Search results for 'Sentence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jean-Yves Béziau (2007). Sentence, Proposition and Identity. Synthese 154 (3):371 - 382.score: 24.0
    In this paper we discuss the distinction between sentence and proposition from the perspective of identity. After criticizing Quine, we discuss how objects of logical languages are constructed, explaining what is Kleene’s congruence—used by Bourbaki with his square—and Paul Halmos’s view about the difference between formulas and objects of the factor structure, the corresponding boolean algebra, in case of classical logic. Finally we present Patrick Suppes’s congruence approach to the notion of proposition, according to which a whole hierarchy of (...)
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  2. David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters (1999). Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.score: 24.0
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as that used in verbally (...)
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  3. Stefan L. Frank (2013). Uncertainty Reduction as a Measure of Cognitive Load in Sentence Comprehension. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):475-494.score: 24.0
    The entropy-reduction hypothesis claims that the cognitive processing difficulty on a word in sentence context is determined by the word's effect on the uncertainty about the sentence. Here, this hypothesis is tested more thoroughly than has been done before, using a recurrent neural network for estimating entropy and self-paced reading for obtaining measures of cognitive processing load. Results show a positive relation between reading time on a word and the reduction in entropy due to processing that word, supporting (...)
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  4. Adrian Brasoveanu (2011). Sentence-Internal Different as Quantifier-Internal Anaphora. Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (2):93-168.score: 24.0
    The paper proposes the first unified account of deictic/sentence-external and sentence-internal readings of singular different . The empirical motivation for such an account is provided by a cross-linguistic survey and an analysis of the differences in distribution and interpretation between singular different , plural different and same (singular or plural) in English. The main proposal is that distributive quantification temporarily makes available two discourse referents within its nuclear scope, the values of which are required by sentence-internal uses (...)
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  5. Amit Dubey, Frank Keller & Patrick Sturt (2013). Probabilistic Modeling of Discourse‐Aware Sentence Processing. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):425-451.score: 24.0
    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits (...)
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  6. Stella Frank, Sharon Goldwater & Frank Keller (2013). Adding Sentence Types to a Model of Syntactic Category Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):495-521.score: 24.0
    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children (...)
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  7. Kai Essig Pia Knoeferle, Maria Nella Carminati, Dato Abashidze (2011). Preferential Inspection of Recent Real-World Events Over Future Events: Evidence From Eye Tracking During Spoken Sentence Comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Eye-tracking findings suggest people prefer to ground their spoken language comprehension by focusing on recently-seen events more than anticipating future events: When the verb in NP1-VERB-ADV-NP2 sentences was referentially ambiguous between a recently depicted and an equally plausible future clipart action, listeners fixated the target of the recent action more often at the verb than the object that hadn't yet been acted upon. We examined whether this inspection preference generalizes to real-world events, and whether it is (vs. isn't) modulated by (...)
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  8. Richard L. Lippke (2008). Response to Tudor: Remorse-Based Sentence Reductions in Theory and Practice. Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (3):259-268.score: 24.0
    Steven Tudor defends the mitigation of criminal sentences in cases in which offenders are genuinely remorseful for their crimes. More than this, he takes the principle that such remorse-based sentence reductions are appropriate to be a ‘well-settled legal principle’—so well settled, in fact, that ‘it is among those deep-seated commitments which can serve to test general theories as much as they are tested by them’. However, his account of why remorse should reduce punishment is strongly philosophical in character. He (...)
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  9. Christoph Scheepers Andriy Myachykov, Dominic Thompson, Simon Garrod (2011). Referential and Visual Cues to Structural Choice in Visually Situated Sentence Production. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    We investigated how conceptually informative (referent preview) and conceptually uninformative (pointer to referent’s location) visual cues affect structural choice during English transitive sentence production. Cueing the Agent or the Patient prior to presenting the target event reliably predicted the likelihood of selecting this referent as the sentential Subject, triggering, correspondingly, the choice between active and passive voice. Importantly, there was no difference in the magnitude of the general Cueing effect between the informative and uninformative cueing conditions, suggesting that attentionally (...)
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  10. David Glenn Clark (2012). Storage Costs and Heuristics Interact to Produce Patterns of Aphasic Sentence Comprehension Performance. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Background: Aphasic individuals exhibit greater difficulty understanding complex sentences, but there is little consensus regarding what makes one sentence more complicated than another. In addition, aphasic individuals might make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of specific predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences (trees), and the other based on Dependency Locality Theory (DLT). Complexity metrics derived from these theories are (...)
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  11. Paola E. Dussias Jason W. Gullifer, Judith F. Kroll (2013). When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic (...)
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  12. Helene Kreysa Pia Knoeferle (2012). Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment During Spoken Sentence Comprehension? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally-seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two ``visual-world'' eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer (...)
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  13. Caitlin Hilliard T. Florian Jaeger, Katrina Furth (2012). Incremental Phonological Encoding During Unscripted Sentence Production. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multiword production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which (...)
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  14. Christiane Diefenbach, Martina Rieger, Cristina Massen & Wolfgang Prinz (2013). Action-Sentence Compatibility: The Role of Action Effects and Timing. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Research on embodied approaches to language comprehension suggests that we understand linguistic descriptions of actions by mentally simulating these actions. Evidence is provided by the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) which shows that sensibility judgments for sentences are faster when the direction of the described action matches the response direction. In two experiments, we investigated whether the ACE relies on actions or on intended action effects. Participants gave sensibility judgments of auditorily presented sentences by producing an action effect on a (...)
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  15. Robert J. Hartsuiker Eva Van Assche, Wouter Duyck (2012). Bilingual Word Recognition in a Sentence Context. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-nonselective lexical access). A newly developed research line asks whether language-nonselective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the (...)
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  16. Steven L. Small Pascale Tremblay (2011). Motor Response Selection in Overt Sentence Production: A Functional MRI Study. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Many different cortical areas are thought to be involved in the process of selecting motor responses, from the inferior frontal gyrus, to the lateral and medial parts of the premotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine the neural underpinnings of motor response selection in a set of overt language production tasks. To this aim, we compared a sentence repetition task (externally constrained selection task) with a sentence generation task (volitional selection task) in a group (...)
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  17. Storrs McCall (1999). Can a Turing Machine Know That the Godel Sentence is True? Journal of Philosophy 96 (10):525-32.score: 21.0
  18. Rick Dale & Nicholas D. Duran (2011). The Cognitive Dynamics of Negated Sentence Verification. Cognitive Science 35 (5):983-996.score: 21.0
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  19. William E. Gumenik & Richard Dolinsky (1971). Effect of Verb and Object Meaning on the Connotative Evaluation of Sentence Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):436-438.score: 21.0
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  20. Sheldon Rosenberg & William J. Schiller (1971). Semantic Coding and Incidental Sentence Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):345.score: 21.0
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  21. Willard F. Day (1977). On Skinner's Treatment of the First-Person, Third-Person Psychological Sentence Distinction. Behaviorism 5 (1):33-37.score: 21.0
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  22. Marcia K. Johnson, Theodore J. Doll, John D. Bransford & Robert H. Lapinski (1974). Context Effects in Sentence Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (2):358.score: 21.0
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  23. Robert W. Weisberg (1969). Sentence Processing Assessed Through Intrasentence Word Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):332.score: 21.0
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  24. Mary Hare, Jeffrey L. Elman, Tracy Tabaczynski & Ken McRae (2009). The Wind Chilled the Spectators, but the Wine Just Chilled: Sense, Structure, and Sentence Comprehension. Cognitive Science 33 (4):610-628.score: 21.0
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  25. Richard L. Lewis & Shravan Vasishth (2005). An Activation‐Based Model of Sentence Processing as Skilled Memory Retrieval. Cognitive Science 29 (3):375-419.score: 21.0
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  26. Ernst Z. Rothkopf & Esther U. Coke (1968). Learning About Added Sentence Fragments Following Repeated Inspection of Written Discourse. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):191.score: 21.0
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  27. Gerry T. M. Altmann & Jelena Mirković (2009). Incrementality and Prediction in Human Sentence Processing. Cognitive Science 33 (4):583-609.score: 21.0
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  28. Christopher J. Ash (1994). A Conjecture Concerning the Spectrum of a Sentence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (3):393-397.score: 21.0
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  29. Kristin L. Borreggine & Michael P. Kaschak (2006). The Action–Sentence Compatibility Effect: It's All in the Timing. Cognitive Science 30 (6):1097-1112.score: 21.0
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  30. Theodore J. Doll, James R. Tweedy, Marcia K. Johnson, John D. Bransford & Carl Flatow (1973). Semantic Memory and Sentence Verification Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (2):429.score: 21.0
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  31. Robert J. Jarvella & Steven J. Herman (1973). Speed and Accuracy of Sentence Recall: Effects of Ear of Presentation, Semantics, and Grammar. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):108.score: 21.0
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  32. Lester E. Krueger (1972). Sentence-Picture Comparison: A Test of Additivity of Processing Time for Feature Matching and Negation Coding. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):275.score: 21.0
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  33. Gloria Leventhal (1973). Effect of Sentence Context on Word Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):318.score: 21.0
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  34. Ulrike Padó, Matthew W. Crocker & Frank Keller (2009). A Probabilistic Model of Semantic Plausibility in Sentence Processing. Cognitive Science 33 (5):794-838.score: 21.0
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  35. Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Lisa Shank, Eunice Lim & Evelina Fedorenko (2014). Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production. Cognitive Science 38 (7).score: 21.0
    Syntactic complexity effects have been investigated extensively with respect to comprehension (e.g., Demberg & Keller, 2008; Gibson, 1998, 2000; Gordon et al., 2001, 2004; Grodner & Gibson, 2005; King & Just, 1991; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005; Lewis et al., 2006; McElree et al., 2003; Wanner & Maratsos, 1978). According to one prominent class of accounts (experience-based accounts; e.g., Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008; Gennari & MacDonald, 2008, 2009; Wells et al., 2009), certain structures cause comprehension difficulty due to their scarcity in (...)
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  36. Knud Lambrecht (1994). Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents. Cambridge University Press.score: 20.0
    Why do speakers of all languages use different grammatical structures under different communicative circumstances to express the same idea? In this comprehensive study, Professor Lambrecht explores the relationship between the structure of sentences and the linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts in which they are used. His analysis is based on the observation that the structure of a sentence reflects a speaker's assumptions about the hearer's state of knowledge and consciousness at the time of the utterance. This relationship between speaker assumptions (...)
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  37. Stathis Psillos (2000). Carnap, the Ramsey-Sentence and Realistic Empiricism. Erkenntnis 52 (2):253-279.score: 18.0
    Based on archival material from the Carnap and FeiglArchives, this paper re-examines Carnap's approach tothe issue of scientific realism in the 1950s and theearly 1960s. It focuses on Carnap's re-invention ofthe Ramsey-sentence approach to scientific theoriesand argues that Carnap wanted to entertain a genuineneutral stance in the realism-instrumentalism debate.Following Grover Maxwell, it claims that Carnap'sposition may be best understood as a version of`structural realism'. However, thus understood,Carnap's position faces the challenge that Newmanraised against Russell's structuralism: the claim thatthe knowledge (...)
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  38. Mark Newman (2005). Ramsey Sentence Realism as an Answer to the Pessimistic Meta-Induction. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1373-1384.score: 18.0
    John Worrall recently provided an account of epistemic structural realism, which explains the success of science by arguing for the correct mathematical structure of our theories. He accounts for the historical failures of science by pointing to bloated ontological interpretations of theoretical terms. In this paper I argue that Worrall’s account suffers from five serious problems. I also show that Pierre Cruse and David Papineau have developed a rival structural realism that solves all of the problems faced by Worrall. This (...)
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  39. G. Sereny (2011). How Do We Know That the Godel Sentence of a Consistent Theory Is True? Philosophia Mathematica 19 (1):47-73.score: 18.0
    Some earlier remarks Michael Dummett made on Gödel’s theorem have recently inspired attempts to formulate an alternative to the standard demonstration of the truth of the Gödel sentence. The idea underlying the non-standard approach is to treat the Gödel sentence as an ordinary arithmetical one. But the Gödel sentence is of a very specific nature. Consequently, the non-standard arguments are conceptually mistaken. In this paper, both the faulty arguments themselves and the general reasons underlying their failure are (...)
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  40. S. Shapiro (1998). Induction and Indefinite Extensibility: The Gödel Sentence is True, but Did Someone Change the Subject? Mind 107 (427):597-624.score: 18.0
    Over the last few decades Michael Dummett developed a rich program for assessing logic and the meaning of the terms of a language. He is also a major exponent of Frege's version of logicism in the philosophy of mathematics. Over the last decade, Neil Tennant developed an extensive version of logicism in Dummettian terms, and Dummett influences other contemporary logicists such as Crispin Wright and Bob Hale. The purpose of this paper is to explore the prospects for Fregean logicism within (...)
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  41. Pramod Kumar (2008). A Critical Examination of Dinnaga's Views on Sentence. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 24:29-36.score: 18.0
    The idea to work on this topic was come to my mind when I came across Masaaki Hattori’s comment that Dinnaga has accepted Bhartrhari’s views regarding the meaning of a sentence although their theories of word meaning are completely different from each other. According to Bhartrhari, in all phenomenal entities there are two elements viz. jati and vyakti; jati refers to the real element and vyakti to the unreal. Vyakti suffer changes, whereas jati remains constant. Again according to him (...)
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  42. Herbert G. Bohnert (1967). Communication by Ramsey-Sentence Clause. Philosophy of Science 34 (4):341-347.score: 18.0
    F. P. Ramsey pointed out in Theories that the observational content of a theory expressed partly in non-observational terms is retained in the sentence resulting from existentially generalizing the conjunction of all sentences of the theory with respect to all nonobservational terms. Such terms are thus avoidable in principle, but only at the cost of forming a single "monolithic" sentence. This paper suggests that communication may be thought of as occurring not only by sentence but by clause, (...)
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  43. L. A. Paul (1997). Truth Conditions of Tensed Sentence Types. Synthese 111 (1):53-72.score: 18.0
    Quentin Smith has argued that the new tenseless theory of time is faced with insurmountable problems and should be abandoned in favour of the tensed theory of time. Smith;s main argument attacks the fundamental premise of the tenseless theory: that tenseless truth conditions for tokens of tensed sentences adequately capture the meaning of tensed sentences. His position is that tenseless truth conditions cannot explain the logical relations between tensed sentences, thus the tensed theory must be accepted. Against Smith, this paper (...)
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  44. Graham Leach-Krouse (2013). Yablifying the Rosser Sentence. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-8.score: 18.0
    In a recent paper (Cieśliński and Urbaniak 2012), Urbaniak and Cieśliński describe an analogue of the Yablo Paradox, in the domain of formal provability. Just as the infinite sequence of Yablo sentences inherit the paradoxical behavior of the liar sentence, an infinite sequence of sentences can be constructed that inherit the distinctive behavior of the Gödel sentence. This phenomenon—the transfer of the properties of self-referential sentences of formal mathematics to their “unwindings” into infinite sequences of sentences—suggests a number (...)
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  45. Thomas E. Uebel (1992). Overcoming Logical Positivism From Within: The Emergence of Neurath's Naturalism in the Vienna Circle's Protocol Sentence Debate. Rodopi.score: 18.0
    Chapter INTRODUCTION: OTTO NEURATH, THE VIENNA CIRCLE AND THE PROTOCOL SENTENCE DEBATE Everybody familiar with contemporary analytical philosophy is likely ...
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  46. Martha I. Gibson (1998). The Unity of the Sentence and the Connection of Causes. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (4):827-845.score: 18.0
    This paper attempts a solution to the classical problem of predication, "the unity of the sentence": how, instead of merely listing the several things they designate, the parts of the sentence combine to represent something as being the case. While this capacity of a sequence of terms to "say some single thing" is standardly attributed to the distinct function of `subject' and `predicate' terms, these functional differences need explaining. Here, they are traced to the distinctive, asymmetrical causal explanation (...)
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  47. Thomas Hodgson (2013). Why We Should Not Identify Sentence Structure with Propositional Structure. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (5-6):612-633.score: 18.0
    It is a common view among philosophers of language that both propositions and sentences are structured objects. One obvious question to ask about such a view is whether there is any interesting connection between these two sorts of structure. The author identifies two theses about this relationship. Identity (ID) – the structure of a sentence and the proposition it expresses are identical. Determinism (DET) – the structure of a sentence determines the structure of the proposition it expresses. After (...)
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  48. Micah B. Goldwater, Marc T. Tomlinson, Catharine H. Echols & Bradley C. Love (2011). Structural Priming as Structure-Mapping: Children Use Analogies From Previous Utterances to Guide Sentence Production. Cognitive Science 35 (1):156-170.score: 18.0
    What mechanisms underlie children’s language production? Structural priming—the repetition of sentence structure across utterances—is an important measure of the developing production system. We propose its mechanism in children is the same as may underlie analogical reasoning: structure-mapping. Under this view, structural priming is the result of making an analogy between utterances, such that children map semantic and syntactic structure from previous to future utterances. Because the ability to map relationally complex structures develops with age, younger children are less successful (...)
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  49. Paula Sweeney, A Defence of the Kaplanian Theory of Sentence Truth.score: 18.0
    When David Kaplan put forward his theory of sentence truth incorporating demonstratives, initially proposed in ‘Dthat’ (1978) and later developed in ‘Demonstratives’ (1989a) and ‘Afterthoughts’ (1989b), it was, to his mind, simply a matter of book-keeping, a job that had been pushed aside as a complication when a truth conditional semantics had been proposed. The challenges considered in this thesis are challenges to the effect that Kaplan’s theory of sentence truth is, for one reason or another, inadequate. My (...)
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  50. Samuel Alexander (2013). This Sentence Does Not Contain the Symbol X. The Reasoner 7 (9):108.score: 18.0
    A suprise may occur if we use a similar strategy to the Liar's paradox to mathematically formalize "This sentence does not contain the symbol X".
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