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Sean Valentine [20]Sean R. Valentine [8]
  1. David Hollingworth & Sean Valentine (forthcoming). The Moderating Effect of Perceived Organizational Ethical Context on Employees' Ethical Issue Recognition and Ethical Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  2. Sean Valentine, Seong-Hyun Nam, David Hollingworth & Callie Hall (forthcoming). Ethical Context and Ethical Decision Making: Examination of an Alternative Statistical Approach for Identifying Variable Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  3. Connie R. Bateman, Sean Valentine & Terri Rittenburg (2013). Ethical Decision Making in a Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Situation: The Role of Moral Absolutes and Social Consensus. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):229-240.
    Individuals are downloading copyrighted materials at escalating rates (Hill 2007; Siwek 2007). Since most materials shared within these networks are copyrighted works, providing, exchanging, or downloading files is considered to be piracy and a violation of intellectual property rights (Shang et al. 2008). Previous research indicates that personal moral philosophies rooted in moral absolutism together with social context may impact decision making in ethical dilemmas; however, it is yet unclear which motivations and norms contextually impact moral awareness in a peer-to-peer (...)
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  4. Sean Valentine & David Hollingworth (2012). Moral Intensity, Issue Importance, and Ethical Reasoning in Operations Situations. Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):509 - 523.
    Previous work suggests that moral intensity and the perceived importance of an ethical issue can influence individual ethical decision making. However, prior research has not explored how the various dimensions of moral intensity might differentially affect PIE, or how moral intensity might function together with (or in the presence of) PIE to influence ethical decision making. In addition, prior work has also not adequately investigated how the operational context of an organization, which may embody conditions or practices that create barriers (...)
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  5. Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman (2011). The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing a sales-based (...)
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  6. Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin, Gary M. Fleischman & Roland Kidwell (2011). Corporate Ethical Values, Group Creativity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: The Impact of Work Context on Work Response. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):353 - 372.
    A corporate culture strengthened by ethical values and other positive business practices likely yields more favorable employee work responses. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which perceived corporate ethical values work in concert with group creativity to influence both job satisfaction and turnover intention. Using a self-report questionnaire, information was collected from 781 healthcare and administrative employees working at a multi-campus education-based healthcare organization. Additional survey data was collected from a comparative convenience sample of (...)
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  7. Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin, Gary M. Fleischman, Roland E. Kidwell & Karen Page (2011). Corporate Ethical Values and Altruism: The Mediating Role of Career Satisfaction. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 101 (4):509-523.
    This study explores the ability of career satisfaction to mediate the relationship between corporate ethical values and altruism. Using a sample of individuals employed in a four-campus, regional health science center, it was determined that individual career satisfaction fully mediated the positive relationship between perceptions of corporate ethical values and self-reported altruism. The findings imply that companies dedicating attention to positive corporate ethical values can enhance employee attitudes and altruistic behaviors, especially when individuals experience a high degree of career satisfaction.
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  8. Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine (2010). Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers' Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393 - 414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender (defined as sex differences) is related to consumers' moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rulebased moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and (...)
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  9. Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin & Philip E. Varca (2010). Role Conflict, Mindfulness, and Organizational Ethics in an Education-Based Healthcare Institution. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):455 - 469.
    Role conflict occurs when a job possesses inconsistent expectations incongruent with individual beliefs, a situation that precipitates considerable frustration and other negative work outcomes. Increasing interest in processes that reduce role conflict is, therefore, witnessed. With the help of information collected from a large sample of individuals employed at an education-based healthcare institution, this study identified several factors that might decrease role conflict, namely mindfulness and organizational ethics. In particular, the results indicated that mindfulness was associated with decreased role conflict, (...)
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  10. Sean Valentine, Philip Varca, Lynn Godkin & Tim Barnett (2010). Positive Job Response and Ethical Job Performance. Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):195 - 206.
    Although many studies have linked job attitudes and intentions to aspects of in-role and extra-role job performance, there has been relatively little attention given to such job responses in the context of employees’ ethical/unethical behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between positive job response (conceptualized as job satisfaction and intention to stay) and behavioral ethics. Ninety-two matched manager-employee pairs from a regional branch of a large financial services and banking firm completed survey instruments, with (...)
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  11. Roland E. Kidwell & Sean R. Valentine (2009). Positive Group Context, Work Attitudes, and Organizational Misbehavior: The Case of Withholding Job Effort. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):15 - 28.
    Considering the organization’s ethical context as a framework to investigate workplace phenomena, this field study of military reserve personnel examines the relationships among perceptions of psychosocial group variables, such as cohesiveness, helping behavior and peer leadership, employee job attitudes, and the likelihood of individuals’ withholding on-the-job effort, a form of organizational misbehavior. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 290 individuals using structural equation modeling, and support for negative relationships between perceptions of positive group context and withholding effort by individual (...)
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  12. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2008). Ethics Programs, Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):159 - 172.
    Companies offer ethics codes and training to increase employees’ ethical conduct. These programs can also enhance individual work attitudes because ethical organizations are typically valued. Socially responsible companies are likely viewed as ethical organizations and should therefore prompt similar employee job responses. Using survey information collected from 313 business professionals, this exploratory study proposed that perceived corporate social responsibility would mediate the positive relationships between ethics codes/training and job satisfaction. Results indicated that corporate social responsibility fully or partially mediated the (...)
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  13. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2008). Professional Ethical Standards, Corporate Social Responsibility, and the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):657 - 666.
    This study explored several proposed relationships among professional ethical standards, corporate social responsibility, and the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility. Data were collected from 313 business managers registered with a large professional research association with a mailed self-report questionnaire. Mediated regression analysis indicated that perceptions of corporate social responsibility partially mediated the positive relationship between perceived professional ethical standards and the believed importance of ethics and social responsibility. Perceptions of corporate social responsibility also fully mediated the negative relationship (...)
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  14. Terri L. Rittenburg, Sean R. Valentine & James B. Faircloth (2007). An Ethical Decision-Making Framework for Competitor Intelligence Gathering. Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):235 - 245.
    Competitor intelligence gathering involves the aggregation of competitive information to facilitate strategic development and a competitive advantage. Unfortunately, companies are sometimes willing to carry out questionable gathering practices to collect such information. An ethical decision making framework for competitor intelligence gathering is presented in this paper that outlines the impact of several strengthening and weakening factors on individual ethical reasoning. Dialogue is provided about the management of intelligence gathering from various viewpoints, and the implications of these managerial suggestions are discussed.
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  15. Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg (2007). The Ethical Decision Making of Men and Women Executives in International Business Situations. Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):125 - 134.
    While a number of studies have examined the impact of gender/sex on ethical decision-making, the findings of this body of research do not provide consistent answers. Furthermore, very few of these studies have incorporated cross-cultural samples. Consequently, this study of 222 American and Spanish business executives explored sex differences in ethical judgments and intentions to act ethically. While no significant differences between males and females were found with respect to ethical judgments, females exhibited higher intentions to act more ethically than (...)
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  16. Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin, Edward Cyrson & Gary Fleischman (2006). Perceived Ethical Values and Small Business Problems in Poland. Business Ethics 15 (1):76–85.
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  17. Sean Valentine & Karen Page (2006). Nine to Five: Skepticism of Women's Employment and Ethical Reasoning. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 63 (1):53 - 61.
    Previous work suggests that gender attitudes are associated with different individual and organizational factors. At the same time, ethics research suggests that many of these same variables can influence ethical reasoning in companies. In this study, we sought to combine these streams of research to investigate whether individual skepticism of women’s employment is related to ethical reasoning in a gender-based ethical situation. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that skepticism of women’s employment was negatively related to the recognition (...)
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  18. Sean Valentine & Anthony Johnson (2005). Codes of Ethics, Orientation Programs, and the Perceived Importance of Employee Incorruptibility. Journal of Business Ethics 61 (1):45 - 53.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the review of corporate ethics codes is associated with individuals’ perceptions of the importance of virtue ethics, or more specifically, employee incorruptibility. A convenience sample of individuals working for a university or one of several business organizations located in the Mountain West region of the United States was compiled with a self-report questionnaire. A usable sample of 143 persons representing both the public and private industries was secured for (...)
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  19. Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg (2004). Spanish and American Business Professionals' Ethical Evaluations in Global Situations. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (1):1-14.
    More ethics research needs to explore the global differences in ethical evaluations. This study explored the relationships among nationality, teleological evaluations, ethical judgments, and ethical intentions using a sample of 222 American and Spanish business professionals. The path analysis indicated that teleological evaluations were related to ethical judgments and that both ethical judgments and teleological evaluations were related to ethical intentions. Executive nationality was related to teleological evaluations and ethical intentions with American individuals having higher teleological assessments and intentions to (...)
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  20. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2004). Ethics Training and Businesspersons' Perceptions of Organizational Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):381 - 390.
    Ethics training is commonly cited as a primary method for increasing employees ethical decision making and conduct. However, little is known about how the presence of ethics training can enhance other components of an organization's ethical environment such as employees perception of company ethical values. Using a national sample of 313 business professionals employed in the United States, the relationship between ethics training and perceived organizational ethics was explored. The results of the analysis provide significant statistical support for the notion (...)
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  21. Gary Fleischman & Sean Valentine (2003). Professionals' Tax Liability Assessments and Ethical Evaluations in an Equitable Relief Innocent Spouse Case. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (1):27 - 44.
    This study used a national sample of professionals and a questionnaire containing equitable relief vignettes to explore whether the new equitable relief subset of the revised innocent spouse rules is helpful to the IRS when making relief decisions. The study also addressed the ethical and gender issues associated with equitable relief innocent spouse cases. The results suggested that several equitable relief factors are useful as discriminators in the relief decision. The results also demonstrated that the recognition of an ethical issue (...)
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  22. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2003). Ethical Reasoning in an Equitable Relief Innocent Spouse Context. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (4):325 - 339.
    This study assessed the relationship between ethical reasoning and the decision to grant equitable relief using an innocent spouse vignette where a wife had partial knowledge of her husband''s tax fraud. A path model derived from various ethics theories was tested using a sample of 357 accounting, legal, and human resource professionals, and after careful examination of the measurement and structural relationships in the path model, the results provided partial support for the study''s hypotheses. Moral intensity was marginally associated with (...)
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  23. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2003). The Impact of Self-Esteem, Machiavellianism, and Social Capital on Attorneys' Traditional Gender Outlook. Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):323 - 335.
    Utilizing a national sample of 106 attorneys and hierarchical regression analysis, this study identified several individual tendencies that could adversely affect women attorneys' career experiences. The findings indicated that self-esteem was negatively associated with a traditional gender outlook, and that Machiavellianism was positively associated with conservative beliefs about gender. Tolerance for diversity was negatively related to a traditional gender outlook, while work-based social agency was positively related to the preference for established gender roles. The results imply that confidence brings about (...)
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  24. Terri L. Rittenburg & Sean R. Valentine (2002). Spanish and American Executives' Ethical Judgments and Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 38 (4):291 - 306.
    This study explores differences between executives in the U.S. and Spain in their perceptions of ethical issues in pricing, specifically comparing a domestic firm's actions affecting a foreign market versus a foreign firm's actions affecting the domestic market. Overall, Spanish and American executives provided somewhat different responses to the scenarios. Findings indicate that ethical judgments and intentions among Spanish executives did not vary based on which country was harmed. U.S. executives generally perceived that a morally questionable act directed at a (...)
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  25. Sean Valentine & Tim Barnett (2002). Ethics Codes and Sales Professionals' Perceptions of Their Organizations' Ethical Values. Journal of Business Ethics 40 (3):191 - 200.
    Most large companies and many smaller ones have adopted ethics codes, but the evidence is mixed as to whether they have a positive impact on the behavior of employees. We suggest that one way that ethics codes could contribute to ethical behavior is by influencing the perceptions that employees have about the ethical values of organizations. We examine whether a group of sales professionals in organizations with ethics codes perceive that their organizational context is more supportive of ethical behavior than (...)
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  26. Sean Valentine & Gary Fleischman (2002). Ethics Codes and Professionals' Tolerance of Societal Diversity. Journal of Business Ethics 40 (4):301 - 312.
    Companies often develop codes prescribing an ethical organizational environment. However, the ability of ethics codes to increase individuals' tolerance of diversity is not fully considered in the ethics literature. This relationship was explored using a sample of 143 business and legal professionals. After accounting for the impact of several covariates, results indicated that professionals employed in organizations that had an ethics code were more tolerant of societal diversity than were professionals working in organizations that did not have an ethics code. (...)
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  27. Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin & Margaret Lucero (2002). Ethical Context, Organizational Commitment, and Person-Organization Fit. Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4):349 - 360.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit using a sample of 304 young working adults. Results indicated that corporate ethical values signifying different cultural aspects of an ethical context were positively related to both organizational commitment and person-organization fit. Organizational commitment was also positively related to person-organization fit. The findings suggest that the development and promotion of an ethical context might enhance employees' workplace experiences, and companies should consider adopting (...)
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  28. James H. Turner & Sean R. Valentine (2001). Cynicism as a Fundamental Dimension of Moral Decision-Making: A Scale Development. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2):123 - 136.
    Altruism and cynicism are two fundamental algorithms of moral decision-making. This derives from the evolution of cooperative behavior and reciprocal altruism and the need to avoid being taken advantage of. Rushton (1986) developed a self-report scale to measure altruism, however no scale to measure cynicism has been developed for use in ethics research. Following a discussion of reciprocal altruism and cynicism, this article presents an 11-item self-report scale to measure cynicism, developed and validated using a sample of 271 customer-service and (...)
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