Over the past few years, the Virtual Organization (VO) paradigm has been emerging as an ideal solution to support collaboration among globally distributed entities (individuals and/or organizations). However, due to rapid technological and societal changes, there has also been an astonishing growth in technologies and services for mobile users. This has opened up new collaborative scenarios where the same participant can access the VO from different locations and mobility becomes a key issue for users and services. The nomadicity and mobility (...) introduces additional challenges for managing collaboration in VO environments. This paper focuses on the Identity Management challenge in a Mobile Dynamic VO environment, which is a VO that takes into account nomadicity and seamless mobility aspects as elaborated within the EU funded project Akogrimo (Access to Knowledge through the Grid in a mobile world). The resulting work is the design of the Akogrimo Identity Management system supporting the authentication and authorization process across the different administrative domains of the Mobile Dynamic VO. This design follows the service oriented approach and integrates the different perspectives: that of the network, that of the user and that of the service provider. Such an integration requires facing challenges; both from the architectural and technological viewpoints because different ‘worlds’ (i.e. network and service level) leverage different (and sometimes conflicting) approaches when addressing Identity Management. (shrink)
Whitehead, in two basic books, considers two different approaches to point-free geometry: the inclusion-based approach , whose primitive notions are regions and inclusion relation between regions, and the connection-based approach , where the connection relation is considered instead of the inclusion. We show that the latter cannot be reduced to the first one, although this can be done in the framework of multivalued logics.
A formal neuron has been studied mathematically. The spiking behaviour of a single neuron has been considered and the influence of the other neurons has been replaced by an average activity level. Four different kinds of spiking behaviour are predicted by the model: B (bursts), C (continuous), P (periodic) and S (silent) neurons and several real neurons can be classified within these four categories. Some properties of the spiking neuron are calculated: 1) the time between spikes, 2) the spike train (...) length and 3) the silent time. Because these magnitudes can be measured in the laboratory, an experimental validation of the model is proposed. (shrink)
El pensamiento de Unamuno es complejo y problemático. Realizar una lectura de los escritos de este autor, sin tomar previamente en consideración ciertos aspectos, puede resultar estéril y contradictoria. Examinando, a través de textos del propio autor, cómo concibe la “razón”, el “lenguaje”, la “filosofía” y la “realidad”, junto a la descripción de ciertos rasgos de su “personalidad”, queremos mostrar el talante verdaderamente filosófico de Unamuno, tantas veces puesto en cuestión. El presente artículo tiene como objeto exponer algunos puntos clave (...) que pueden servir como indicadores para descubrir la riqueza y profundidad que encierra la obra del filósofo vasco. Palabras clave: Unamuno; Razón; Lenguaje; Filosofía; Realidad. ABSTRACT The philosophical thinking of Unamuno is complex and problematic. Trying to interpret his writings previously taking into consideration certain aspects of his work could result fruitless and contradictory (paradoxical). The analysis of his conception of subjects like reason, language, philosophy and reality in his texts, together with the description of certain traits of his personality lead us to the real philosophical nature of his work, which has been repeatedly questioned by some authors. This paper is going to explain the main aspects of his work, which are the indicators to discover the true nature of the enriching and profound characteristics of the work of this Basque philosopher. Key words: Unamuno; Reason; Language; Filosofia; Reality. (shrink)
Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre as ameaças aos direitos humanos, sobretudo à dignidade e à liberdade, e à essência humana geradas pelo avanço da biotecnologia. O foco de alerta e resgate da noção de cuidado de si perpassa a perspectiva de futuro de M. Foucault e usa como complemento e desfecho a noção de responsabilidade de H. Jonas para a manutenção da vida e para a realização do sentido do humano e das novas gerações – papel ético por excelência. O (...) texto divide-se em duas partes: a primeira é inspirada em Foucault e a segunda, em Jonas. O leitor é convidado a refletir dentro de uma dupla consideração do tema. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Dignidade. Direitos humanos. Cuidado de si. Responsabilidade. Futuro. M. Foucault. H. Jonas. (shrink)
Latin American rigorous thought has consisted of a reconstruction of western rigorous thought. This inflexion is not only limited to literary practice, it also, and most importantly, reaches all sciences, and here visibly touches the social sciences. As such, the relation between literature and t..
O objetivo deste artigo é compreender como a Igreja evangelizou no Período Antigo. Jesus Cristo reuniu um grupo de homens e os instruiu na Fé revelando a presença do Reino de Deus. O Cristianismo nasceu dentro do Judaísmo. Inicialmente contém características dos rituais judaicos que ao longo do tempo vão se adequando e se transformando em ritos mais aprofundados. O método eficaz da evangelização usado pelos Apóstolos era o mesmo ensinado pelo Mestre. O Catecumenato sempre exerceu papel preponderante na Evangelização. (...) Com o passar dos tempos o Catecumenato foi reduzido apenas para o período da Quaresma. Quais foram as suas consequências? Apesar das controvérsias a Doutrina sempre foi assegurada pela Igreja. (shrink)
In his dialogues with Claire Parnet, Deleuze asserts that: ‘Whether we are individuals or groups, we are made of lines’ (Deleuze and Parnet 2007: 124). In A Thousand Plateaus (with Guattari), Deleuze calls these kinds of ‘lifelines’ or ‘lines of flesh’: break line (or segmental line, or molar line), crack line (or molecular line) and rupture line (also called line of flight) (Deleuze and Guattari 2004a: 22). We will explain the difference between these three lines and how they are related (...) to the ‘soul’. We will also explain how a singular individual or group can arise from the play of the lines. Eventually, we will introduce the concept of ‘Creal’ to develop the Deleuzian figure of the ‘Anomal’, the so(u)rcerer. (shrink)
O artículo constitui uma tentativa de reconstrução da noção de comunidade a partir da literatura na obra de Maurice Blanchot.A comunidade apresenta-se como uma forma original e inovadora de relação social.
“ De jure and De facto Rigidity in the General Terms for Natural Kinds”. This paper will argue that one of rigidity’s central problems in general terms for natural kinds, is consequence of not distinguishing between de jure rigid terms and de facto rigid terms on these cases. The paper claims that necessary identity sentences defended by Kripke in Naming and Necessity consider the term’s occurrence to designate a same kind (kinds which share the transworld relation of being one same (...) kind) through two rigidity terms, a de jure one, and a de facto one. This allows to explain the problems that arise from the notion of rigidity in the case of general terms for natural kinds, since it maintains the causal connection requirements, while at the same time it enunciates the identity criterion between these kinds, through the essential property(ies) of the abovementioned kind. (shrink)
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is the most widely instrument used in the assessment of affective decision-making in several populations with frontal impairment. The standard performance measure on the IGT is obtained by calculating the difference between the advantageous and the disadvantageous choices. This standard score does not allows the assessment of the use of different strategies to deal with contingencies of gain and losses across the task. This study aims to compare the standard score method used in IGT with (...) a method that analyses the patterns of staying and shifting among different decks across the 100 choices, considering contingencies of choices with and without losses. We compared the IGT performance of 24 children with externalizing disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) and 24 healthy age-matched children. The analyses of the standard score across all blocks failed to show differences among children with externalizing disorders and control children. However, healthy children showed a pattern of shifting more from disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks and choosing more consecutive cards from the advantageous decks across all blocks, independently of the contingency of losses. On the other hand, children with externalizing disorders presented a pattern of shifting more from advantageous decks to disadvantageous ones in comparison to healthy children and repeatedly chose cards from the B deck across all blocks. This findings show that even though differences among groups might not be found when using the standard analyses, a different type of analysis might be able to show distinct strategies on the execution of the test. (shrink)
En 1895 Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) escribe Las Reglas del Método Sociológico (RMS). No se trataría ya de metafísica social o de filosofía social sino de una sobria práctica epistemológica asentada en la Universidad y legitimada social y políticamente. Descartes y Durkheim pueden ser considerados..
Este artículo trata de inventariar y enjuiciar las críticas que desde la filosofía de la ciencia se han realizado al psicoanálisis freudiano desde hace 30 años atrás y que hasta la fecha aún gozan de buena salud entre algunos profesores de metodología de la ciencia y algunos psicólogos que quier..
La escuela de la Teoría Crítica de la sociedad tuvo como baluarte el texto "Dialéctica de la Ilustración" escrito por Max Horkheimer y Teodoro Adorno. En él, los autores se lamentan del deplorable estado de la tradición científica occidental, ya que los avances de la actividad científica modern.
Este ensayo aborda la relevancia de lo que se discute en la filosofía de la ciencia. La filosofía no se trata de hablar cosas complicadas usando un lenguaje difícilmente comprensible para tratar problemas que sólo los mismos filósofos consideran importantes. Preguntas como ¿Es real el mundo en q..
In this work we want tosustain two intimately related thesis. The first one sustains that the theory ofthe relativity of Einstein doesnt refute Newtons notion of absolute time. Thesecond one sustain that the Newtonian mechanics and the theory of the rela-tivity are not rival theories, but rather e..
Resumen Aparecen aquí Miranda y Bolívar con algunas ideas fundamentales, que nos permiten visualizar las consecuencias políticas de sus postulados. Nos proponemos analizar algunos conceptos básicos del período de la independencia, a saber: liberalismo, republicanismo y dictadura, pero enmarcados y relacionados con otros que le fueron afines: centralismo y federalismo. Los defensores de estos últimos elaboraron sus ideas con el propósito de definir formas de gobierno acordes con las nuevas naciones, sin embargo, esas elaboraciones trajeron consecuencias políticas decisivas para (...) afirmar formas autoritarias o democráticas, según los criterios y modelos asumidos. Palabras clave: Miranda; Bolívar; liberalismo; republicanismo; dictadura; centralismo; federalismo. Miranda and Bolívar: Republicanism, Liberalism and DictatorshipMiranda and Bolívar are shown here with some fundamental ideas, which allow us to visualize the political consequences of their postulates. We aim to analyze some basic concepts of the independence period, namely: liberalism, republicanism and dictatorship, framed in and related with others that were akin to them: centralism and federalism. The defenders of the latter concepts elaborated their ideas with the aim to define forms of government suitable to the new nations. However, these elaborations brought about political consequences decisive to strengthen either authoritarian or democratic forms, according to the criteria and models assumed. Keywords: Miranda; Bolívar; liberalism;republicanism; dictatorship;centralism; federalism. (shrink)
Miranda Fricker's Epistemic Injustice is a wide-ranging and important book on a much-neglected topic: the injustice involved in cases in which distrust arises out of prejudice. Fricker has some important things to say about this sort of injustice: its nature, how it arises, what sustains it, and the unhappy outcomes associated with it for the victim and the society in which it takes place. In the course of developing this account, Fricker also develops an account of the epistemology of (...) testimony. Focusing my attention on that account, my central claims are two. First, at least some of Fricker's arguments against existing (inferentialist and non-inferentialist) views in the epistemology of testimony are less than fully persuasive, and the (non-inferentialist) view she ends up endorsing is not all that different from the views she criticizes. Second, her reasons for harboring doubts regarding the role of a principle of default entitlement within a non-inferentialist account are not persuasive. Neither of these claims affects the overall argument Fricker is trying to run. Rather, they suggest that Fricker may have picked more fights than she needed to in the epistemology of testimony. If so, we have reason to detach Fricker's important work on epistemic injustice from some of the details of the story she tells regarding the epistemology of testimony. (shrink)
In his book Appearances of the Good, Sergio Tenenbaum has offered an impressive new defence of a classical account of practical reason, which marks him as heir to a philosophical tradition going back to Aristotle and Kant or, more recently, to Anscombe and Davidson. This account has come under heavy attack in the past twenty years, and it would be no exaggeration to say that it is now a minority view. This is at least so if one counts the (...) number of living philosophers who deny that strict akratic action is possible. Tenenbaum claims that, minimally, his aim is to show that what he calls after Kant “the scholastic view” still merits a place in the philosophical landscape, and in this respect, it is clear that his enterprise is a success. (shrink)
Miranda Fricker?s research carefully negotiates the fields of ethics and epistemology, and the places and points where they overlap and intersect. Her 2007 text Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing is particularly noteworthy in this regard. It seamlessly integrates these research areas and, in so doing, turns a critical eye on the common assumption that feminist epistemology, characterized by its focus on the role of gender oppression within knowledge practices, is a marginal field of social epistemology. Fricker (...) challenges her readers to consider the thesis that social and feminist epistemologies are more thoroughly interconnected than is traditionally assumed. (shrink)