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  1. Selmer Bringsjord, Computationalism is Dead; Now What?
    In this paper I place Jim Fetzer's esemplastic burial of the computational conceptionof mind within the context of both my own burial and the theory of mind I would put in place of this dead doctrine. My view..
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  2. Selmer Bringsjord, Chess Isn't Tough Enough: Better Games for Mind-Machine Competition.
    That Strong AI is still alive may have a lot to do with its avoidance of true tests. When Kasparov sits down to face the meanest chessbot in town, he has the deck stacked against him: his play may involve super-computation, but we know that perfect chess can be played by a nite-state automaton, so Kasparov loses if the engineers are su - ciently clever : : : (Bringsjord, 1997b), p. 9; para-.
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  3. Selmer Bringsjord, Entrepreneurial IT in the Age of Smart Machines.
    Don’t Bury Your Head in the Sand! • Some say: “AI is dead.” (Or: “AI is dying.”) • This is due to either self-deception or what Turing — the grandfather of computer sci-.
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  4. Selmer Bringsjord, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI).
    Though it's di cult to agree on the exact date of their union, logic and arti cial intelligence (AI) were married by the late 1950s, and, at least during their honeymoon, were happily united. What connubial permutation do logic and AI nd themselves in now? Are they still (happily) married? Are they divorced? Or are they only separated, both still keeping alive the promise of a future in which the old magic is rekindled? This paper is an attempt to (...)
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  5. Selmer Bringsjord, The Impact of Computing on Epistemology: Knowing Gödel's Mind Through Computation.
    I know that those of you who know my mind know that I think I know that we can't know Gödel's mind through computation: ``The Impact : Failing to Know " If computationalism is false, observant philosophers willing to get their hands dirty should be able to find tell-tale signs today: automated theorem proving tomorrow (Eastern APA): robots as zombanimals But let's start with little 'ol me, and literary, not mathematical, creativity: Selmer (samples) vs. Brutus1 (samples again).
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  6. Selmer Bringsjord, The Town of Brunswick's Contrarian Planning.
    I have a friend, Harry, quite an odd bird, who calls himself a ``contrarian" planner; I recently learned that Harry has been advising the Town of Brunswick in connection with a developer's proposal to chop a new road from WalMart to Rt 2. I called him about this prospective deal the other day; what follows is a transcript of our conversation.
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  7. Selmer Bringsjord, Why Not Shoot?
    Guns and schools. You doubtless insist they don’t mix, but alas, the brute fact is that many of our youth rather vehemently disagree with you: lots of young people these days have decided to bring guns to school, and to fire them at their classmates and teachers. You know this; I know you do. You know this because you tune into the news, at least every now and then. And so you’ve seen the blood, the bodies, the swat teams, the (...)
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  8. Selmer Bringsjord & Kelsey Rinella, Hard Data In Defense of Logical Minds.
    develop a context-free deductive reasoning scheme at the level of elementary first-order logic — a scheme that will allow them to solve the logic problems studied in the psychology of reasoning literature, and significantly harder problems as well.
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  9. Selmer Bringsjord, An Argument for P=NP.
    Selmer Bringsjord & Joshua Taylor∗ Department of Cognitive Science Department of Computer Science The Rensselaer AI & Reasoning (RAIR) Lab Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Troy NY 12180 USA http://www.rpi.edu/∼brings {selmer,tayloj}@rpi.edu..
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  10. Selmer Bringsjord, The Irrationality of the Free Software Movement.
    Approximately 48 hours ago, knowing that I would, Lord willing, be stand- ing here on this podium two days hence, I tapped http://www.fsf.org into Safari in order to begin learning at least something about the Free Software Movement (FSM). My online education has been augmented by many propo- nents of FSM in attendance at this conference, including Richard Stallman. What I have learned is that this movement is populated by a lot of seem- ingly well-intentioned people who are, at least (...)
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  11. Selmer Bringsjord, Micah Clark & Joshua Taylor (forthcoming). Sophisticated Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Requires Philosophy. In Ruth Hagengruber (ed.), Philosophy's Relevance in Information Science.
    Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR&R) is based on the idea that propositional content can be rigorously represented in formal languages long the province of logic, in such a way that these representations can be productively reasoned over by humans and machines; and that this reasoning can be used to produce knowledge-based systems (KBSs). As such, KR&R is a discipline conventionally regarded to range across parts of artificial intelligence (AI), computer science, and especially logic. This standard view of KR&R’s participating fields (...)
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  12. Paul Bello & Selmer Bringsjord (2013). On How to Build a Moral Machine. Topoi 32 (2):251-266.
    Herein we make a plea to machine ethicists for the inclusion of constraints on their theories consistent with empirical data on human moral cognition. As philosophers, we clearly lack widely accepted solutions to issues regarding the existence of free will, the nature of persons and firm conditions on moral agency/patienthood; all of which are indispensable concepts to be deployed by any machine able to make moral judgments. No agreement seems forthcoming on these matters, and we don’t hold out hope for (...)
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  13. Selmer Bringsjord (2012). Belief in the Singularity is Logically Brittle. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7):14.
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  14. Selmer Bringsjord & Alexander Bringsjord (2012). Kluge: The Haphazard Construction of the Human Mind. Philosophical Psychology 25 (2):301-305.
    Philosophical Psychology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-5, Ahead of Print.
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  15. Selmer Bringsjord & Naveen Sundar Govindarajulu (2012). Given the Web, What is Intelligence, Really? Metaphilosophy 43 (4):464-479.
    This article argues that existing systems on the Web cannot approach human-level intelligence, as envisioned by Descartes, without being able to achieve genuine problem solving on unseen problems. The article argues that this entails committing to a strong intensional logic. In addition to revising extant arguments in favor of intensional systems, it presents a novel mathematical argument to show why extensional systems can never hope to capture the inherent complexity of natural language. The argument makes its case by focusing on (...)
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  16. Selmer Bringsjord & Joe Johnson (2012). Rage Against the Machine. The Philosophers' Magazine 57 (57):90-95.
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  17. Selmer Bringsjord & John Licato (2012). Psychometric Artificial General Intelligence: The Piaget-MacGuyver Room. In Pei Wang & Ben Goertzel (eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence. Springer. 25--48.
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  18. Selmer Bringsjord, Joshua Taylor, Bram van Heuveln, Konstantine Arkoudas, Micah Clark & Ralph Wojtowicz (2011). Piagetian Roboethics Via Category Theory Moving Beyond Mere Formal Operations to Engineer Robots Whose Decisions Are Guaranteed to Be Ethically Correct. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
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  19. Selmer Bringsjord (2010). Meeting Floridi's Challenge to Artificial Intelligence From the Knowledge-Game Test for Self-Consciousness. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):292-312.
    Abstract: In the course of seeking an answer to the question "How do you know you are not a zombie?" Floridi (2005) issues an ingenious, philosophically rich challenge to artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of an extremely demanding version of the so-called knowledge game (or "wise-man puzzle," or "muddy-children puzzle")—one that purportedly ensures that those who pass it are self-conscious. In this article, on behalf of (at least the logic-based variety of) AI, I take up the challenge—which is to (...)
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  20. Konstantine Arkoudas & Selmer Bringsjord (2008). Toward Formalizing Common-Sense Psychology: An Analysis of the False-Belief Task. In. In Tu-Bao Ho & Zhi-Hua Zhou (eds.), Pricai 2008: Trends in Artificial Intelligence. Springer. 17--29.
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  21. Konstantine Arkoudas & Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Computers, Justification, and Mathematical Knowledge. Minds and Machines 17 (2):185-202.
    The original proof of the four-color theorem by Appel and Haken sparked a controversy when Tymoczko used it to argue that the justification provided by unsurveyable proofs carried out by computers cannot be a priori. It also created a lingering impression to the effect that such proofs depend heavily for their soundness on large amounts of computation-intensive custom-built software. Contra Tymoczko, we argue that the justification provided by certain computerized mathematical proofs is not fundamentally different from that provided by surveyable (...)
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  22. Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Offer: One Billion Dollars for a Conscious Robot; If You're Honest, You Must Decline. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):28-43.
    You are offered one billion dollars to 'simply' produce a proof-of-concept robot that has phenomenal consciousness -- in fact, you can receive a deliciously large portion of the money up front, by simply starting a three-year work plan in good faith. Should you take the money and commence? No. I explain why this refusal is in order, now and into the foreseeable future.
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  23. Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Ethical Robots: The Future Can Heed Us. [REVIEW] AI and Society 22 (4):539-550.
    Bill Joy’s deep pessimism is now famous. Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, his defense of that pessimism, has been read by, it seems, everyone—and many of these readers, apparently, have been converted to the dark side, or rather more accurately, to the future-is-dark side. Fortunately (for us; unfortunately for Joy), the defense, at least the part of it that pertains to AI and robotics, fails. Ours may be a dark future, but we cannot know that on the basis of (...)
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  24. Selmer Bringsjord & Konstantine Arkoudas (2006). On the Provability, Veracity, and AI-Relevance of the Church-Turing Thesis. In A. Olszewski, J. Wole'nski & R. Janusz (eds.), Church's Thesis After Seventy Years. Ontos Verlag. 68-118.
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  25. Selmer Bringsjord (2004). On Building Robot Persons: Response to Zlatev. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (3):381-385.
    Zlatev offers surprisingly weak reasoning in support of his view that robots with the right kind of developmental histories can have meaning. We ought nonetheless to praise Zlatev for an impressionistic account of how attending to the psychology of human development can help us build robots that appear to have intentionality.
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  26. Selmer Bringsjord (2004). The Modal Argument for Hypercomputing Minds. Theoretical Computer Science 317.
  27. Selmer Bringsjord & Bram Van Heuveln (2003). The 'Mental Eye' Defence of an Infinitized Version of Yablo's Paradox. Analysis 63 (1):61 - 70.
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  28. Selmer Bringsjord & Ron Noel (2003). Real Robots and the Missing Thought-Experiment in the Chinese Room Dialectic. In John Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press. 144--166.
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  29. Selmer Bringsjord & Bram Van Heuveln (2003). The ‘Mental Eye’ Defence of an Infinitized Version of Yablo's Paradox. Analysis 63 (277):61–70.
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  30. Selmer Bringsjord & Yingrui Yang (2003). The Problems That Generate the Rationality Debate Are Too Easy, Given What Our Economy Now Demands. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):528-530.
    Stanovich & West (S&W), following all relevant others, define the rationality debate in terms of human performance on certain well-known problems. Unfortunately, these problems are very easy. For that reason, if System 2 cognition is identified with the capacity to solve them, such cognition will not enable humans to meet the cognitive demands of our technological society. Other profound issues arise as well.
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  31. Yingrui Yang & Selmer Bringsjord (2003). Newell's Program, Like Hilbert's, is Dead; Let's Move On. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):627-627.
    We draw an analogy between Hilbert's program (HP) for mathematics and Newell's program (NP) for cognitive modeling. The analogy reveals that NP, like HP before it, is fundamentally flawed. The only alternative is a program anchored by an admission that cognition is more than computation.
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  32. Selmer Bringsjord & Ron Noel (2002). Why Did Evolution Engineer Consciousness? In James H. Fetzer (ed.), Consciousness Evolving. John Benjamins.
  33. Selmer Bringsjord & Michael Zenzen (2002). Toward a Formal Philosophy of Hypercomputation. Minds and Machines 12 (2):241-258.
    Does what guides a pastry chef stand on par, from the standpoint of contemporary computer science, with what guides a supercomputer? Did Betty Crocker, when telling us how to bake a cake, provide an effective procedure, in the sense of `effective' used in computer science? According to Cleland, the answer in both cases is ``Yes''. One consequence of Cleland's affirmative answer is supposed to be that hypercomputation is, to use her phrase, ``theoretically viable''. Unfortunately, though we applaud Cleland's ``gadfly philosophizing'' (...)
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  34. Selmer Bringsjord (2001). Are We Evolved Computers?: A Critical Review of Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 14 (2):227 – 243.
    Steven Pinker's How the mind works (HTMW) marks in my opinion an historic point in the history of humankind's attempt to understand itself. Socrates delivered his "know thyself" imperative rather long ago, and now, finally, in this behemoth of a book, published at the dawn of a new millennium, Pinker steps up to have psychology tell us what we are: computers crafted by evolution - end of story; mystery solved; and the poor philosophers, having never managed to obey Socrates' command, (...)
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  35. Selmer Bringsjord (2001). In Computation, Parallel is Nothing, Physical Everything. Minds and Machines 11 (1):95-99.
    Andrew Boucher (1997) argues that ``parallel computation is fundamentally different from sequential computation'' (p. 543), and that this fact provides reason to be skeptical about whether AI can produce a genuinely intelligent machine. But parallelism, as I prove herein, is irrelevant. What Boucher has inadvertently glimpsed is one small part of a mathematical tapestry portraying the simple but undeniable fact that physical computation can be fundamentally different from ordinary, ``textbook'' computation (whether parallel or sequential). This tapestry does indeed immediately imply (...)
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  36. Selmer Bringsjord, People Are Infinitary Symbol Systems: No Sensorimotor Capacity Necessary.
    Stevan Harnad and I seem to be thinking about many of the same issues. Sometimes we agree, sometimes we don't; but I always find his reasoning refreshing, his positions sensible, and the problems with which he's concerned to be of central importance to cognitive science. His "Grounding Symbols in the Analog World with Neural Nets" (= GS) is no exception. And GS not only exemplifies Harnad's virtues, it also provides a springboard for diving into Harnad- Bringsjord terrain.
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  37. Selmer Bringsjord, P. Bello & David A. Ferrucci (2001). Creativity, the Turing Test, and the (Better) Lovelace Test. Minds and Machines 11 (1):3-27.
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  38. Selmer Bringsjord, A Refutation of Penrose's Godelian Case Against Artificial Intelligence.
    Having, as it is generally agreed, failed to destroy the computational conception of mind with the G\"{o}delian attack he articulated in his {\em The Emperor's New Mind}, Penrose has returned, armed with a more elaborate and more fastidious G\"{o}delian case, expressed in and 3 of his {\em Shadows of the Mind}. The core argument in these chapters is enthymematic, and when formalized, a remarkable number of technical glitches come to light. Over and above these defects, the argument, at best, is (...)
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  39. Selmer Bringsjord (2000). Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test: The Essence of Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg which iswhich? (...)
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  40. Selmer Bringsjord (2000). Clarifying the Logic of Anti-Computationalism: Reply to Hauser. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):111-113.
  41. Selmer Bringsjord (2000). John Searle, the Mystery of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 10 (3):457-459.
  42. Selmer Bringsjord, Clarke Caporale & Ron Noel (2000). Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg which (...)
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  43. Selmer Bringsjord & H. Xiao (2000). A Refutation of Penrose's New Godelian Case Against the Computational Conception of Mind. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12.
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  44. Selmer Bringsjord (1999). Robert N. McCauley, Ed., The Churchlands and Their Critics Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 19 (1):39-41.
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  45. Selmer Bringsjord (1999). The Zombie Attack on the Computational Conception of Mind. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):41-69.
  46. Selmer Bringsjord (1998). Cognition is Not Computation: The Argument From Irreversibility. Synthese 113 (2):285-320.
    The dominant scientific and philosophical view of the mind – according to which, put starkly, cognition is computation – is refuted herein, via specification and defense of the following new argument: Computation is reversible; cognition isn't; ergo, cognition isn't computation. After presenting a sustained dialectic arising from this defense, we conclude with a brief preview of the view we would put in place of the cognition-is-computation doctrine.
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  47. Selmer Bringsjord (1998). Is Gödelian Model-Based Deductive Reasoning Computational? Philosophica 61.
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  48. Selmer Bringsjord, E. Bringsjord & R. Noel (1998). In Defense of Logical Minds. In. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 173--178.
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  49. Selmer Bringsjord & David A. Ferrucci (1998). Logic and Artificial Intelligence: Divorced, Still Married, Separated ...? [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 8 (2):273-308.
    Though it''s difficult to agree on the exact date of their union, logic and artificial intelligence (AI) were married by the late 1950s, and, at least during their honeymoon, were happily united. What connubial permutation do logic and AI find themselves in now? Are they still (happily) married? Are they divorced? Or are they only separated, both still keeping alive the promise of a future in which the old magic is rekindled? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions (...)
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