Search results for 'Serendipitous malfunction' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Adrian Bardon (2007). Reliabilism, Proper Function, and Serendipitous Malfunction. Philosophical Investigations 30 (1):45–64.score: 90.0
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  2. Michael Bertrand (2013). Proper Environment and the SEP Account of Biological Function. Synthese 190 (9):1503-1517.score: 60.0
    The survival enhancing propensity (SEP) account has a crucial role to play in the analysis of proper function. However, a central feature of the account, its specification of the proper environment to which functions are relativized, is seriously underdeveloped. In this paper, I argue that existent accounts of proper environment fail because they either allow too many or too few characters to count as proper functions. While SEP accounts retain their promise, they are unworkable because of their inability to specify (...)
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  3. Bjørn Jespersen & Massimiliano Carrara (2013). A New Logic of Technical Malfunction. Studia Logica 101 (3):547-581.score: 18.0
    Aim of the paper is to present a new logic of technical malfunction. The need for this logic is motivated by a simple-sounding philosophical question: Is a malfunctioning corkscrew, which fails to uncork bottles, nonetheless a corkscrew? Or in general terms, is a malfunctioning F, which fails to do what Fs do, nonetheless an F? We argue that ‘malfunctioning’ denotes the modifier Malfunctioning rather than a property, and that the answer depends on whether Malfunctioning is subsective or privative. If (...)
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  4. Robert L. Woolfolk (1999). Malfunction and Mental Illness. The Monist 82 (4):658-670.score: 15.0
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  5. Ellen Kimmel & H. D. Kimmel (1968). Instrumental Conditioning of the Gsr: Serendipitous Escape and Punishment Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):48.score: 15.0
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  6. Bjørn Jespersen & Massimiliano Carrara (2011). Two Conceptions of Technical Malfunction. Theoria 77 (2):117-138.score: 12.0
    The topic of this paper is the notion of technical (as opposed to biological) malfunction. It is shown how to form the property being a malfunctioning F from the property F and the property modifier malfunctioning (a mapping taking a property to a property). We present two interpretations of malfunctioning. Both interpretations agree that a malfunctioning F lacks the dispositional property of functioning as an F. However, its subsective interpretation entails that malfunctioning Fs are Fs, whereas its privative interpretation (...)
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  7. Lynne Rudder Baker (2009). The Metaphysics of Malfunction. Techné 13 (2):82-92.score: 12.0
    Any artefact – a hammer, a telescope, an artificial hip – may malfunction. Conceptually speaking, artefacts have an inherent normative aspect. I argue that the normativity of artefacts should be understood as part of reality, and not just “in our concepts.” I first set out Deflationary Views of artefacts, according to which there are no artefactual properties, just artefactual concepts. According to my contrasting view – the Constitution View – there are artefactual properties that things in the world really (...)
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  8. Aurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, Juan A. Lara, David Lizcano, María A. Martínez & Juan Pazos (2013). Turing and the Serendipitous Discovery of the Modern Computer. Foundations of Science 18 (3):545-557.score: 12.0
    In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
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  9. U. S. Global Engagement, Carnegie New Leaders & B. Point (2008). Missile Defense Malfunction: Why the Proposed US Missile Defenses in Europe Will Not Work [Full Text]. Ethics and International Affairs 22.score: 9.0
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  10. Nir Fresco & Giuseppe Primiero (2013). Miscomputation. Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):253-272.score: 9.0
    The phenomenon of digital computation is explained (often differently) in computer science, computer engineering and more broadly in cognitive science. Although the semantics and implications of malfunctions have received attention in the philosophy of biology and philosophy of technology, errors in computational systems remain of interest only to computer science. Miscomputation has not gotten the philosophical attention it deserves. Our paper fills this gap by offering a taxonomy of miscomputations. This taxonomy is underpinned by a conceptual analysis of the design (...)
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  11. Jesse Hughes (2009). An Artifact is to Use: An Introduction to Instrumental Functions. [REVIEW] Synthese 168 (1):179 - 199.score: 9.0
    Because much of the recent philosophical interest in functions has been motivated by their application in biology and other sciences, most of the ensuing discussions have focused on functional explanations to the neglect of the practical role of functional knowledge. This practical role is essential for understanding how users form plans involving artifacts. We introduce the concept of instrumental function which is intended to capture the features of functional claims that are relevant to practical—in particular, instrumental—reasoning. We discuss the four (...)
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  12. Aharon Kantorovich (1988). The Mechanisms of Communal Selection and Serendipitous Discovery. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):199-203.score: 9.0
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  13. Philip Coyle & Victoria Samson (2008). Missile Defense Malfunction: Why the Proposed U.S. Missile Defenses in Europe Will Not Work. Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1):3–23.score: 9.0
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  14. Dale Cannon (2007). A Serendipitous Convergence. Tradition and Discovery 34 (1):9-14.score: 9.0
    This brief essay summarizes the content of the current issue of Tradition and Discovery which is devoted to a symposium on similarities between and relevance to each other of the work of Blythe Clinchy, one ofthe authors of Women’s Ways of Knowing, and the work of Michael Polanyi. The background of Women’s Ways of Knowing is sketched for readers without independent familiarity with it.
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  15. Ranald R. Macdonald (2000). The Limits of Probability Modelling: A Serendipitous Tale of Goldfish, Transfinite Numbers, and Pieces of String. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 1 (2):17-38.score: 9.0
    This paper is about the differences between probabilities and beliefs and why reasoning should not always conform to probability laws. Probability is defined in terms of urn models from which probability laws can be derived. This means that probabilities are expressed in rational numbers, they suppose the existence of veridical representations and, when viewed as parts of a probability model, they are determined by a restricted set of variables. Moreover, probabilities are subjective, in that they apply to classes of events (...)
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  16. Richard P. Honeck (1986). A Serendipitous Finding in Face Recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (5):369-371.score: 9.0
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  17. Torben Sangild (2004). Glitch, the Beauty of Malfunction. In Christopher Washburne & Maiken Derno (eds.), Bad Music: The Music We Love to Hate. Routledge.score: 9.0
     
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  18. Ulrich Krohs (2009). Functions as Based on a Concept of General Design. Synthese 166 (1):69-89.score: 6.0
    Looking for an adequate explication of the concept of a biological function, several authors have proposed to link function to design. Unfortunately, known explications of biological design in turn refer to functions. The concept of general design I will introduce here breaks up this circle. I specify design with respect to its ontogenetic role. This allows function to be based on design without making reference to the history of the design, or to the phylogeny of an organism, while retaining the (...)
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  19. Mauro Nervi (2010). Mechanisms, Malfunctions and Explanation in Medicine. Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):215-228.score: 6.0
    Mechanisms are a way of explaining how biological phenomena work rather than why single elements of biological systems are there. However, mechanisms are usually described as physiological entities, and little or no attention is paid to malfunction as an independent theoretical concept. On the other hand, malfunction is the main focus of interest of applied sciences such as medicine. In this paper I argue that malfunctions are parts of pathological mechanisms, which should be considered separate theoretical entities, conceptually (...)
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  20. Lucy Ak Kumar (2013). Information, Meaning, and Error in Biology. Biological Theory 9 (1):1-11.score: 6.0
    Whether “information” exists in biology, and in what sense, has been a topic of much recent discussion. I explore Shannon, Dretskean, and teleosemantic theories, and analyze whether or not they are able to give a successful naturalistic account of information—specifically accounts of meaning and error—in biological systems. I argue that the Shannon and Dretskean theories are unable to account for either, but that the teleosemantic theory is able to account for meaning. However, I argue that it is unable to account (...)
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  21. Joe Dewhurst (forthcoming). Mechanistic Miscomputation: A Reply to Fresco and Primiero. Philosophy and Technology:1-4.score: 6.0
    Fresco and Primiero’s recent article, ‘Miscomputation’ (Philosophy & Technology online first, doi:10.1007/s13347-013-0112-0), provides a useful framework with which to think about miscomputation, as well as an admirably broad taxonomy of different kinds of miscomputation. However, it also misconstrues the mechanistic approach to miscomputation, which I will argue should not recognise design errors as miscomputations per se. I argue that a computing mechanism, if it is functioning correctly in the physical sense, cannot miscompute on the basis of an error made by (...)
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  22. Felix Schirmann (2013). Badness, Madness and the Brain – the Late 19th-Century Controversy on Immoral Persons and Their Malfunctioning Brains. History of the Human Sciences 26 (2):33-50.score: 6.0
    In the second half of the 19th-century, a group of psychiatric experts discussed the relation between brain malfunction and moral misconduct. In the ensuing debates, scientific discourses on immorality merged with those on insanity and the brain. This yielded a specific definition of what it means to be immoral: immoral and insane due to a disordered brain. In this context, diverse neurobiological explanations for immoral mind and behavior existed at the time. This article elucidates these different brain-based explanations via (...)
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  23. Sylvie Catellin & Laurent Loty (2013). Sérendipité et indisciplinarité. Hermès 67:, [ p.].score: 5.0
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  24. Paul Sheldon Davies (2000). Malfunctions. Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):19-38.score: 4.0
    A persistent boast of the historical approach to functions is that functional properties are normative. The claim is that a token trait retains its functional status even when it is defective, diseased, or damaged and consequently unable to perform the relevant task. This is because historical functional categories are defined in terms of some sort of historical success -- success in natural selection, typically -- which imposes a norm upon the performance of descendent tokens. Descendents thus are supposed to perform (...)
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  25. David Christensen (2010). Higher-Order Evidence. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (1):185-215.score: 3.0
    Sometimes we get evidence of our own epistemic malfunction. This can come from finding out we’re fatigued, or have been drugged, or that other competent and well-informed thinkers disagree with our beliefs. This sort of evidence seems to seems to behave differently from ordinary evidence about the world. In particular, getting such evidence can put agents in a position where the most rational response involves violating some epistemic ideal.
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  26. David Christensen (2011). Disagreement, Question-Begging, and Epistemic Self-Criticism. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (6):unknown.score: 3.0
    Responding rationally to the information that others disagree with one’s beliefs requires assessing the epistemic credentials of the opposing beliefs. Conciliatory accounts of disagreement flow in part from holding that these assessments must be independent from one’s own initial reasoning on the disputed matter. I argue that this claim, properly understood, does not have the untoward consequences some have worried about. Moreover, some of the difficulties it does engender must be faced by many less conciliatory accounts of disagreement (and, more (...)
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  27. Karen Neander (1995). Misrepresenting and Malfunctioning. Philosophical Studies 79 (2):109-41.score: 3.0
  28. Mark Bauer (2009). Normativity Without Artifice. Philosophical Studies 144 (2):239-259.score: 3.0
    To ascribe a telos is to ascribe a norm or standard of performance. That fact underwrites the plausibility of, say, teleological theories of mind. Teleosemantics, for example, relies on the normative character of teleology to solve the problem of “intentional inexistence”: a misrepresentation is just a malfunction. If the teleological ascriptions of such theories to natural systems, e.g., the neurological structures of the brain, are to be literally true, then it must be literally true that norms can exist independent (...)
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  29. Douglas Birsch (2004). Moral Responsibility for Harm Caused by Computer System Failures. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):233-245.score: 3.0
    When software is written and then utilized in complex computer systems, problems often occur. Sometimes these problems cause a system to malfunction, and in some instances such malfunctions cause harm. Should any of the persons involved in creating the software be blamed and punished when a computer system failure leads to persons being harmed? In order to decide whether such blame and punishment are appropriate, we need to first consider if the people are “morally responsible”. Should any of the (...)
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  30. Graham Harman (2011). The Road to Objects. Continent 3 (1):171-179.score: 3.0
    continent. 1.3 (2011): 171-179. Since 2007 there has been a great deal of interest in speculative realism, launched in the spring of that year at a well-attended workshop in London. It was always a loose arrangement of people who shared few explicit doctrines and no intellectual heroes except the horror writer H.P. Lovecraft, an improbable patron saint for a school of metaphysics. Lovecraft serves as a sort of mascot for the “speculative” part of speculative realism, since his grotesque semi-Euclidean monsters (...)
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  31. D. M. Walsh (1996). Fitness and Function. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (4):553-574.score: 3.0
    According to historical theories of biological function, a trait's function is determined by natural selection in the past. I argue that, in addition to historical functions, ahistorical functions ought to be recognized. I propose a theory of biological function which accommodates both. The function of a trait is the way it contributes to fitness and fitness can only be determined relative to a selective regime. Therefore, the function of a trait can only be specified relative to a selective regime. Apart (...)
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  32. Mohan Matthen & Edwin Levy (1984). Teleology, Error, and the Human Immune System. Journal of Philosophy 81 (7):351-372.score: 3.0
    The authors attempt to show that certain forms of behavior of the human immune system are illuminatingly regarded as errors in that system's operation. Since error-ascription can occur only within the context of an intentional/teleological characterization of the system, it follows that such a characterization is illuminating. It is argued that error-ascription is objective, non-anthropomorphic, irreducible to any purely causal form of explanation of the same behavior, and further that it is wrong to regard all errors of the immune system (...)
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  33. Sandra D. Mitchell (1995). Function, Fitness and Disposition. Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):39-54.score: 3.0
    In this paper I discuss recent debates concerning etiological theories of functions. I defend an etiological theory against two criticisms, namely the ability to account for malfunction, and the problem of structural doubles. I then consider the arguments provided by Bigelow and Pargetter (1987) for a more forward looking account of functions as propensities or dispositions. I argue that their approach fails to address the explanatory problematic for which etiological theories were developed.
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  34. Eva Hedfors (2007). Fleck in Context. Perspectives on Science 15 (1):49-86.score: 3.0
    : Since its almost serendipitous rediscovery in the late seventies, Fleck's monograph, Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsachee, initially published in 1935, translated into English in 1979 (Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact), has been met with increasing acclaim within the philosophy and the sociology of science. In historizing, sociologizing and relativizing science, Fleck is claimed to have expressed prescient views on the history, philosophy and sociology of science and in deeply influencing Kuhn. Though the neglect of Fleck (...)
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  35. Peter Forrest (1999). Towards an Epistemology of Religious Traditions. Sophia 38 (1):25-40.score: 3.0
    Starting from the acceptance of the Egalitarian Principle I exhibited a version which I considered too lax (BEP) and one I considered too strict (NEP), arriving at a version (MEP) which allows that there can be tolerance-limiting reasons for adhering to traditions but only if they are based on unreasoned knowledge claims. In fact, I hold that the situation most of us find ourselves in restricts such claims on religious topics to very general ones. Hence the choice between NEP and (...)
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  36. Toby J. Sommer (2001). Suppression of Scientific Research: Bahramdipity and Nulltiple Scientific Discoveries. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):77-104.score: 3.0
    The fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip can be taken to be allegorical of not only chance discovery (serendipity) but of other aspects of scientific discovery as well. Just as Horace Walpole coined serendipity, so can the term bahramdipity be derived from the tale and defined as the cruel suppression of a serendipitous discovery. Suppressed, unpublished discoveries are designated nulltiples. Several examples are presented to make the case that bahramdipity is an existent aspect of scientific discovery. Other examples (...)
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  37. Aaron G. Rizzieri, Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2008). Ethical Challenges with the Left Ventricular Assist Device as a Destination Therapy. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (1):1-15.score: 3.0
    The left ventricular assist device was originally designed to be surgically implanted as a bridge to transplantation for patients with chronic end-stage heart failure. On the basis of the REMATCH trial, the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services approved permanent implantation of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy in Medicare beneficiaries who are not candidates for heart transplantation. The use of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy (...)
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  38. James H. Moor (1999). Using Genetic Information While Protecting the Privacy of the Soul. Ethics and Information Technology 1 (4):257-263.score: 3.0
    Computing plays an important role in genetics (and vice versa).Theoretically, computing provides a conceptual model for thefunction and malfunction of our genetic machinery. Practically,contemporary computers and robots equipped with advancedalgorithms make the revelation of the complete human genomeimminent – computers are about to reveal our genetic soulsfor the first time. Ethically, computers help protect privacyby restricting access in sophisticated ways to genetic information.But the inexorable fact that computers will increasingly collect,analyze, and disseminate abundant amounts of genetic informationmade available through (...)
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  39. G. G. Nyambuya (2008). New Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations. Foundations of Physics 38 (7):665-677.score: 3.0
    I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result of the theory, is that, to of the equation exhibits an (...)
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  40. Michele Pasin & Enrico Motta (2011). Ontological Requirements for Annotation and Navigation of Philosophical Resources. Synthese 182 (2):235-267.score: 3.0
    In this article, we describe an ontology aimed at the representation of the relevant entities and relations in the philosophical world. We will guide the reader through our modeling choices, so to highlight the ontology’s practical purpose: to enable an annotation of philosophical resources which is capable of supporting pedagogical navigation mechanisms. The ontology covers all the aspects of philosophy, thus including characterizations of entities such as people, events, documents, and ideas. In particular, here we will present a detailed exposition (...)
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  41. Linsey McGoey (2010). Profitable Failure: Antidepressant Drugs and the Triumph of Flawed Experiments. History of the Human Sciences 23 (1):58-78.score: 3.0
    Drawing on an analysis of Irving Kirsch and colleagues’ controversial 2008 article in PLoS [Public Library of Science] Medicine on the efficacy of SSRI antidepressant drugs such as Prozac, I examine flaws within the methodologies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have made it difficult for regulators, clinicians and patients to determine the therapeutic value of this class of drug. I then argue, drawing analogies to work by Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Power, that it is the very limitations of RCTs (...)
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  42. Felipe De Brigard (2013). Is Memory for Remembering? Recollection as a Form of Episodic Hypothetical Thinking. Synthese 191 (2):1-31.score: 3.0
    Misremembering is a systematic and ordinary occurrence in our daily lives. Since it is commonly assumed that the function of memory is to remember the past, misremembering is typically thought to happen because our memory system malfunctions. In this paper I argue that not all cases of misremembering are due to failures in our memory system. In particular, I argue that many ordinary cases of misremembering should not be seen as instances of memory’s malfunction, but rather as the normal (...)
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  43. Robert Lockie (forthcoming). Three Recent Frankfurt Cases. Philosophia:1-28.score: 3.0
    Three recent ‘state of the art’ Frankfurt cases are responded to: Widerker’s Brain-Malfunction-W case and Pereboom’s Tax Evasion cases (2 & 3). These cases are intended by their authors to resurrect the neo-Frankfurt project of overturning the Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP) in the teeth of the widespread acceptance of some combination of the WKG (Widerker-Kane-Ginet) dilemma, the Flicker of Freedom strategy and the revised PAP response (‘Principle of Alternative Blame’, ‘Principle of Alternative Expectations’). The three neo-Frankfurt cases of (...)
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  44. István S. N. Berkeley (1997). Taming Type-2 Tigers: A Nonmonotonic Strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):66-67.score: 3.0
    Clark & Thornton are too hasty in their dismissal of uninformed learning; nonmonotonic processing units show considerable promise on type-2 tasks. I describe a simulation which succeeds on a “pure” type-2 problem. Another simulation challenges Clark & Thornton's claims about the serendipitous nature of solutions to type-2 problems.
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  45. Richard Griffin, Mind, Meaning and Cause: So What If the Mind Doesn't Fit in the Head Book Review of Bolton & Hill on Mental Disorder.score: 3.0
    This review of Bolton & Hill's (B&H) Mind, Meaning, & Mental Disorder examines their non-reductionist yet realist position on mental content. Their arguments are compared to the writings of Dennett and Millikan, where determining function is central to determining information-processing capabilities. The normative nature of function (malfunction) is considered as is its relation to mental states more broadly. Their Wittgensteinian view of meaning as action is accepted as insightful and useful, though some questions remain about their theory of meaning (...)
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  46. Michael Czapkay Sudduth (1999). Can Religious Unbelief Be Proper Function Rational? Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):297-314.score: 3.0
    This paper presents a critical analysis of Alvin Plantinga’s recent contention, developed in Warranted Christian Belief (forthcoming), that if theism is true, then it is unlikely that religious unbelief is the product of properly functioning, truth-aimed cognitive faculties. More specifically, Plantinga argues that, given his own model of properly basic theistic belief, religious unbelief would always depend on cognitive malfunction somewhere in a person’s noetic establishment. I argue that this claim is highly questionable and has adverse consequences for Plantinga’s (...)
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  47. William Harms, Papers.score: 3.0
    Telenomic Agency: Towards a proper functions theory of normativity (pdf) is a recent paper on the biological basis of normativity. This paper attempts to show that the notion of biological function/malfunction has more to offer our understanding of genuine agency than is usually acknowledged. It is suggested that moral and rational normativity attach to signals in very specific biological regulatory systems, and that the complexity of these systems accounts for much of the phenomenological richness of agency, as well as (...)
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  48. Hangjun Lee & Chulki Hong (2012). The Cracked Share. Continent 2 (1):2-5.score: 3.0
    continent. 2.1 (2012): 2–5 To begin with, as we understand from a remote place like Seoul, there have been two different conceptions of materiality in the Western experimental ?lm history: materiality of cinema and of ?lm. The former has been represented by the practitioners of the so-called the “Expanded Cinema” and the latter by the tradition of the “Hand-made” ?lm. Whereas for the Expanded Cinema, the materiality or the “medium-speci?city” includes not only the ?lm material but also the entire condition (...)
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  49. Gyorgy Jaros (2001). Telentropy: Uncertainty in the Biomatrix. World Futures 57 (1):49-78.score: 3.0
    Teleonics is a systemic approach for the study and management of complex living systems, such as human beings, families, communities, business organisations and even countries and international relationships. The approach and its applications have been described in several publications, quoted in the paper. The units of teleonics are teleons, viz, end?related, autonomous process systems. An indication of malfunction in teleons is a high level of telentropy that can be caused by many factors, among which the most common are the (...)
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