This major contribution to the history of philosophy provides the most comprehensive guide to modern natural law theory available, sets out the full background to liberal ideas of rights and contractarianism, and offers an extensive study of the Scottish Enlightenment. The time span covered is considerable: from the natural law theories of Grotius and Suarez in the early seventeenth century to the American Revolution and the beginnings of utilitarianism. After a detailed survey of modern natural law theory, the book (...) focuses on the Scottish Enlightenment and its European and American connections. Knud Haakonssen explains the relationship between natural law and civic humanist republicanism, and he shows the relevance of these ideas for the understanding of David Hume and Adam Smith. The result is a completely revised background to modern ideas of liberalism and communitarianism. (shrink)
Philosophy was at the core of the eighteenth century movement known as the Scottish Enlightenment. The movement included major figures, such as Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Reid and Adam Ferguson, and also many others who produced notable works, such as Gershom Carmichael, George Turnbull, George Campbell, James Beattie, Alexander Gerard, Henry Home (Lord Kames) and Dugald Stewart. I discuss some of the leading ideas of these thinkers, though paying less attention than I otherwise would to Hume, (...) Smith and Reid, who have separate Encyclopedia entries. Amongst the topics covered in this entry are aesthetics (particularly Hutcheson's), Moral philosophy (particularly Hutcheson's and Smith's), Turnbull's providential naturalism, Kames's doctrines on divine goodness and human freedom, Campbell's criticism of the Humean account of miracles, the philosophy of rhetoric, Ferguson's criticism of the idea of a state of nature, and finally the concept of conjectural history, a concept especially associated with Dugald Stewart. (shrink)
The Scottish Common Sense School of philosophy emerged during the Scottish Enlightenment of the second half of the eighteenth century. The School’s principal proponents were Thomas Reid, James Oswald, James Beattie and Dugald Stewart. They believed that we are all naturally implanted with an array of common sense intuitions and these intuitions are in fact the foundation of truth. Their approach dominated philosophical thought in Great Britain and the United States until the mid nineteenth century. In recent years (...) philosophers have renewed their appreciation of the notion of common sense. In particular, discussions of common sense intuitions are integral to contemporary epistemological foundationalism. Scottish Common Sense Philosophy: Sources and Origins is a 5-volume collection of writings by and about philosophers in the eighteenth-century Scottish Common Sense School. The writings by Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart are readily available in recent editions and facsimile reprints so this series focuses on less accessible and less well-known items. Oswald’s Appeal appears here in print for the first time in any form since 1772. Volume 2 is the first reset printing of Beattie’s Essay in over 100 years, and is the only edition to contain annotations that trace the major changes that he made to the text. Almost all of the responses in volumes 3 and 4 appear here in print for the first time since their original publication. These include reviews, pamphlets and excerpts from books. Also included is previously unpublished discussion of Beattie’s Essay by Dugald Stewart. The final volume is a bibliography of around 80 Scottish philosophers from the early eighteenth century to the close of the nineteenth century. Unlike the 1932 bibliography of Scottish philosophers offered by T. E. Jessop, which selectively presents only the philosophical writings by the various Scottish philosophers, this volume attempts to catalogue all of the writings by these philosophers in all of their editions. (shrink)
The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment offers a philosophical perspective on an eighteenth-century movement that has been profoundly influential on western culture. A distinguished team of contributors examines the writings of David Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, Colin Maclaurin and other Scottish thinkers, in fields including philosophy, natural theology, economics, anthropology, natural science and law. In addition, the contributors relate the Scottish Enlightenment to its historical context and assess its impact and legacy in Europe, (...) America and beyond. The result is a comprehensive and accessible volume that illuminates the richness, the intellectual variety and the underlying unity of this important movement. It will be of interest to a wide range of readers in philosophy, theology, literature and the history of ideas. (shrink)
L’articolo ragiona intorno al film-saggio Histoire(s) du cinéma (1988-1998) di Jean-Luc Godard e si sofferma in particolare su un controverso montaggio in cui il regista francese accosta estratti da un film pornografico, Freaks di Tod Browning e riprese dai campi di concentramento. In questa sequenza Godard sottopone a una verifica estrema la sua teoria del montaggio, l’idea della riconciliazione, destinata a produrre scintille di pensiero, tra realtà contrapposte. Questa forzatura delle immagini richiama un’analoga forzatura del testimone mostrata in una scena (...) del documentario Shoah di Claude Lanzmann. Interpretando lo shock prodotto dal montaggio delle Histoire(s), l’articolo approfondisce il tema della degradazione dello statuto indessicale della pellicola, dei limiti della rappresentazione, dell’etica dello sguardo. (shrink)
This collection of new papers on Scottish philosophy in the age of Hutcheson and Hume pays close attention to the study of context and the use of original historical sources as a key to philosophical interpretation. The book includes revolutionary new research on Hume's early reading in science and religion and its impact of his thought.
The world in which the Scottish Enlightenment took shape -- Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll (1682-1761) : patronage and the creation of the Scottish Enlightenment -- How many Scots were enlightened? -- What did eighteenth-century Scottish students read? -- Our excellent and never to be forgotten friend : David Hume (26 April 1711- 25 August 1776) -- Hume's intellectual development : part II, 1711-1762 -- Hume's histories -- Hume's economics -- Numbering the medics -- Numbers and (...) money -- Who were they? -- The émigrés as they appear in the American sample. (shrink)
Governments now recognise the potential for ICTs to improve the way in which they can engage with the population, whether conducting online consultations to elicit the people’s views on proposed policy, or disseminating information via websites. However, much of the information remains in text format, leaving the task of extracting data the viewer’s responsibility. This can be a daunting prospect, especially in the case of reports of parliamentary proceedings. In the past, Argument Visualisation techniques were used in training law students (...) to render legal cases easier to comprehend; now, enhanced by all the advantages ICT has to offer, these techniques are employed to help make sense of thorny problems in academia and business. The possibility exists that such methods might also serve to clarify complex political issues of interest to the public. This paper describes an investigation into such a possibility. Two debates taken from the Scottish Parliament 2003 Autumn session were converted into argument visualisations and presented for comparison with the ‘Official Report’ to assess whether the visualisations offered any advantages over the textual alternative. (shrink)
Da ficção científica para a ficção religiosa: ideias para pensar o cinema de ficção científica como o culto da religião vivida (From Science Fiction to Religious Fiction: ideas to think on Science Fiction cinema as the cult of lived religion). DOI - 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n26p552 Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre a chamada religião vivida como uma forma de repensar o papel da teologia e das ciências da religião na contemporaneidade. O estudo da religião vivida será investigado na relação (...) entre o cinema de ficção científica e a religião, propondo que, nesta relação, há uma forma de religião vivida intensa e viva. Sugere-se, assim, que o cinema seja hoje uma forma de culto e ritual, cumprindo parte do papel que os mitos e ritos sagrados desempenham na vida das pessoas, ao longo dos tempos. O artigo contém quatro partes: introdução sobre a religião vivida; religião vivida no caso específico do cinema; o cinema de ficção científica como uma forma de religião; aplicação da teoria no filme “Contato” (Robert Zemeckis, USA 1997); conclusões sobre a vivência religiosa em forma de mito e rito nos filmes de ficção científica e as consequências disso para a teologia e as ciências da religião. Palavras-chave : Cinema de ficção científica. Religião. Culto e rito. Religião vivida.: This article aims at reflecting about the so-called lived religion as a way of rethinking the role of theology and religion in contemporary society. The study of the lived religion will investigate the relationship between the cinema of science fiction and religion, suggesting that, in this relation, there is particular and intensive form of lived religion. The present article suggests that cinema today is a form of cult and ritual which performs part of the role that sacred rites play in the lives of people along the time. The article contains four parts: introduction about the lived religion; lived religion in the specific case of cinema; the cinema of science fiction as a form of religion; the application of theory in the movie “Contact” (Robert Zemeckis, USA 1997); conclusions on the religious experience in the form of myth and rite in science fiction movies as well as the consequences for theology and religious studies. Keywords : Science fiction cinema. Religion. Cult and rite. Lived religion. (shrink)
This paper considers Baudrillard’s thought in relation to cinema. It begins with a discussion of the way in which Baudrillard’s work typically invokes film and of the consequent paucity of Baudrillardian studies of cinema, making reference to the literature on Blade Runner and The Matrix . It proceeds to excavate a fuller account of Baudrillard’s conception of cinema, drawing, initially, on Baudrillard’s use of the 1926 German silent film, The Student of Prague , in his conclusion to (...) The Consumer Society . At first blush, this leads to a somewhat dismissive assessment of film qua simulation. Having reached the point where the importance of seduction to Baudrillard’s conception of cinema makes itself evident, however, the paper continues to evoke the other side of Baudrillard’s thought, where additional reference to his remarks on photography allows greater purchase on his understanding of cinema. (shrink)
Jean Baudrillard loved cinema and was fascinated by the collusions which occur between it and life. He also believed that technologies of virtualization and the pursuit of realism were deeply harmful to the quality of the cinematic image. Precisely at the time when cinema was subject to these forces he pointed out that it is coming to play a far more important role in the collective understanding of history than are the best scholarly histories. Because of the focus (...) he took concerning cinema his work will remain important to discussions of the intersections between film and philosophy well into the future. (shrink)
Este texto pretende discutir a possibilidade do cinema representar o ambiente sonoro no qual vive o homem contemporâneo urbano. Tal questionamento parte do entendimento de que o contato cotidiano com os ruídos que nos cercam é matéria-prima fundamental para a produção cinematográfica atual, passando esses sons a ter presenças e funções narrativas cada vez maiores.
Moving from the «Cinema-scene» of the fifth chapter of the novel Der Zauberberg by Thomas Mann, the essay aims to tackle the whole relation between the German novelist and the cinema. The subject is handled in the light of the Walter Benjamin’s artwork-essay and of its analysis of the relation between cinema, fascism and aestheticization of politics. The thesis of the author is that the emerging of the cinema has established a new political and symbolical dimension (...) of the relation between art, technique and ‘magic’. (shrink)
That human evolution amalgamates biological and cultural change is taken as a given, and that the interaction of brain, body and culture is more reciprocal then initially thought becomes apparent as the science of evolution evolves (Jablonka & Lamb 2005). The contribution of science and technology to this process is probably the first to come to mind: the biology of Homo sapiens permits and promotes the development of artificial devices that in turn enable us to sense and reach physical niches (...) previously inaccessible, hence extending the biological capabilities, while at the same time endowed with the potential to mould over time selective pressures on these innate capabilities. The jury is yet out on the pace in which critical biological changes take place in evolution, but there is no question that the kinetics of technological and cultural change is much faster, rendering the latter more important in the biography of the individual and at present, of the species alike. However, though the capacity of art to enrich human capabilities is recurrently tapped into by philosophers and critics (e.g. Arsitotle/Poetics, Richards 1925, Smith & Parks 1951, Gibbs 1994), less attention is commonly allotted to the role of the arts in the aforementioned ongoing evolutional tango. My position is that the art of cinema is particularly suited to explore the intriguing dialogue between art and the brain. Further, in the following set of brief notes, which goal is to merely to incite discussion, I posit that cinema provides an unparalleled and highly rewarding experimentation space for the mind of the individual consumer of that art, while at the same time providing a useful and promising device for investigating brain and cognition. (shrink)
From the point of view of the spectator, what singularizes the documentary cinema? This essay argues that documentary’s audience defines itself in relation to its capacity to judge. Documentary movies usually demands the public to untie themselves from the immersive condition in order to be put in situ. To address this question, we discuss films that invite the spectator not only judge its scenes, but the daily images of the world.
É possível estabelecer uma relação didática entre filosofia e cinema para ilustrar, esclarecer ou levantar instigantes discussões em torno dos conceitos e das idéias filosóficas. Ainda que a linguagem cinematográfica seja diferente os gêneros do cinema podem apresentar distintas formas da realidade humana de modo crítico e conciso, como por exemplo no cinema catástrofe, onde são evidenciadas as relações entre homem e natureza como mostra o filme “The Day After Tomorrow” (2004) de Roland Emmerich exposto neste artigo (...) com algumas idéias do filósofo inglês Francis Bacon. (shrink)
O presente artigo estuda a ditadura militar no cinema brasileiro, e em especial, analisa a representação de dois líderes da esquerda armada: Carlos Marighella e Carlos Lamarca. O assassinato de Marighella foi evidenciado em filmes como Batismo de sangue (Helvécio Ratton, 2007) e Marighella, retrato falado de um guerrilheiro (Silvio Tendler, 2001). Assim como o caráter humanista de Lamarca foi destacado no filme Lamarca – o capitão da guerrilha (Sérgio Rezende, 1994). Portanto, partindo dessa identificação, buscamos estudar a relação (...) entre esses personagens, compreendendo que ambos são retratados como heróis nessas narrativas. (shrink)
Hyperlink cinema is an emergent film genre that seeks to push the boundaries of the medium in order to mirror contemporary life in the globalized community. Films in the genre thus create an interacting network across space and time in such a way as to suggest that people’s lives can intersect on scales that would not have been possible without modern technologies of travel and communication. This allows us to test the hypothesis that new kinds of media might permit (...) us to break through the natural cognitive constraints that limit the number and quality of social relationships we can manage in the conventional face-to-face world. We used network analysis to test this hypothesis with data from 12 hyperlink films, using 10 motion pictures from a more conventional film genre as a control. We found few differences between hyperlink cinema films and the control genre, and few differences between hyperlink cinema films and either the real world or classical drama (e.g., Shakespeare’s plays). Conversation group size seems to be especially resilient to alteration. It seems that, despite many efficiency advantages, modern media are unable to circumvent the constraints imposed by our evolved psychology. (shrink)
Given the resurgence of scientific studies on the etiology of homosexuality in the wake of the AIDS epidemic, this article considers the effects these studies had on contemporaneous queer filmmakers. By using the subject of criminality as a way to talk about homosexual causality, queer films of the 1990s illustrate that contemporary scientific studies on homosexuality were historically and politically situated in relation to cultural anxieties about other forms of deviance. This article focuses on films that dissect the hetero-normative tendency (...) to amalgamate forms of deviance in order to distinguish between the diseased and the healthy. Such products of New Queer Cinema highlight this amalgamation of criminality and homosexuality in order to challenge demands by the LGBT community of the 1980s and 1990s for “more positive images” in film. This article argues that queer filmmakers have manipulated the image of the queer criminal to usurp the medical tendency to biologize and pathologize the notion of queer transgression. In such a way, queer films that enthusiastically dramatize the queer outlaw perpetuate myths about homosexuality in order to dissect and discredit them. (shrink)
The Cambridge Platonists were a group of religious thinkers who attended and taught at Cambridge from the 1640s until the 1660s. The four most important of them were Benjamin Whichcote, John Smith, Ralph Cudworth, and Henry More. The most prominent sentimentalist moral philosophers of the Scottish Enlightenment – Hutcheson, Hume, and Adam Smith – knew of the works of the Cambridge Platonists. But the Scottish sentimentalists typically referred to the Cambridge Platonists only briefly and in passing. The surface (...) of Hutcheson, Hume, and Smith's texts can give the impression that the Cambridge Platonists were fairly distant intellectual relatives of the Scottish sentimentalists – great great-uncles, perhaps, and uncles of a decidedly foreign ilk. But this surface appearance is deceiving. There were deeply significant philosophical connections between the Cambridge Platonists and the Scottish sentimentalists, even if the Scottish sentimentalists themselves did not always make it perfectly explicit. (shrink)
It is a commonplace that the writers of eighteenth century Scotland played a key role in shaping the early practice of social science. This paper examines how this ‘Scottish’ contribution to the Enlightenment generation of social science was shaped by the fascination with unintended consequences. From Adam Smith's invisible hand to Hume's analysis of convention, through Ferguson's sociology, and Millar's discussion of rank, by way of Robertson's View of Progress, the concept of unintended consequences pervades the writing of the (...) period. The paper argues that the idea of unintended order shapes the understanding of the purpose of theoretical social science that emerges from the Scottish Enlightenment. (shrink)
Exchanges in the nineteenth century between Sir William Hamilton, James Frederick Ferrier and the French philosopher Victor Cousin are crucial to understanding contemporary efforts to preserve the continuity of the Scottish philosophical tradition on the part of those alive to new themes emanating from Kant and philosophy in Germany. Ferrier's strategy aimed at re-invigorating Descartes and Berkeley by drawing on elements in Adam Smith's social philosophy. But the promising steps taken in this direction in Ferrier's essays on consciousness were (...) seriously undermined, in Cousin's view, by the aprioristic character of his Institutes, in which he abandoned the careful empirical method characteristic of Scottish philosophy as practiced by Reid. (shrink)
The Scottish Enlightenment is commonly identified as the birthplace of modern social science. But while Scottish and contemporary social science share a commitment to empiricism, contemporary insistence on the separation of empirical analysis from normative judgment invokes a distinction unintelligible to the Scots. In this respect the methods of modern social science seem an attenuation of those of Scottish social science. A similar attenuation can be found in the modern aspiration to judge the outcome of institutions or (...) processes only with regard to efficiency. While the tenet that efficiency is preferable to inefficiency is central to Scottish social thought, the Scots regarded maximization of quantifiable returns as only one among three ends that well-functioning institutions and processes promote. Scottish social science speaks also of virtue and liberty where ours speaks only of utility. This essay develops these differences in three sections. Its first section compares Scottish and contemporary understandings of social science methods. Its second section examines how these differing methodologies inform their differing conceptions of human flourishing and particularly led Scottish social science to focus on virtue and freedom in addition to wealth. The essay concludes by calling attention to three movements in social science today which might help us recover the best features of Scottish social science. (shrink)
Abstract This article examines the consideration of animals by various eighteenth-century Scottish philosophers, with special attention given to the physician and philosopher John Gregory, who utilized the comparison of human beings with animals as a starting point for a discussion about human moral and social improvement. In so doing Gregory, like most of his contemporary fellow Scottish philosophers, exemplified the basic anthropocentrism of the common early modern consideration of animals.
Jacob Viner introduced the term ‘sub-rational’ to characterize the faculties – human instinct, sentiment and intuition – that fall between animal instinct and full-blown reason. The Scots considered sympathy both an affective and a physiological link between mind and body, and by natural history, they traced the most foundational societal institutions – language and law, money and property – to a sub-rational origin. Their ‘social evolutionism’ anticipated Darwin's ‘dangerous idea’ that humans differ from the lower animals only in degree, not (...) in kind. Darwin had the ability to ‘trade places in the imagination’, as Adam Smith would say, with plants and animals, and ‘think’ as they do. The trend today is to ‘positivize,’ ‘behaviorize’ and otherwise reduce the sub-rational to the purely biological. My suggestion is that we trade places in the imagination with the Scottish moral scientists and Darwin, and try thinking as they did. (shrink)
Once a name to conjure with, Scottish idealist James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864) is now a largely forgotten figure, notwithstanding the fact that he penned a work of remarkable power and originality: the Institutes of Metaphysic (1854). In ‘Reid and the Philosophy and Common Sense,’ an essay of 1847 which anticipates some of the central themes of the Institutes of Metaphysic, Ferrier presents an excoriating critique of Thomas Reid's brand of common sense realism. Understanding Ferrier's critique of Reid – its (...) content, motivations, and significance – is the task of the present essay. (shrink)
From the late 1790s to the early 1890s, Scottish scholars contributed, as translators, commentators, or critics to the ‘reception’ of Kant's philosophy in Britain. The discussion here considers particularly the work of Richardson, Semple, Gillies, MacVicar, Ferrier, Meiklejohn, and Hastie, and attempts to assess the character, quality, and value of their contributions to Kantian scholarship. An important question throughout is whether – and if so, how far and why – the work of Scottish Kantians can be meaningfully discussed (...) apart from their English contemporaries – one relevant consideration being the distinctive rôle of philosophy in the Scottish M.A. curriculum. (shrink)
Abstract It is argued that the scattered remarks on the fine arts made in Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind (1764) present a conception of the relation between perception and the fine arts that is at once compatible with and different from Reid's mature theory of art in Of Taste (1785). This alternative account of art-relevant perception also points beyond the limits of a philosophy of art developed according to the traditional theory of taste dominant in 18th-century Scottish aesthetic (...) thought, and anticipates certain 20th-century theories. (shrink)
In the second half of the seventeenth century, philosophy teaching in the Scottish universities gradually moved from scholasticism to Cartesianism. Robert Forbes, regent at Marischal College and King's College, Aberdeen, was a strenuous opponent of Descartes. The analysis of the philosophy of Forbes and of his teacher Patrick Gordon sheds light on the relationship between Scottish Reformed scholasticism and the reception of Descartes in Scotland.
While not rare, films that represent diabetes must work around the disease’s banal invisibility, and images of diabetics in film are especially susceptible to metaphor and exaggeration. This essay is the first to outline a diabetic filmography, discussing medical and cinematic strategies for visualizing the disease as well as how the illness informs family plots and heroic characters in horror films. Doing so, it participates in a larger discussion of the manner in which film images of ill or disabled groups (...) sustain notions of “normalcy” by both representing and denying otherness. (shrink)
While organ transplantation has been established in the medical imagination since the 1960s, this technology is currently undergoing a popular re-imagination in the era of global capitalism. As transplantation procedures have become routine in medical centers in non-Western and developing nations and as organ sales and transplant tourism become increasingly common, organs that function as a material resource increasingly derive from subaltern bodies. This essay explores this development as represented in Korean filmmaker Park Chan-wook’s 2002 Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance, focusing (...) on the ethnic and class characteristics of the global market in organs and possible modes of counter-logic to transplant technologies and related ethical discourses. (shrink)