Search results for 'Semantics Mathematical models' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. M. V. Aldridge (1992). The Elements of Mathematical Semantics. Mouton De Gruyter.score: 297.0
    Chapter Some topics in semantics Aims of this study The central preoccupation of this study is semantic. It is intended as a modest contribution to the ...
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  2. Waldemar Skrzypczak (2006). Analog-Based Modelling of Meaning Representations in English. Nicolaus Copernicus University Press.score: 189.0
     
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  3. Marcello Barbieri (2003). The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 183.0
    The genetic code appeared on Earth with the first cells. The codes of cultural evolution arrived almost four billion years later. These are the only codes that are recognized by modern biology. In this book, however, Marcello Barbieri explains that there are many more organic codes in nature, and their appearance not only took place throughout the history of life but marked the major steps of that history. A code establishes a correspondence between two independent 'worlds', and the codemaker is (...)
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  4. Wesley H. Holliday (forthcoming). Partiality and Adjointness in Modal Logic. In Rajeev Gore & Agi Kurucz (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Vol. 10. College Publications.score: 153.0
    Following a proposal of Humberstone, this paper studies a semantics for modal logic based on partial “possibilities” rather than total “worlds.” There are a number of reasons, philosophical and mathematical, to find this alternative semantics attractive. Here we focus on the construction of possibility models with a finitary flavor. Our main completeness result shows that for a number of standard modal logics, we can build a canonical possibility model, wherein every logically consistent formula is satisfied, by (...)
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  5. Harry C. Bunt (1985). Mass Terms and Model-Theoretic Semantics. Cambridge University Press.score: 147.0
    'Mass terms', words like water, rice and traffic, have proved very difficult to accommodate in any theory of meaning since, unlike count nouns such as house or dog, they cannot be viewed as part of a logical set and differ in their grammatical properties. In this study, motivated by the need to design a computer program for understanding natural language utterances incorporating mass terms, Harry Bunt provides a thorough analysis of the problem and offers an original and detailed solution. An (...)
     
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  6. Gian-Carlo Rota, David H. Sharp & Robert Sokolowski (1988). Syntax, Semantics, and the Problem of the Identity of Mathematical Objects. Philosophy of Science 55 (3):376-386.score: 144.0
    A plurality of axiomatic systems can be interpreted as referring to one and the same mathematical object. In this paper we examine the relationship between axiomatic systems and their models, the relationships among the various axiomatic systems that refer to the same model, and the role of an intelligent user of an axiomatic system. We ask whether these relationships and this role can themselves be formalized.
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  7. Curt F. Fey (1961). An Investigation of Some Mathematical Models for Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):455.score: 140.0
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  8. Christian Hennig (2010). Mathematical Models and Reality: A Constructivist Perspective. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 15 (1):29-48.score: 138.7
    To explore the relation between mathematical models and reality, four different domains of reality are distinguished: observer-independent reality (to which there is no direct access), personal reality, social reality and mathematical/formal reality. The concepts of personal and social reality are strongly inspired by constructivist ideas. Mathematical reality is social as well, but constructed as an autonomous system in order to make absolute agreement possible. The essential problem of mathematical modelling is that within mathematics there is (...)
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  9. P. B. Andrews (2002). An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory: To Truth Through Proof. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 126.0
    This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive (...)
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  10. Harry Howard (2004). Neuromimetic Semantics: Coordination, Quantification, and Collective Predicates. Elsevier.score: 126.0
    This book attempts to marry truth-conditional semantics with cognitive linguistics in the church of computational neuroscience. To this end, it examines the truth-conditional meanings of coordinators, quantifiers, and collective predicates as neurophysiological phenomena that are amenable to a neurocomputational analysis. Drawing inspiration from work on visual processing, and especially the simple/complex cell distinction in early vision (V1), we claim that a similar two-layer architecture is sufficient to learn the truth-conditional meanings of the logical coordinators and logical quantifiers. As a (...)
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  11. David Michael Kaplan & Carl F. Craver (2011). The Explanatory Force of Dynamical and Mathematical Models in Neuroscience: A Mechanistic Perspective. Philosophy of Science 78 (4):601-627.score: 124.0
    We argue that dynamical and mathematical models in systems and cognitive neuro- science explain (rather than redescribe) a phenomenon only if there is a plausible mapping between elements in the model and elements in the mechanism for the phe- nomenon. We demonstrate how this model-to-mechanism-mapping constraint, when satisfied, endows a model with explanatory force with respect to the phenomenon to be explained. Several paradigmatic models including the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model of bimanual coordination and the difference-of-Gaussians model of visual (...)
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  12. Anne Preller & Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh (2011). Semantic Vector Models and Functional Models for Pregroup Grammars. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):419-443.score: 116.0
    We show that vector space semantics and functional semantics in two-sorted first order logic are equivalent for pregroup grammars. We present an algorithm that translates functional expressions to vector expressions and vice-versa. The semantics is compositional, variable free and invariant under change of order or multiplicity. It includes the semantic vector models of Information Retrieval Systems and has an interior logic admitting a comprehension schema. A sentence is true in the interior logic if and only if (...)
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  13. Stephan Hartmann & Roman Frigg (2006). Models in Science. In Ed Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford.score: 114.0
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The centrality of models such as the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, the double helix model of DNA, agent-based and evolutionary models in the social sciences, or general equilibrium models of markets in their respective domains (...)
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  14. Axel Gelfert (2011). Mathematical Formalisms in Scientific Practice: From Denotation to Model-Based Representation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):272-286.score: 112.0
    The present paper argues that ‘mature mathematical formalisms’ play a central role in achieving representation via scientific models. A close discussion of two contemporary accounts of how mathematical models apply—the DDI account (according to which representation depends on the successful interplay of denotation, demonstration and interpretation) and the ‘matching model’ account—reveals shortcomings of each, which, it is argued, suggests that scientific representation may be ineliminably heterogeneous in character. In order to achieve a degree of unification that (...)
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  15. Roberta L. Millstein, Robert A. Skipper Jr & Michael R. Dietrich (2009). (Mis)Interpreting Mathematical Models: Drift as a Physical Process. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 1 (20130604):e002.score: 112.0
    Recently, a number of philosophers of biology (e.g., Matthen and Ariew 2002; Walsh, Lewens, and Ariew 2002; Pigliucci and Kaplan 2006; Walsh 2007) have endorsed views about random drift that, we will argue, rest on an implicit assumption that the meaning of concepts such as drift can be understood through an examination of the mathematical models in which drift appears. They also seem to implicitly assume that ontological questions about the causality (or lack thereof) of terms appearing in (...)
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  16. Philippe Tracqui (1995). From Passive Diffusion to Active Cellular Migration in Mathematical Models of Tumour Invasion. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (4).score: 112.0
    Mathematical models of tumour invasion appear as interesting tools for connecting the information extracted from medical imaging techniques and the large amount of data collected at the cellular and molecular levels. Most of the recent studies have used stochastic models of cell translocation for the comparison of computer simulations with histological solid tumour sections in order to discriminate and characterise expansive growth and active cell movements during host tissue invasion. This paper describes how a deterministic approach based (...)
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  17. R. Paul Thompson (2010). Causality, Mathematical Models and Statistical Association: Dismantling Evidence‐Based Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):267-275.score: 110.7
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  18. Otávio Bueno (2010). A Defense of Second-Order Logic. Axiomathes 20 (2-3):365-383.score: 108.0
    Second-order logic has a number of attractive features, in particular the strong expressive resources it offers, and the possibility of articulating categorical mathematical theories (such as arithmetic and analysis). But it also has its costs. Five major charges have been launched against second-order logic: (1) It is not axiomatizable; as opposed to first-order logic, it is inherently incomplete. (2) It also has several semantics, and there is no criterion to choose between them (Putnam, J Symbol Logic 45:464–482, 1980 (...)
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  19. Kosta Dosen (2006). Models of Deduction. Synthese 148 (3):639 - 657.score: 108.0
    In standard model theory, deductions are not the things one models. But in general proof theory, in particular in categorial proof theory, one finds models of deductions, and the purpose here is to motivate a simple example of such models. This will be a model of deductions performed within an abstract context, where we do not have any particular logical constant, but something underlying all logical constants. In this context, deductions are represented by arrows in categories involved (...)
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  20. Jeff Mitchell & Mirella Lapata (2010). Composition in Distributional Models of Semantics. Cognitive Science 34 (8):1388-1429.score: 108.0
    Vector-based models of word meaning have become increasingly popular in cognitive science. The appeal of these models lies in their ability to represent meaning simply by using distributional information under the assumption that words occurring within similar contexts are semantically similar. Despite their widespread use, vector-based models are typically directed at representing words in isolation, and methods for constructing representations for phrases or sentences have received little attention in the literature. This is in marked contrast to experimental (...)
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  21. Roy T. Cook (2002). Vagueness and Mathematical Precision. Mind 111 (442):225-247.score: 108.0
    One of the main reasons for providing formal semantics for languages is that the mathematical precision afforded by such semantics allows us to study and manipulate the formalization much more easily than if we were to study the relevant natural languages directly. Michael Tye and R. M. Sainsbury have argued that traditional set-theoretic semantics for vague languages are all but useless, however, since this mathematical precision eliminates the very phenomenon (vagueness) that we are trying to (...)
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  22. Steffen Ducheyne (2005). Mathematical Models in Newton's Principia: A New View of the 'Newtonian Style'. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):1 – 19.score: 108.0
    In this essay I argue against I. Bernard Cohen's influential account of Newton's methodology in the Principia: the 'Newtonian Style'. The crux of Cohen's account is the successive adaptation of 'mental constructs' through comparisons with nature. In Cohen's view there is a direct dynamic between the mental constructs and physical systems. I argue that his account is essentially hypothetical-deductive, which is at odds with Newton's rejection of the hypothetical-deductive method. An adequate account of Newton's methodology needs to show how Newton's (...)
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  23. Alex Mintz, Nehemia Geva & Karl Derouen (1994). Mathematical Models of Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Compensatory Vs. Noncompensatory. Synthese 100 (3):441 - 460.score: 108.0
    There are presently two leading foreign policy decision-making paradigms in vogue. The first is based on the classical or rational model originally posited by von Neumann and Morgenstern to explain microeconomic decisions. The second is based on the cybernetic perspective whose groundwork was laid by Herbert Simon in his early research on bounded rationality. In this paper we introduce a third perspective — thepoliheuristic theory of decision-making — as an alternative to the rational actor and cybernetic paradigms in international relations. (...)
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  24. Kosta Dos̆en (2006). Models of Deduction. Synthese 148 (3):639 - 657.score: 108.0
    In standard model theory, deductions are not the things one models. But in general proof theory, in particular in categorial proof theory, one finds models of deductions, and the purpose here is to motivate a simple example of such models. This will be a model of deductions performed within an abstract context, where we do not have any particular logical constant, but something underlying all logical constants. In this context, deductions are represented by arrows in categories involved (...)
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  25. Alex Mintz, Nehemia Geva & Karl Derouen Jr (1994). Mathematical Models of Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Compensatory Vs. Noncompensatory. Synthese 100 (3):441 - 460.score: 108.0
    There are presently two leading foreign policy decision-making paradigms in vogue. The first is based on the classical or rational model originally posited by von Neumann and Morgenstern to explain microeconomic decisions. The second is based on the cybernetic perspective whose groundwork was laid by Herbert Simon in his early research on bounded rationality. In this paper we introduce a third perspective -- the poliheuristic theory of decision-making -- as an alternative to the rational actor and cybernetic paradigms in international (...)
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  26. George Voutsadakis (2013). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Algebraic Semantics for (Documentclass{Article}Usepackage{Amssymb}Begin{Document}Pagestyle{Empty}$Bf{Pi }$End{Document})‐Institutions. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (3):177-200.score: 108.0
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  27. Mauro Dorato (2012). Mathematical Biology and the Existence of Biological Laws. In DieksD (ed.), Probabilities, Laws and Structure. Springer.score: 102.0
    An influential position in the philosophy of biology claims that there are no biological laws, since any apparently biological generalization is either too accidental, fact-like or contingent to be named a law, or is simply reducible to physical laws that regulate electrical and chemical interactions taking place between merely physical systems. In the following I will stress a neglected aspect of the debate that emerges directly from the growing importance of mathematical models of biological phenomena. My main aim (...)
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  28. Ingo Brigandt (2013). Systems Biology and the Integration of Mechanistic Explanation and Mathematical Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):477-492.score: 102.0
    The paper discusses how systems biology is working toward complex accounts that integrate explanation in terms of mechanisms and explanation by mathematical models—which some philosophers have viewed as rival models of explanation. Systems biology is an integrative approach, and it strongly relies on mathematical modeling. Philosophical accounts of mechanisms capture integrative in the sense of multilevel and multifield explanations, yet accounts of mechanistic explanation (as the analysis of a whole in terms of its structural parts and (...)
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  29. Luke Jerzykiewicz (2012). Mathematical Realism and Conceptual Semantics. In Oleg Prosorov & Vladimir Orevkov (eds.), Philosophy, Mathematics, Linguistics: Aspects of Interaction. Euler International Mathematical Institute.score: 98.0
    The dominant approach to analyzing the meaning of natural language sentences that express mathematical knowl- edge relies on a referential, formal semantics. Below, I discuss an argument against this approach and in favour of an internalist, conceptual, intensional alternative. The proposed shift in analytic method offers several benefits, including a novel perspective on what is required to track mathematical content, and hence on the Benacerraf dilemma. The new perspective also promises to facilitate discussion between philosophers of mathematics (...)
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  30. Paul Humphreys (2013). Data Analysis: Models or Techniques? [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 18 (3):579-581.score: 98.0
    In this commentary to Napoletani et al. (Found Sci 16:1–20, 2011), we argue that the approach the authors adopt suggests that neural nets are mathematical techniques rather than models of cognitive processing, that the general approach dates as far back as Ptolemy, and that applied mathematics is more than simply applying results from pure mathematics.
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  31. Hajnal Andréka & Szabolcs Mikulás (1994). Lambek Calculus and its Relational Semantics: Completeness and Incompleteness. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (1):1-37.score: 98.0
    The problem of whether Lambek Calculus is complete with respect to (w.r.t.) relational semantics, has been raised several times, cf. van Benthem (1989a) and van Benthem (1991). In this paper, we show that the answer is in the affirmative. More precisely, we will prove that that version of the Lambek Calculus which does not use the empty sequence is strongly complete w.r.t. those relational Kripke-models where the set of possible worlds,W, is a transitive binary relation, while that version (...)
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  32. Pietro Galliani (2013). General Models and Entailment Semantics for Independence Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (2):253-275.score: 96.0
    We develop a semantics for independence logic with respect to what we will call general models. We then introduce a simpler entailment semantics for the same logic, and we reduce the validity problem in the former to the validity problem in the latter. Then we build a proof system for independence logic and prove its soundness and completeness with respect to entailment semantics.
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  33. Paolo Palladino (1991). Defining Ecology: Ecological Theories, Mathematical Models, and Applied Biology in the 1960s and 1970s. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 24 (2):223 - 243.score: 96.0
    Ever since the early decades of this century, there have emerged a number of competing schools of ecology that have attempted to weave the concepts underlying natural resource management and natural-historical traditions into a formal theoretical framework. It was widely believed that the discovery of the fundamental mechanisms underlying ecological phenomena would allow ecologists to articulate mathematically rigorous statements whose validity was not predicated on contingent factors. The formulation of such statements would elevate ecology to the standing of a rigorous (...)
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  34. Li-kung Shaw (1972). A Mathematical Model of Life and Living. Buenos Aires,Libreria Inglesa.score: 96.0
    [v. 1. Basic theories]--v. 2. Applications.--v. 3. Theory of plants and other essays.
     
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  35. Li-kung[from old catalog] Shaw (1959). A Mathematical Model of Human Life. Rosario, Argentina.score: 96.0
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  36. Robert McDowell Thrall (1966). Foundations [of Mathematics Oriented Toward the Concept of Mathematical Model]. Ann Arbor.score: 96.0
     
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  37. Martin Thomson-Jones (2006). Models and the Semantic View. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):524-535.score: 95.7
    I begin by distinguishing two notions of model, the notion of a truth-making structure and the notion of a mathematical model (in one specific sense). I then argue that although the models of the semantic view have often been taken to be both truth-making structures and mathematical models, this is in part due to a failure to distinguish between two ways of truth-making; in fact, the talk of truth-making is best excised from the view altogether. The (...)
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  38. Martin Thomson‐Jones (2006). Models and the Semantic View. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):524-535.score: 95.7
    I begin by laying out a taxonomy of models (section 1). The aim is, in part, to have all the objects picked out (or purportedly picked out) by every widespread and coherent use of the term ?model? in the philosophy of science, and in the sciences themselves, fall into one of the categories included in the taxonomy. The notions of model employed in presenting the taxonomy, furthermore, are recognisable as notions which play, or have played, a central role in (...)
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  39. Chuang Liu (1997). Models and Theories I: The Semantic View Revisited. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (2):147 – 164.score: 91.0
    The paper, as Part I of a two-part series, argues for a hybrid formulation of the semantic view of scientific theories. For stage-setting, it first reviews the elements of the model theory in mathematical logic (on whose foundation the semantic view rests), the syntactic and the semantic view, and the different notions of models used in the practice of science. The paper then argues for an integration of the notions into the semantic view, and thereby offers a hybrid (...)
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  40. Paul Humphreys (1995). Computational Empiricism. Foundations of Science 1 (1):119-130.score: 90.0
    I argue here for a number of ways that modern computational science requires a change in the way we represent the relationship between theory and applications. It requires a switch away from logical reconstruction of theories in order to take surface mathematical syntax seriously. In addition, syntactically different versions of the same theory have important differences for applications, and this shows that the semantic account of theories is inappropriate for some purposes. I also argue against formalist approaches in the (...)
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  41. Anatol Rapoport (1963). Mathematical Models of Social Interaction. In D. Luce (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.. 2--493.score: 90.0
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  42. Pieter A. M. Seuren, Venanizo Capretta & Herman Geuvers (2001). The Logic and Mathematics of Occasion Sentences. Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (5):531-595.score: 90.0
    The prime purpose of this paper is, first, to restore to discourse-bound occasion sentences their rightful central place in semantics and secondly, taking these as the basic propositional elements in the logical analysis of language, to contribute to the development of an adequate logic of occasion sentences and a mathematical (Boolean) foundation for such a logic, thus preparing the ground for more adequate semantic, logical and mathematical foundations of the study of natural language. Some of the insights (...)
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  43. Pieter A. M. Seuren, Venanzio Capretta & Herman Geuvers (2001). The Logic and Mathematics of Occasion Sentences. Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (5):531 - 595.score: 90.0
    The prime purpose of this paper is, first, to restore to discourse-bound occasion sentences their rightful central place in semantics and secondly, taking these as the basic propositional elements in the logical analysis of language, to contribute to the development of an adequate logic of occasion sentences and a mathematical (Boolean) foundation for such a logic, thus preparing the ground for more adequate semantic, logical and mathematical foundations of the study of natural language. Some of the insights (...)
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  44. Katherine Dunlop (2009). Why Euclid's Geometry Brooked No Doubt: J. H. Lambert on Certainty and the Existence of Models. Synthese 167 (1):33 - 65.score: 88.0
    J. H. Lambert proved important results of what we now think of as non-Euclidean geometries, and gave examples of surfaces satisfying their theorems. I use his philosophical views to explain why he did not think the certainty of Euclidean geometry was threatened by the development of what we regard as alternatives to it. Lambert holds that theories other than Euclid’s fall prey to skeptical doubt. So despite their satisfiability, for him these theories are not equal to Euclid’s in justification. Contrary (...)
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  45. Alberto Peruzzi (2006). The Meaning of Category Theory for 21st Century Philosophy. Axiomathes 16 (4):424-459.score: 87.0
    Among the main concerns of 20th century philosophy was that of the foundations of mathematics. But usually not recognized is the relevance of the choice of a foundational approach to the other main problems of 20th century philosophy, i.e., the logical structure of language, the nature of scientific theories, and the architecture of the mind. The tools used to deal with the difficulties inherent in such problems have largely relied on set theory and its “received view”. There are specific issues, (...)
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  46. John-Michael Kuczynski (2007). Does Possible World Semantics Turn All Propositions Into Necessary Ones? Journal of Pragmatics 39 (5):972-916.score: 87.0
    "Jim would still be alive if he hadn't jumped" means that Jim's death was a consequence of his jumping. "x wouldn't be a triangle if it didn't have three sides" means that x's having a three sides is a consequence its being a triangle. Lewis takes the first sentence to mean that Jim is still alive in some alternative universe where he didn't jump, and he takes the second to mean that x is a non-triangle in every alternative universe where (...)
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  47. Jacques Ricard & Käty Ricard (1997). Mathematical Models in Biology. In. In Evandro Agazzi & György Darvas (eds.), Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Kluwer. 299--304.score: 86.0
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  48. James R. Griesemer (1990). Modeling in the Museum: On the Role of Remnant Models in the Work of Joseph Grinnell. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (1):3-36.score: 85.7
    Accounts of the relation between theories and models in biology concentrate on mathematical models. In this paper I consider the dual role of models as representations of natural systems and as a material basis for theorizing. In order to explicate the dual role, I develop the concept of a remnant model, a material entity made from parts of the natural system(s) under study. I present a case study of an important but neglected naturalist, Joseph Grinnell, to (...)
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  49. Anjan Chakravartty (2001). The Semantic or Model-Theoretic View of Theories and Scientific Realism. Synthese 127 (3):325 - 345.score: 85.0
    The semantic view of theoriesis one according to which theoriesare construed as models of their linguisticformulations. The implications of thisview for scientific realism have been little discussed. Contraryto the suggestion of various champions of the semantic view,it is argued that this approach does not makesupport for a plausible scientific realism anyless problematic than it might otherwise be.Though a degree of independence of theory fromlanguage may ensure safety frompitfalls associated with logical empiricism, realism cannot be entertained unless models or (...)
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  50. Joop Leo (2008). Modeling Relations. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (4):353 - 385.score: 84.0
    In the ordinary way of representing relations, the order of the relata plays a structural role, but in the states themselves such an order often does not seem to be intrinsically present. An alternative way to represent relations makes use of positions for the arguments. This is no problem for the love relation, but for relations like the adjacency relation and cyclic relations, different assignments of objects to the positions can give exactly the same states. This is a puzzling situation. (...)
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