Search results for 'Self-worth' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  52
    Matt Ferkany (2009). Recognition, Attachment, and the Social Bases of Self-Worth. Southern Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):263-283.
    Recognition theorists have claimed that a culturally egalitarian societal environment is a crucial social basis of a sense of self-worth. In doing so they have often drawn on noncogntivist social-psychological theorizing. This paper argues that this theorizing does not support the recognition theorist's position. It is argued that attachment theory, together with recent empirical evidence, support a more limited vision of self-worth's social bases according to which associational ties, basic rights and liberties, and economic and educational opportunity are (...)
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  2. Paul Benson (1994). Free Agency and Self-Worth. Journal of Philosophy 91 (12):650-58.
  3. Timothy Perrine (2011). Envy and Self-Worth. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):433-446.
    In the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas offers an adept account of the vice of envy. Despite the virtues of his account, he nevertheless fails to provide an adequatedefinition of the vice. Instead, he offers two different definitions each of which fails to identify what is common to all cases of envy. Here I supplement Aquinas’saccount by providing what I take to be common to all cases of envy. I argue that what is common is a “perception of inferiority”—when a person perceives (...)
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  4.  7
    Stefan Thau, Christian Tröster, Karl Aquino, Madan Pillutla & David Cremer (2013). Satisfying Individual Desires or Moral Standards? Preferential Treatment and Group Members' Self-Worth, Affect, and Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (1):133-145.
    We investigate how social comparison processes in leader treatment quality impact group members’ self-worth, affect, and behavior. Evidences from the field and the laboratory suggest that employees who are treated kinder and more considerate than their fellow group members experience more self-worth and positive affect. Moreover, the greater positive self-implications of preferentially treated group members motivate them more strongly to comply with norms and to engage in tasks that benefit the group. These findings suggest that leaders (...)
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  5. Paul Benson (2000). Feeling Crazy: Self Worth and the Social Character of Responsibility. In Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.), Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency, and the Social Self. OUP Usa
     
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  6.  6
    Jennifer Crocker & Lora E. Park (2003). Seeking Self-Esteem: Construction, Maintenance, and Protection of Self-Worth. In Mark R. Leary & June Price Tangney (eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity. Guilford Press 291--313.
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  7. Susan Harter & Donna B. Marold (1991). A Model of the Determinants and Mediational Role of Self-Worth: Implications for Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation. In J. Strauss (ed.), The Self: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Springer-Verlag 66--92.
  8.  6
    Shaun Hargreaves Heap (2001). Expressive Rationality: Is Self-Worth Just Another Kind of Preference?'. In Uskali Mäki (ed.), The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Cambridge University Press
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  9. L. Chenoweth (1977). Self-Worth and American-Dream-or, How Success Becomes a Failure Experience. Humanitas 13 (2):141-151.
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  10. Biblical Hope & Success in Black Women (forthcoming). Editorial 139 Self-Worth and the American Dream. Or, How Success Becomes a Failure Experience. Humanitas.
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  11.  35
    Matti Häyry (2007). The Tension Between Self-Governance and Absolute Inner Worth in Kant's Moral Philosophy. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1 (11):153-157.
    In contemporary discussions on practical ethics, the concepts of autonomy and dignity have frequently been opposed. This tendency has been particularly visible in controversies regarding cloning, abortion, organ sales, and euthanasia. Freedom of research and freedom of choice, as instances of professional and personal autonomy, have been cited in arguments favouring these practices, while the dignity and sanctity of human life have been evoked in arguments against them. In the moral theory of Immanuel Kant, however, the concepts of autonomy and (...)
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  12. M. Hayry (2005). The Tension Between Self Governance and Absolute Inner Worth in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):645-647.
    In contemporary discussions on practical ethics, the concepts of autonomy and dignity have frequently been opposed. This tendency has been particularly visible in controversies regarding cloning, abortion, organ sales, and euthanasia. Freedom of research and freedom of choice, as instances of professional and personal autonomy, have been cited in arguments favouring these practices, while the dignity and sanctity of human life have been evoked in arguments against them. In the moral theory of Immanuel Kant, however, the concepts of autonomy and (...)
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  13.  27
    Pascal Boyer, Philip Robbins & Anthony I. Jack (2005). Varieties of Self-Systems Worth Having. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (4):647-660.
  14. Michael Garnett (2014). The Autonomous Life: A Pure Social View. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):143-158.
    In this paper I propose and develop a social account of global autonomy. On this view, a person is autonomous simply to the extent to which it is difficult for others to subject her to their wills. I argue that many properties commonly thought necessary for autonomy are in fact properties that tend to increase an agent’s immunity to such interpersonal subjection, and that the proposed account is therefore capable of providing theoretical unity to many of the otherwise heterogeneous requirements (...)
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  15.  8
    Janice Richardson (2007). On Not Making Ourselves the Prey of Others: Jean Hampton's Feminist Contractarianism. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 15 (1):33-55.
    This article assesses Jean Hampton’s feminist contractarianism by considering the way in which she draws together the contradictory positions of Hobbes and Kant to produce a test for exploitation in personal relationships. The ways in which this work fits with her other analysis of retribution, gratitude and self-worth are examined. Hampton’s work is evaluated in the context of Carole Pateman’s argument that moral theories distract from the political analysis of who has a voice in relationships. Hampton’s work presumes the (...)
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  16. Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.) (2000). Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Automony, Agency, and the Social Self. Oxford University Press.
    This collection of original essays explores the social and relational dimensions of individual autonomy. Rejecting the feminist charge that autonomy is inherently masculinist, the contributors draw on feminist critiques of autonomy to challenge and enrich contemporary philosophical debates about agency, identity, and moral responsibility. The essays analyze the complex ways in which oppression can impair an agent's capacity for autonomy, and investigate connections, neglected by standard accounts, between autonomy and other aspects of the agent, including self-conception, self-worth, memory, and (...)
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  17. Uwe Steinhoff, Self-Defense and the Necessity Condition.
    Rights forfeiture or liability are not a path to the permissibility of self-defense (not even barring extraordinary circumstances), and the necessity condition is not intrinsic to justified self-defense. Rather, necessity in the context of justification must be distinguished from necessity in the context of rights forfeiture. While innocent aggressors only forfeit their right against necessary self-defense, culpable aggressors also forfeit, on grounds of a principle of reciprocity, certain rights against unnecessary self-defense. Yet, while culpable aggressors would therefore not be wronged (...)
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  18. Owen J. Flanagan (1996). Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.
    Human beings have the unique ability to consciously reflect on the nature of the self. But reflection has its costs. We can ask what the self is, but as David Hume pointed out, the self, once reflected upon, may be nowhere to be found. The favored view is that we are material beings living in the material world. But if so, a host of destabilizing questions surface. If persons are just a sophisticated sort of animal, then what sense is there (...)
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  19. Seth Lazar (forthcoming). National Defence, Self Defence, and the Problem of Political Aggression. In Seth Lazar & Cécile Fabre (eds.), The Morality of Defensive War. Oxford University Press 10-38.
    Wars are large-scale conflicts between organized groups of belligerents, which involve suffering, devastation, and brutality unlike almost anything else in human experience. Whatever one’s other beliefs about morality, all should agree that the horrors of war are all but unconscionable, and that warfare can be justified only if we have some compel- ling account of what is worth fighting for, which can justify contributing, as individu- als and as groups, to this calamitous endeavour. Although this question should obviously be (...)
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  20.  79
    Deborah A. Sommer (2012). The Ji Self in Early Chinese Texts. In Jason Dockstader Hans-Georg Moller & Gunter Wohlfahrt (eds.), Selfhood East and West: De-Constructions of Identity. Traugott Bautz 17-45.
    The ji 己self is a site, storehouse, or depot of individuated allotment associated with the possession of things and qualities: wholesome and unwholesome desires (yu 欲) and aversions, emotions such as anxiety, and positive values such as humaneness and reverence. Each person's allotment is unique, and its "contents" are collected, measured, reflected on, and then distributed to others. The Analects, Mencius, Xunzi, Daodejing, and Zhuangzi each have their own vision for negotiating the space between self and other. Works as seemingly (...)
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  21.  76
    David Middleton (2006). Three Types of Self-Respect. Res Publica 12 (1):59-76.
    According to John Rawls, self-respect is the most important of the primary goods and is essential for the construction of the just society. Self-respect, however, remains a concept which is inadequately theorised, being closely linked to other concepts such as dignity, shame, pride, autonomy and security. Most usually self-respect is considered to be just the self-reflection of the respect we receive from others. In this paper I argue that self-respect consists of both a self-evaluative and a social reflexive element. Using (...)
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  22.  89
    Craig Paterson (2003). A Life Not Worth Living? Studies in Christian Ethics 16 (2):1-20.
    The work of Dan Brock and Helga Kuhse is typical of the current stream of thought rejecting the validity of sanctity of life appeals to instill objective inviolable worth in human life regardless of the quality of life of the patient. The context of a person's life is supremely important. In their systems life can have high value, yet the value of life can be outweighed by the force of other disvalues. The notion of quality of life has increasingly come (...)
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  23. Fabrice Teroni & Julien A. Deonna (2009). The Self of Shame. In Mikko Salmela & Verena Mayer (eds.), Emotions, Ethics, and Authenticity. John Benjamins 33-50.
    The evaluations involved in shame are, intuitively at least, of many different sorts. One feels ashamed when seen by others doing something one would prefer doing alone (social shame). One is ashamed because of one’s ugly nose (shame about permanent traits). One feels ashamed of one’s dishonest behavior (moral shame), etc. The variety of evaluations in shame is striking; and it is even more so if one takes a cross-cultural perspective on this emotion. So the difficulty – the “unity problem” (...)
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  24.  47
    Joel Smith (2012). Review of JeeLoo Liu & John Perry (Eds.), Consciousness and the Self: New Essays. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    The authors in this collection pursue a number of questions concerning self-consciousness, self and consciousness. Although the essays range rather broadly, there is a good deal of unity. In her introduction Liu organises the chapters under three headings: the Humean denial of self-awareness, the issue of self-knowledge, and the nature of persons or selves. This is helpful although it is worth bearing in mind that some chapters fall under more than one heading (for example, Shoemaker) and some don't fall neatly (...)
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  25.  18
    Frances Wyers (1976). Miguel De Unamuno, the Contrary Self. Tamesis.
    I The Inner Self and the External Self There is no direct intuition of the self that is worth anything; the eye cannot see itself except in a mirror and the ...
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  26. Daniel C. Dennett (1984). Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting. MIT Press.
    Essays discuss reason, self-control, self-definition, time, cause and effect, accidents, and responsibility, and explain why people want free will.
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  27. Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.) (2000). Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency, and the Social Self. Oxford University Press Usa.
    This collection of original essays explores the social and relational dimensions of individual autonomy. Rejecting the feminist charge that autonomy is inherently masculinist, the contributors draw on feminist critiques of autonomy to challenge and enrich contemporary philosophical debates about agency, identity, and moral responsibility. The essays analyze the complex ways in which oppression can impair an agent's capacity for autonomy, and investigate connections, neglected by standard accounts, between autonomy and other aspects of the agent, including self-conception, self-worth, memory, and (...)
     
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  28. Shaun Halovic (2016). Effective Therapeutic Relationships Using Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in the Face of Trauma. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):159-160.
    The case of Xiang as described by Jane Carroll is indeed disconcerting well beyond the immediately apparent factors contained within the article. While Xiang’s direct medical expenses are excessive and his inability to pay for those expenses and further support his noncustodial family seem to be the main issues up for debate, Xiang, however, is likely going to need much more psychosocial support if he is to regain his previous independent functionality or retain any aspect of a quality of life (...)
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  29.  5
    Angeliki Leondari (1993). Comparability of Self‐Concept Among Normal Achievers, Low Achievers and Children with Learning Difficulties. Educational Studies 19 (3):357-371.
    Self‐concept ratings of normally and low achieving students in regular classes were compared with those of children facing academic difficulties and attending special education classes. Children's perceptions of scholastic competence and feelings of global self‐worth were measured using the Perceived Competence Scale for Children . Participants in the study were 424 children enrolled in the third to sixth primary school grades. Results indicated that special class children rated themselves more negatively than their normally achieving peers on both academic self‐concept and (...)
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  30.  7
    Victor J. Seidler (1994). Recovering the Self: Morality and Social Theory. Routledge.
    Recovering the Self seeks to place issues of morality and justice at the heart of social theory. Because of the breakdown of traditional forms of authority, respect for authorities can no longer be taken for granted. Increasingly people believe that respect has to be earned and people have to discover sources of authority within themselves. Victor Seidler seeks to establish a framework to rethink the relation between self and society, identities and power. Through exploring the works of Marx, Weber, and (...)
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  31.  14
    Paul Healy (2000). Self-Other Relations and the Rationality of Cultures. Philosophy and Social Criticism 26 (6):61-83.
    As attested by Taylor, Calhoun and others, recognition is central to (cultural) identity and to a related sense of self-worth. In contrast, by denying the comparable worth of other cultures, non-recognition represents a potentially damaging mode of intercultural relations. Although not widely acknowledged, a related consideration has been at issue in the rationality debate, initiated by Peter Winch, throughout its several phases. Briefly stated, the problem is that the polarized alternatives of ethnocentric universalism and self-sealing relativism that have characterized (...)
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  32.  13
    R. A. Sharpe & Charles Taylor (1992). Sources of the Self. Philosophical Quarterly 42 (167):234.
    'Most of us are still groping for answers about what makes life worth living, or what confers meaning on individual lives', writes Charles Taylor in Sources of the Self. 'This is an essentially modern predicament.' Charles Taylor's latest book sets out to define the modern identity by tracing its genesis, analysing the writings of such thinkers as Augustine, Descartes, Montaigne, Luther, and many others. This then serves as a starting point for a renewed understanding of modernity. Taylor argues that modern (...)
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  33. Jean Hampton (2007). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the maintenance (...)
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  34. Charles Taylor (1992). Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge University Press.
    'Most of us are still groping for answers about what makes life worth living, or what confers meaning on individual lives', writes Charles Taylor in Sources of the Self. 'This is an essentially modern predicament.' Charles Taylor's latest book sets out to define the modern identity by tracing its genesis, analysing the writings of such thinkers as Augustine, Descartes, Montaigne, Luther, and many others. This then serves as a starting point for a renewed understanding of modernity. Taylor argues that modern (...)
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  35.  5
    Claudia Welz (2008). Love as Gift and Self-Sacrifice. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 50 (3-4):238-266.
    SUMMARYIt lies in the biblical line of thought that cultic sacrifices to God are made superfluous by human love of God and the neighbor. But is it possible to completely get rid of any sort of sacrifice in interhuman love relationships? With reference to texts by Kierkegaard and Levinas, this article discusses the paradigms of love as self-sacrifice, love as self-giving, and the double bind between the two. Part I clarifies that their affirmation of self-sacrificial love is to be read (...)
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  36.  26
    Matthew Elton (2003). Daniel Dennett: Reconciling Science and Our Self-Conception. Distributed in the Usa by Blackwell Pub..
    Dennett and the philosophy of mind -- Adopting a stance -- Real patterns -- Different kinds of psychology -- Explaining consciousness : the basic account -- Explaining consciousness : developments, doubts, and the self -- Dennett's Darwin -- A variety of free will worth wanting.
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  37.  30
    Steven Kenneth Kauffmann (2011). Unambiguous Quantization From the Maximum Classical Correspondence That Is Self-Consistent: The Slightly Stronger Canonical Commutation Rule Dirac Missed. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (5):805-819.
    Dirac’s identification of the quantum analog of the Poisson bracket with the commutator is reviewed, as is the threat of self-inconsistent overdetermination of the quantization of classical dynamical variables which drove him to restrict the assumption of correspondence between quantum and classical Poisson brackets to embrace only the Cartesian components of the phase space vector. Dirac’s canonical commutation rule fails to determine the order of noncommuting factors within quantized classical dynamical variables, but does imply the quantum/classical correspondence of Poisson brackets (...)
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  38. Mira Morgenstern (1996). Rousseau and the Politics of Ambiguity: Self, Culture, and Society. Penn State University Press.
    This new reading of Jean-Jacques Rousseau challenges traditional views of the eighteenth-century political philosopher's attitudes toward women and his perceived pessimism about human experience. Mira Morgenstern finds in Rousseau an appreciation of the complexities and multidimensionality of life that allowed him to criticize various easy dualisms promoted by his fellow liberal thinkers and point to the crucial mediating role that women fulfill between the private and public spheres. Morgenstern sees Rousseau as an important contributor to the feminist (...)
     
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  39.  15
    Kelly Rogers (1997). Beyond Self and Other. Social Philosophy and Policy 14 (1):1.
    Today there is a tendency to do ethics on the basis of what I should like to call the “self-other model.” On this view, an action has no moral worth unless it benefits others–and not even then, unless it is motivated by altruism rather than selfishness. This radical rift between self-interest and virtue traces back at least to Philo of Alexandria, according to whom, “lovers of self, when they have stripped and prepared for conflict with those who value virtue, keep (...)
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  40.  28
    Richard Schmitt (2004). Is the Unexamined Life Not Worth Living? Teaching Philosophy 27 (4):307-319.
    This paper examines the merits of the Socratic maxim that the unexamined life is not worth living. First, the maxim is considered in its purely subjective sense, viz., that a particular individual’s life is not worth living due to factors like intense pain or illness. Second, two objective interpretations of the maxim are considered: a “strongly objective sense” where failure to examine one’s life means that one is wasting it and a “moderately objective sense” where it is reasonable to recommend (...)
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  41.  3
    Seth Roberts (2004). Self-Experimentation: Friend or Foe? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):275-287.
    The topics discussed in this response are in four broad areas: (1) Idea generation, including the failure to discuss and teach idea generation and how to nurture new ideas (sect. R2), sources of ideas worth testing with self-experimentation (sect. R3), and unusual features of the situation that may have increased the discovery rate (sect. R4); (2) Miscellaneous methodological issues, such as the value of mental experiments (sect. R5) and the limitations of double-blind experiments (sect. R6); (3) Subject-matter issues, including the (...)
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  42.  4
    Olga Afanasyeva (2008). Spiritual Culture and National Self-Identification as Major Factors in Overcoming Crisis in Russia. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 36:233-241.
    Liberal-Democratic changes in the Russian Society have brought a number of acute problems threatening national security and leading to converting Russia into a peripheral socio-cultural system («national self-identification crisis»). Scientific research shows that the main indicator of the said crisis is not only the critical economic differentiation of people into the «poor» and «rich» Russia (with the different ways of life, needs, mentality) but also spiritual degradation, spread of aggressive – depressive syndrome (growth of hatred, feeling of injustice, loss of (...)
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  43.  18
    Geoffrey Rees (2011). Is Sex Worth Dying For? Sentimental-Homicidal-Suicidal Violence in Theological Discourse of Sexuality. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (2):261-285.
    In theological discourse of sexuality, queer theory has often been regarded as an extension of the project of gay and lesbian liberation, when it actually challenges an organizing value of the entire discourse, because it challenges any ascription of ultimate value to "sex," an imaginative formation of power relations. Rather than appeal to God to authorize the privileged status of sex, queer commentary suggests that theological writers should refuse assertions of the absolute importance of any particular formation of human imagination (...)
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  44.  7
    Larry L. Thomas (1978). Morality and Our Self-Concept. Journal of Value Inquiry 12 (4):258-268.
    One of the most important aspects of our lives is the conception which we have of ourselves. For the way in which we view ourselves fundamentally affects how we interact among others and, most importantly perhaps, how we think others should treat us. For instance, one will not expect others to regard one as having a high mathematical acumen if one. realizes that one's mathematical skills are very minimal. Of course, persons may be mistaken in their assessment of themselves. And (...)
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  45. Neera Kapur Badhwar (1993). Altruism Versus Self-Interest: Sometimes a False Dichotomy*: Neera Kapur Badhwar. Social Philosophy and Policy 10 (1):90-117.
    In the moral philosophy of the last two centuries, altruism of one kind or another has typically been regarded as identical with moral concern. When self-regarding duties have been recognized, motivation by duty has been sharply distinguished from motivation by self-interest . Accordingly, from Kant, Mill, and Sidgwick to Rawls, Nagel, and Gauthier, concern for our own interests, whether long-term or short-term, has typically been regarded as intrinsically nonmoral. So, for example, although Thomas Nagel regards both prudence and altruism as (...)
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  46. Talia Mae Bettcher (1999). The Spirit and the Heap: Berkeley and Hume on the Self and Self-Consciousness. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    This dissertation concerns an important dispute between George Berkeley and David Hume. The dispute involves Berkeley's defense of his conception of the self as a spirit, a purely active being which perceives ideas; and Hume's elimination of that conception via his own, according to which the self is merely a heap, a causally connected system of perceptions. At bottom, this difference in the way that the self is conceptualized is informed by a fundamental difference in philosophical starting-point. Berkeley seeks to (...)
     
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  47. Daniel Farnham (ed.) (2007). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the maintenance (...)
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  48. Daniel Farnham (ed.) (2010). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the maintenance (...)
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  49. Daniel Farnham (ed.) (2006). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the maintenance (...)
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  50. Owen Flanagan (1998). Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press Usa.
    In this trailblazing collection of essays on free will and the human mind, distinguished philosopher Owen Flanagan seeks to reconcile a scientific view of ourselves with an account of ourselves as meaning makers and agents of free will. He approaches this old philosophical quagmire from new angles, bringing to it the latest insights of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychiatry. Covering a host of topics, these essays discuss whether the conscious mind can be explained scientifically, whether dreams are self-expressive or just (...)
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