Search results for 'Scientists Interviews' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Renée Weber (ed.) (1986). Dialogues with Scientists and Sages: The Search for Unity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 39.0
     
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  2. I. S. N. Berkeley (1996). Peter Baumgartner and Sabine Payr (Eds.), Speaking Minds: Interviews with Twenty Eminent Cognitive Scientists. Minds and Machines 6:273-276.score: 36.0
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  3. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1995). Peter Baumgartner and Sabine Payr, Eds., Speaking Minds: Interviews with Twenty Eminent Cognitive Scientists Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 15 (6):380-382.score: 36.0
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  4. K. Knorr-Cetina (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.score: 30.0
    In this book, Karin Knorr Cetina compares two of the most important and intriguing epistemic cultures of our day, those in high energy physics and molecular ...
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  5. Anna Folker, Lotte Holm & Peter Sandøe (2009). 'We Have to Go Where the Money Is'—Dilemmas in the Role of Nutrition Scientists: An Interview Study. [REVIEW] Minerva 47 (2):217-236.score: 30.0
    In Western societies scientists are increasingly expected to seek media exposure and cooperate with industry. Little attention has been given to the way such expectations affect the role of scientific experts in society. To investigate scientists’ own perspectives on these issues eight exploratory, in-depth interviews were conducted in Denmark with reputable nutrition scientists. Additionally, eight interviews were held with ‘key informants’ from the field of nutrition policy. It was found that nutrition scientists experience two (...)
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  6. Yulia Egorova (2007). The Meanings of Science: Conversations with Geneticists. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 15 (1):51-58.score: 30.0
    It is often suggested in the mass media and popular academic literature that scientists promote a secular and reductionist understanding of the implications of the life sciences for the concept of being human. Is adhering to this view considered to be one of the components of the notion of being a good scientist? This paper explores responses of geneticists interviewed in the UK, the USA and Russia about the cultural meanings of their work. When discussing this question the interviewees (...)
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  7. Lisl Marburg Goodman (1981/1983). Death and the Creative Life. Penguin Books.score: 30.0
  8. Horace Freeland Judson (1987). The Search for Solutions. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 30.0
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  9. Wim Kayzer (1997). A Glorious Accident: Understanding Our Place in the Cosmic Puzzle. W.H. Freeman.score: 30.0
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  10. Ademola A. Adenle (2014). Stakeholders' Perceptions of GM Technology in West Africa: Assessing the Responses of Policymakers and Scientists in Ghana and Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2):241-263.score: 27.0
    The perception of two key stakeholders such as policymakers and scientists on genetic modification (GM) technology was examined in Ghana and Nigeria using semi-structured interviews. A total sample of 20 policymakers (16 at ministries and 4 at parliament/cabinet) and 58 scientists (43 at research institutes and 15 at universities) participated at the interviews. This study revealed respondents perspectives on potential benefits and risks of GM technology, status and development of biosafety regulatory frameworks, role of science and (...)
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  11. David A. Rier (2004). Publication Visibility of Sensitive Public Health Data: When Scientists Bury Their Results. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):597-613.score: 23.0
    What happens when the scientific tradition of openness clashes with potential societal risks? The work of American toxic-exposure epidemiologists can attract media coverage and lead the public to change health practices, initiate lawsuits, or take other steps a study’s authors might consider unwarranted. This paper, reporting data from 61 semi-structured interviews with U.S. toxic-exposure epidemiologists, examines whether such possibilities shaped epidemiologists’ selection of journals for potentially sensitive papers. Respondents manifested strong support for the norm of scientific openness, but a (...)
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  12. Daniela M. Bailer-Jones (2002). Scientists' Thoughts on Scientific Models. Perspectives on Science 10 (3):275-301.score: 21.0
    : This paper contains the analysis of nine interviews with UK scientists on the topic of scientific models. Scientific models are an important, very controversially discussed topic in philosophy of science. A reasonable expectation is that philosophical conceptions of models ought to be in agreement with scientific practice. Questioning practicing scientists on their use of and views on models provides material against which philosophical positions can be measured.
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  13. Hauke Riesch (2010). Simple or Simplistic? Scientists' Views on Occam's Razor. Theoria 25 (1):75-90.score: 21.0
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a discourse analysis of 40 semi-structured interviews with scientists on their views of Occam's razor and simplicity. It finds that there are many different interpretations and thoughts about the precise meaning of the principle as well as many scientists who reject it outright, or only a very limited version. In light of the variation of scientists' opinions, the paper looks at the discursive uses of simplicity in scientists' thinking and how (...)' interpretations of Occam's razor impact on philosophy's representation of the principle and affects the communication between philosophy and science. (shrink)
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  14. Guy Cook, Elisa Pieri & Peter T. Robbins, The Scientists Think and the Public Feels : Expert Perceptions of the Discourse of GM Food.score: 21.0
    Debates about new technologies, such as crop and food genetic modification (GM), raise pressing questions about the ways ‘experts’ and ‘ nonexperts’ communicate. These debates are dynamic, characterized by many voices contesting numerous storylines. The discoursal features, including language choices and communication strategies, of the GM debate are in some ways taken for granted and in others actively manipulated by participants. Although there are many voices, some have more influence than others. This study makes use of 50 hours of in-depth (...)
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  15. J. M. Ladd, M. D. Lappe, J. B. McCormick, A. M. Boyce & M. K. Cho (2009). The "How" and "Whys" of Research: Life Scientists' Views of Accountability. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (12):762-767.score: 21.0
    Objectives: To investigate life scientists’ views of accountability and the ethical and societal implications of research. Design: Qualitative focus group and one-on-one interviews. Participants: 45 Stanford University life scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty. Results: Two main themes were identified in participants’ discussions of accountability: (1) the “how” of science and (2) the “why” of science. The “how” encompassed the internal conduct of research including attributes such as honesty and independence. The “why,” or the motivation (...)
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  16. Barry L. Shumpert, Amy K. Wolfe, David J. Bjornstad, Stephanie Wang & Maria Fernanda Campa (forthcoming). Specificity and Engagement: Increasing ELSI's Relevance to Nano–Scientists. Nanoethics:1-8.score: 21.0
    Scholars studying the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) associated with emerging technologies maintain the importance of considering these issues throughout the research and development cycle, even during the earliest stages of basic research. Embedding these considerations within the scientific process requires communication between ELSI scholars and the community of physical scientists who are conducting that basic research. We posit that this communication can be effective on a broad scale only if it links societal issues directly to characteristics of (...)
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  17. Laurel Smith-Doerr (2008). Decoupling Policy and Practice: How Life Scientists Respond to Ethics Education. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (1):1-16.score: 21.0
    Many graduate programmes in science now require courses in ethics. However, little is known about their reception or use. Using websites and interviews, this essay examines ethics requirements in the field of biosciences in three countries (the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Italy) between 2000 and 2005. Evidence suggests that current policies may be ineffective, and that scientists who take ethical issues seriously are seen as exceptional.
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  18. Vivian Weil (2002). Making Sense of Scientists' Responsibilities at the Interface of Science and Society. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):223-227.score: 18.0
    As Kenneth Pimple points out, scientists’ responsibilities to the larger society have received less attention than ethical issues internal to the practice of science. Yet scientists and specialists who study science have begun to provide analyses of the foundations and scope of scientsts’ responsibilities to society. An account of contributions from Kristen Shrader-Frechette, Melanie Leitner, Ullica Segerstråle, John Ahearne, Helen Longino, and Carl Cranor offers work on scientists’ social responsibilities upon which to build.
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  19. Andrew Pyle (ed.) (1999). Key Philosophers in Conversation: The Cogito Interviews. Routledge.score: 18.0
    This volume presents twenty of the most important interviews the journal, Cogito conducted between 1987 and 1996. Covering a wide spectrum of intellectual inquiry, from logic to metaphysics to philosophy of mind, the interviews provide an excellent introduction to philosophy in the English speaking world at the end of the century. Interviews with: Michael Dummett Peter Strawson Alasdair MacIntyre David Gauthier Nancy Cartwright Mary Warnock Hilary Putnam Daniel Dennett Bernard Williams John Cottingham Willard Quine Stephen Korner Hugh (...)
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  20. Peter Osborne (ed.) (1996). A Critical Sense: Interviews with Intellectuals. Routledge.score: 18.0
    A Critical Sense brings together, in their own words, the leading figures of contemporary radical theory. Moving freely between philosophy, politics and cultural studies, this book offers a fascinating overview of the lines of thought of today's intellectual left. Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis and critical theory, literary studies, deconstruction, pragmatism, postcolonial and queer theory are discussed in a series of interviews from the journal Radical Philosophy . The intellectuals at the center of these debates are: Judith Butler, Cornelius Castoriadis, Drucilla (...)
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  21. Rosalyn W. Berne (2006). Nanotalk: Conversations with Scientists and Engineers About Ethics, Meaning, and Belief in the Development of Nanotechnology. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 18.0
    No one really knows where nanotechnology is leading, what its pursuit will mean, and how it may affect human and other forms of life. Nevertheless, its research and development are moving briskly into that unknown. It has been suggested that rapid movement towards 'who knows where' is endemic to all technological development; that its researchers pursue it for curiosity and enjoyment, without knowing the consequences, believing that their efforts will be beneficial. Further, that the enthusiasm for development comes with no (...)
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  22. Stanley Joel Reiser & Ruth E. Bulger (1997). The Social Responsibilities of Biological Scientists. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (2):137-143.score: 18.0
    Biological scientists, like scientists in other disciplines, are uncertain about whether or how to use their knowledge and time to provide society with insight and guidance in handling the effects of inventions and discoveries. This article addresses this issue. It presents a typography of structures in which scientists may contribute to social understanding and decisions. It describes the different ways in which these contributions can be made. Finally it develops the ethical arguments that justify the view that (...)
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  23. Alan Petersen & Alison Anderson (2007). A Question of Balance or Blind Faith?: Scientists' and Science Policymakers' Representations of the Benefits and Risks of Nanotechnologies. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (3):243-256.score: 18.0
    In recent years, in the UK and elsewhere, scientists and science policymakers have grappled with the question of how to reap the benefits of nanotechnologies while minimising the risks. Having recognised the importance of public support for future innovations, they have placed increasing emphasis on ‘engaging’ ‘the public’ during the early phase of technology development. Meaningful engagement suggests some common ground between experts and lay publics in relation to the definition of nanotechnologies and of their benefits and risks. However, (...)
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  24. Kathryn Nixdorff (2013). Education for Life Scientists on the Dual-Use Implications of Their Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (4):1487-1490.score: 18.0
    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about life’s vital processes. While this knowledge is essential for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists (...)
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  25. Anders Persson, Sven Hemlin & Stellan Welin (2007). Profitable Exchanges for Scientists: The Case of Swedish Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 15 (4):291-304.score: 18.0
    In this article two inter-related issues concerning the ongoing commercialisation of biomedical research are analyzed. One aim is to explain how scientists and clinicians at Swedish public institutions can make profits, both commercially and scientifically, by controlling rare human biological material, like embryos and embryonic stem cell lines. This control in no way presupposes legal ownership or other property rights as an initial condition. We show how ethically sensitive material (embryos and stem cell lines) have been used in Sweden (...)
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  26. Gary G. Tibbetts (2013). How the Great Scientists Reasoned: The Scientific Method in Action. Elsevier.score: 16.0
    1. Introduction : humanity's urge to understand -- 2. Elements of scientific thinking : skepticism, careful reasoning, and exhaustive evaluation are all vital. Science Is universal -- Maintaining a critical attitude. Reasonable skepticism -- Respect for the truth -- Reasoning. Deduction -- Induction -- Paradigm shifts -- Evaluating scientific hypotheses. Ockham's razor -- Quantitative evaluation -- Verification by others -- Statistics : correlation and causation -- Statistics : the indeterminacy of the small -- Careful definition -- Science at the frontier. (...)
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  27. Mary Hogue, Julia Levashina & Hongli Hang (2013). Will I Fake It? The Interplay of Gender, Machiavellianism, and Self-Monitoring on Strategies for Honesty in Job Interviews. Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):399-411.score: 16.0
    The use of deception during social interactions is a serious ethical concern for business. Interpersonal Deception Theory (IDT) proposes that strategies for using deception are influenced by personal factors. We tested this proposal by assessing participants’ strategies for using deception during an employment interview. Specifically, we examined three personal factors [gender, Machiavellianism, and self-monitoring (SM)] and intentions toward four types of deceptive behaviors (Extensive Image Creation, Image Protection, Ingratiation, and Slight Image Creation). We used path analysis to examine the intentions (...)
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  28. Valborg Kvakkestad, Frøydis Gillund, Kamilla Anette Kjølberg & Arild Vatn (2007). Scientists' Perspectives on the Deliberate Release of GM Crops. Environmental Values 16 (1):79 - 104.score: 15.0
    In this paper we analyse scientists' perspectives on the release of genetically modified (GM) crops into the environment, and the relationship between their perspectives and the context that they work within, e.g. their place of employment (university or industry), funding of their research (public or industry) and their disciplinary background (ecology, molecular biology or conventional plant breeding). We employed Q-methodology to examine these issues. Two distinct factors were identified by interviewing 62 scientists. These two factors included 92 per (...)
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  29. P. J. Allmark, J. Boote, E. Chambers, A. Clarke, A. McDonnell, A. Thompson & A. Tod (2009). Ethical Issues in the Use of in-Depth Interviews: Literature Review and Discussion. Research Ethics 5 (2):48-54.score: 15.0
    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpected areas. For similar reasons, it is (...)
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  30. Eve Hartman (2012). Do Scientists Care About Animal Welfare? Raintree.score: 15.0
     
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  31. P. B. Medawar (1990). The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. Oxford University Press.score: 15.0
     
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  32. Hans A. Tolhoek & L. Wecke (eds.) (1986). The Role of Scientists in the Peace Movement: End-Convention, Amsterdam. Distribution, J. Mets.score: 15.0
     
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  33. Phil Jones, Griff Bunce, James Evans, Hannah Gibbs & Jane Ricketts Hein (2008). Exploring Space and Place With Walking Interviews. Journal of Research Practice 4 (2):Article D2.score: 14.0
    This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few projects have attempted to rigorously connect what participants say with where they say it. The article reviews three case studies where the authors have used different (...)
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  34. Jean Maria Arrigo (2004). A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.score: 12.0
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of (...)
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  35. Mason Richey (2008). What Can Philosophers Offer Social Scientists?; or The Frankfurt School and its Relevance to Social Science: From the History of Philosophical Sociology to an Examination of Issues in the Current EU. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 3 (6):63-72.score: 12.0
    This paper presents the history of the Frankfurt School’s inclusion of normative concerns in social science research programs during the period 1930-1955. After examining the relevant methodology, I present a model of how such a program could look today. I argue that such an approach is both valuable to contemporary social science programs and overlooked by current philosophers and social scientists.
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  36. Hossein Bashiriyeh (2010). Counter-Revolution and Revolt in Iran: An Interview with Iranian Political Scientist Hossein Bashiriyeh. Constellations 17 (1):61-77.score: 12.0
  37. Peter Achinstein (2000). Why Philosophical Theories of Evidence Are (and Ought to Be) Ignored by Scientists. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):192.score: 12.0
    There are two reasons, I claim, scientists do and should ignore standard philosophical theories of objective evidence: (1) Such theories propose concepts that are far too weak to give scientists what they want from evidence, viz., a good reason to believe a hypothesis; and (2) They provide concepts that make the evidential relationship a priori, whereas typically establishing an evidential claim requires empirical investigation.
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  38. Jan Deckers (2005). Are Scientists Right and Non-Scientists Wrong? Reflections on Discussions of GM. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (5):451-478.score: 12.0
    The aim of this article is to further our understanding of the “GM is unnatural” view, and of the critical response to it. While many people have been reported to hold the view that GM is unnatural, many policy-makers and their advisors have suggested that the view must be ignored or rejected, and that there are scientific reasons for doing so. Three “typical” examples of ways in which the “GM is unnatural” view has been treated by UK policy-makers and their (...)
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  39. Don Ross & David Spurrett (2004). What to Say to a Skeptical Metaphysician? A Defense Manual for Cognitive and Behavioral Scientists. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):603-627.score: 12.0
    A wave of recent work in metaphysics seeks to undermine the anti-reductionist, functionalist consensus of the past few decades in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. That consensus apparently legitimated a focus on what systems do, without necessarily and always requiring attention to the details of how systems are constituted. The new metaphysical challenge contends that many states and processes referred to by functionalist cognitive scientists are epiphenomenal. It further contends that the problem lies in functionalism itself, and that, (...)
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  40. Boyce Rensberger (2000). Why Scientists Should Cooperate with Journalists. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (4):549-552.score: 12.0
    Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author’s view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly (...)
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  41. Albert R. Jonsen (2003). The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    Bioethics represents a dramatic revision of the centuries-old professional ethics that governed the behavior of physicians and their relationships with patients. This venerable ethics code was challenged in the years after World War II by the remarkable advances in the biomedical sciences and medicine that raised questions about the definition of death, the use of life-support systems, organ transplantation, and reproductive interventions. In response, philosophers and theologians, lawyers and social scientists joined together with physicians and scientists to rethink (...)
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  42. Klaus Hoeyer, Lisa Dahlager & Niels Lynöe (2006). Ethical Conflicts During the Social Study of Clinical Practice: The Need to Reassess the Mutually Challenging Research Ethics Traditions of Social Scientists and Medical Researchers. Clinical Ethics 1 (1):41-45.score: 12.0
    When anthropologists and other social scientists study health services in medical institutions, tensions sometimes arise as a result of the social scientists and health care professionals having different ideas about the ethics of research. In order to resolve this type of conflict and to facilitate mutual learning, we describe two general categories of research ethics framing: those of anthropology and those of medicine. The latter focuses on protection of the individual through the preservation of autonomy expressed through the (...)
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  43. Daniel B. Klein & Charlotta Stern (2005). Professors and Their Politics: The Policy Views of Social Scientists. Critical Review 17 (3-4):257-303.score: 12.0
    Abstract Academic social scientists overwhelmingly vote Democratic, and the Democratic hegemony has increased significantly since 1970. Moreover, the policy preferences of a large sample of the members of the scholarly associations in anthropology, economics, history, legal and political philosophy, political science, and sociology generally bear out conjectures about the correspondence of partisan identification with left/right ideal types; although across the board, both Democratic and Republican academics favor government action more than the ideal types might suggest. Variations in policy views (...)
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  44. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2009). Narrative Structures, Narratives of Abuse, and Human Rights. In Lisa Tessman (ed.), Feminist Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy: Theorizing the Non- Ideal. Kluwer.score: 12.0
    This paper explores the relation between victims’ stories and normativity. As a contribution to understanding how the stories of those who have been abused or oppressed can advance moral understanding, catalyze moral innovation, and guide social change, this paper focuses on narrative as a variegated form of representation and asks whether personal narratives of victimization play any distinctive role in human rights discourse. In view of the fact that a number of prominent students of narrative build normativity into their accounts, (...)
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  45. Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff (2013). De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize). Minerva 51 (3):295-315.score: 12.0
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is (...)
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  46. John Ziman (2001). Getting Scientists to Think About What They Are Doing. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2):165-176.score: 12.0
    Research scientists are trained to produce specialised bricks of knowledge, but not to look at the whole building. Increasing public concern about the social role of science is forcing science students to think about what they are actually learning to do. What sort of knowledge will they be producing, and how will it be used? Science education now requires serious consideration of these philosophical and ethical questions. But the many different forms of knowledge produced by modern science cannot be (...)
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  47. Karsten Jensen, Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Christian Gamborg, Kate Millar & Peter Sandøe (2011). Facilitating Ethical Reflection Among Scientists Using the Ethical Matrix. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):425-445.score: 12.0
    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on (...)
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  48. Peter Sandøe (2011). Facilitating Ethical Reflection Among Scientists Using the Ethical Matrix. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):425-445.score: 12.0
    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on (...)
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  49. Tamler Sommers (2009). A Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the Curtain. McSweeney's Press.score: 12.0
    A collection of long, detailed interviews with philosophers and scientists who work on issues in ethics and moral psychology. The researchers interviewed include Galen Strawson, Philiip Zimbardo, Stephen Stich, Jonathan Haidt, Frans De Waal, Michael Ruse, Joshua Greene, Liane Young, Joe Henrich, and William Ian Miller.
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  50. Barbara Nicholas (2001). Exploring a Moral Landscape: Genetic Science and Ethics. Hypatia 16 (1):45-63.score: 12.0
    : This project draws on scholarship of feminist and womanist scholars, and on results of interviews with scientists currently involved in molecular genetics. With reference to Margaret Urban Walker's "practices of moral responsibility," the social practices of molecular geneticists are explored, and strategies identified through which scientists negotiate their moral responsibilities. The implications of this work for scientists and for feminists are discussed.
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