion. Research Ethics 5 (2):48-54.score: 30.0
    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpected areas. For similar reasons, it is (...)
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  23. Massimo Pigliucci (2014). 5 Questions on Science & Religion. In Gregg D. Caruso (ed.), 5 Questions on Science & Religion. Automatic Press. 163-170.score: 24.0
    Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? Is Intelligent Design a scientific theory? How do the various faith traditions view the relationship between science and religion? What, if any, are the limits of scientific explanation? What are the most important open questions, problems, or (...)
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  24. Jean Maria Arrigo (2004). A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.score: 24.0
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of (...)
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  25. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2009). Narrative Structures, Narratives of Abuse, and Human Rights. In Lisa Tessman (ed.), Feminist Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy: Theorizing the Non- Ideal. Kluwer.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the relation between victims’ stories and normativity. As a contribution to understanding how the stories of those who have been abused or oppressed can advance moral understanding, catalyze moral innovation, and guide social change, this paper focuses on narrative as a variegated form of representation and asks whether personal narratives of victimization play any distinctive role in human rights discourse. In view of the fact that a number of prominent students of narrative build normativity into their accounts, (...)
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  26. Vivian Weil (2002). Making Sense of Scientists' Responsibilities at the Interface of Science and Society. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):223-227.score: 24.0
    As Kenneth Pimple points out, scientists’ responsibilities to the larger society have received less attention than ethical issues internal to the practice of science. Yet scientists and specialists who study science have begun to provide analyses of the foundations and scope of scientsts’ responsibilities to society. An account of contributions from Kristen Shrader-Frechette, Melanie Leitner, Ullica Segerstråle, John Ahearne, Helen Longino, and Carl Cranor offers work on scientists’ social responsibilities upon which to build.
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  27. Albert R. Jonsen (2003). The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Bioethics represents a dramatic revision of the centuries-old professional ethics that governed the behavior of physicians and their relationships with patients. This venerable ethics code was challenged in the years after World War II by the remarkable advances in the biomedical sciences and medicine that raised questions about the definition of death, the use of life-support systems, organ transplantation, and reproductive interventions. In response, philosophers and theologians, lawyers and social scientists joined together with physicians and scientists to rethink (...)
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  28. Barbara Nicholas (2001). Exploring a Moral Landscape: Genetic Science and Ethics. Hypatia 16 (1):45-63.score: 24.0
    : This project draws on scholarship of feminist and womanist scholars, and on results of interviews with scientists currently involved in molecular genetics. With reference to Margaret Urban Walker's "practices of moral responsibility," the social practices of molecular geneticists are explored, and strategies identified through which scientists negotiate their moral responsibilities. The implications of this work for scientists and for feminists are discussed.
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  29. Gregg Caruso (2014). Science and Religion: 5 Questions. Automatic Press/VIP.score: 24.0
    Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? Is Intelligent Design a scientific theory? How do the various faith traditions view the relationship between science and religion? What, if any, are the limits of scientific explanation? What are the most important open questions, problems, or (...)
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  30. Tamler Sommers (2009). A Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the Curtain. McSweeney's Press.score: 24.0
    A collection of long, detailed interviews with philosophers and scientists who work on issues in ethics and moral psychology. The researchers interviewed include Galen Strawson, Philiip Zimbardo, Stephen Stich, Jonathan Haidt, Frans De Waal, Michael Ruse, Joshua Greene, Liane Young, Joe Henrich, and William Ian Miller.
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  31. Sophie Pellé & Vanessa Nurock (2012). Of Nanochips and Persons: Toward an Ethics of Diagnostic Technology in Personalized Medicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 6 (3):155-165.score: 24.0
    This paper proposes an ethical reflection on personalized medicine and more precisely on the diagnostic technology underlying it, including nanochips. Our approach is inspired by a combination of two philosophical frames of reference: first, John Dewey’s distinction between intuitive valuation and reflexive evaluation, second, John Rawls’ reflective equilibrium. We aim at what we call a ‘reflexive equilibrium’, a mutual adjustment between on the one hand, the intuitive beliefs scientists have about the ethics of the technologies they work on (‘valuations’ (...)
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  32. Jamie R. Hendry (2005). Stakeholder Influence Strategies: An Empirical Exploration. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 61 (1):79 - 99.score: 24.0
    In the present study, I sought to more fully understand stakeholder organizations’ strategies for influencing business firms. I conducted interviews with 28 representatives of four environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs): Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Greenpeace, Environmental Defense (ED), and Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Qualitative methods were used to analyze this data, and additional data in the form of reviews of websites and other documents was conducted when provided by interviewees or needed to more fully comprehend interviewee’s comments. (...)
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  33. Debasmita Patra, E. Haribabu & Katherine A. McComas (2010). Perceptions of Nano Ethics Among Practitioners in a Developing Country: A Case of India. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 4 (1):67-75.score: 24.0
    Many developing countries have allocated significant amounts of funding for nanoscience and nanotechnology research, yet compared to developed countries, there has been little study, discussion, or debate over social and ethical issues. Using in-depth interviews, this study focuses on the perceptions of practitioners, that is, scientists and engineers, in one developing country: India. The disciplinary background, departmental affiliation, types of institutions, age, and sex of the practitioners varied but did not appear to affect their responses. The results (...)
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  34. Andrew Pyle (ed.) (1999). Key Philosophers in Conversation: The Cogito Interviews. Routledge.score: 24.0
    This volume presents twenty of the most important interviews the journal, Cogito conducted between 1987 and 1996. Covering a wide spectrum of intellectual inquiry, from logic to metaphysics to philosophy of mind, the interviews provide an excellent introduction to philosophy in the English speaking world at the end of the century. Interviews with: Michael Dummett Peter Strawson Alasdair MacIntyre David Gauthier Nancy Cartwright Mary Warnock Hilary Putnam Daniel Dennett Bernard Williams John Cottingham Willard Quine Stephen Korner Hugh (...)
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  35. Paul Thagard (2006). How to Collaborate: Procedural Knowledge in the Cooperative Development of Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):177-196.score: 24.0
    A philosopher once asked me: “Paul, how do you collaborate?” He was puzzled about how I came to have more than two dozen co-authors over the past 20 years. His puzzlement was natural for a philosopher, because co-authored articles and books are still rare in philosophy and the humanities, in contrast to science where most current research is collaborative. Unlike most philosophers, scientists know how to collaborate; this paper is about the nature of such procedural knowledge. I begin by (...)
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  36. James T. Bradley (2007). Odysseans of the Twenty-First Century. Zygon 42 (4):999-1008.score: 24.0
    In his book Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies—and What It Means to Be Human (2005), author-journalist Joel Garreau identifies four technologies whose synergistic activity may transform humankind into a state transcending present human nature: genetic, robotic, information, and nano (GRIN) technologies. If the GRIN technologies follow Moore's Law, as information technology has done for the past four decades, Homo sapiens and human society may be unimaginably different before the middle of this century. But (...)
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  37. Bjørn K. Myskja (2006). “The Moral Difference Between Intragenic and Transgenic Modification of Plants”. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (3):225-238.score: 24.0
    Public policy on the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has mainly been concerned with defining proper strategies of risk management. However, surveys and focus group interviews show that although lay people are concerned with risks, they also emphasize that genetic modification is ethically questionable in itself. Many people feel that this technology “tampers with nature” in an unacceptable manner. This is often identified as an objection to the crossing of species borders in producing transgenic organisms. Most (...)
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  38. Peter Osborne (ed.) (1996). A Critical Sense: Interviews with Intellectuals. Routledge.score: 24.0
    A Critical Sense brings together, in their own words, the leading figures of contemporary radical theory. Moving freely between philosophy, politics and cultural studies, this book offers a fascinating overview of the lines of thought of today's intellectual left. Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis and critical theory, literary studies, deconstruction, pragmatism, postcolonial and queer theory are discussed in a series of interviews from the journal Radical Philosophy . The intellectuals at the center of these debates are: Judith Butler, Cornelius Castoriadis, Drucilla (...)
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  39. Rosalyn W. Berne (2006). Nanotalk: Conversations with Scientists and Engineers About Ethics, Meaning, and Belief in the Development of Nanotechnology. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 24.0
    No one really knows where nanotechnology is leading, what its pursuit will mean, and how it may affect human and other forms of life. Nevertheless, its research and development are moving briskly into that unknown. It has been suggested that rapid movement towards 'who knows where' is endemic to all technological development; that its researchers pursue it for curiosity and enjoyment, without knowing the consequences, believing that their efforts will be beneficial. Further, that the enthusiasm for development comes with no (...)
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  40. Richard Heidler (2011). Cognitive and Social Structure of the Elite Collaboration Network of Astrophysics: A Case Study on Shifting Network Structures. [REVIEW] Minerva 49 (4):461-488.score: 24.0
    Scientific collaboration can only be understood along the epistemic and cognitive grounding of scientific disciplines. New scientific discoveries in astrophysics led to a major restructuring of the elite network of astrophysics. To study the interplay of the epistemic grounding and the social network structure of a discipline, a mixed-methods approach is necessary. It combines scientometrics, quantitative network analysis and visualization tools with a qualitative network analysis approach. The centre of the international collaboration network of astrophysics is demarcated by identifying the (...)
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  41. Ben A. Minteer & Elizabeth A. Corley (2007). Conservation or Preservation? A Qualitative Study of the Conceptual Foundations of Natural Resource Management. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):307-333.score: 24.0
    Few disputes in the annals of US environmentalism enjoy the pedigree of the conservation-preservation debate. Yet, although many scholars have written extensively on the meaning and history of conservation and preservation in American environmental thought and practice, the resonance of these concepts outside the academic literature has not been sufficiently examined. Given the significance of the ideals of conservation and preservation in the justification of environmental policy and management, however, we believe that a more detailed analysis of the real-world use (...)
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  42. Guy Cook, Peter T. Robbins & Elisa Pieri, Words of Mass Destruction: British Newpaper Coverage of the Genetically Modified Food Debate, Expert and Non-Expert Reactions.score: 24.0
    This article reports the findings of a one-year project examining British press coverage of the genetically modified (GM) food debate during the first half of 2003, and both expert and non-expert reactions to that coverage. Two pro-GM newspapers and two anti-GM newspapers were selected for analysis, and all articles mentioning GM during the period in question were stored in a machine readable database. This was then analyzed using corpus linguistic and discourse analytic techniques to reveal recurrent wording, themes and content. (...)
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  43. Gitte Meyer & Peter Sandøe (2012). Going Public: Good Scientific Conduct. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):173-197.score: 24.0
    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, (...)
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  44. Clare Shelley-Egan (2010). The Ambivalence of Promising Technology. NanoEthics 4 (2):183-189.score: 24.0
    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted (...)
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  45. P. Hobson-West (2009). The Role of 'Public Opinion' in the UK Animal Research Debate. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (1):46-49.score: 24.0
    Animal research remains a deeply controversial topic in biomedical science. While a vast amount has been written about the ethical status of laboratory animals, far less academic attention has been devoted to the public and, more specifically, to public opinion. Rather than what the public think, this article considers the role of ‘public opinion’. It draws on a recent empirical study which involved interviews with laboratory scientists who use animals in their research, and with other UK stakeholders. The (...)
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  46. Barbara Nicholas (1999). Molecular Geneticists and Moral Responsibility: “Maybe If We Were Working on the Atom Bomb I Would Have a Different Argument”. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (4):515-530.score: 24.0
    Senior molecular geneticists were interviewed about their perceptions of the ethical and social implications of genetic knowledge. Inductive analysis of these interviews identified a number of strategies through which the scientists negotiated their moral responsibilities as they participated in generating knowledge that presents difficult ethical questions. These strategies included: further analysis and application of scientific method; clarification of multiple roles; negotiation with the public through public debate, institutional processes of funding, ethics committees and legislation; and personal responsibility.
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  47. Stanley Joel Reiser & Ruth E. Bulger (1997). The Social Responsibilities of Biological Scientists. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (2):137-143.score: 24.0
    Biological scientists, like scientists in other disciplines, are uncertain about whether or how to use their knowledge and time to provide society with insight and guidance in handling the effects of inventions and discoveries. This article addresses this issue. It presents a typography of structures in which scientists may contribute to social understanding and decisions. It describes the different ways in which these contributions can be made. Finally it develops the ethical arguments that justify the view that (...)
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  48. Timo Tammi (1999). On Experimental Discourse in Economics. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (1):62-88.score: 24.0
    The devices with which experimental economists account for and justify their own and their opponents’ views are investigated by examining transcripts of interviews with two participants in experimental economics. The earlier investigations of natural scientists’ discourse provide material for comparisons. The results suggest that in assessing an opponent’s deviating view experimentalists in economics can be more cautious than natural scientists to characterize their opponents as influenced by personal and social factors. Indeed, they seem to admit that to (...)
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  49. Alan Petersen & Alison Anderson (2007). A Question of Balance or Blind Faith?: Scientists' and Science Policymakers' Representations of the Benefits and Risks of Nanotechnologies. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (3):243-256.score: 24.0
    In recent years, in the UK and elsewhere, scientists and science policymakers have grappled with the question of how to reap the benefits of nanotechnologies while minimising the risks. Having recognised the importance of public support for future innovations, they have placed increasing emphasis on ‘engaging’ ‘the public’ during the early phase of technology development. Meaningful engagement suggests some common ground between experts and lay publics in relation to the definition of nanotechnologies and of their benefits and risks. However, (...)
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  50. Daniel Saunders & Paul Thagard, Creativity in Computer Science.score: 24.0
    Computer science only became established as a field in the 1950s, growing out of theoretical and practical research begun in the previous two decades. The field has exhibited immense creativity, ranging from innovative hardware such as the early mainframes to software breakthroughs such as programming languages and the Internet. Martin Gardner worried that "it would be a sad day if human beings, adjusting to the Computer Revolution, became so intellectually lazy that they lost their power of creative thinking" (Gardner, 1978, (...)
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