Search results for 'Sex History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Daniel J. Kruger & Randolph M. Nesse (2006). An Evolutionary Life-History Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Human Mortality Rates. Human Nature 17 (1):74-97.score: 192.0
    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and social causes that are best understood when integrated in an evolutionary life history framework. This paper investigates the Male-to-Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR) from external and internal causes and across contexts to illustrate how sex differences shaped by sexual selection interact with the environment to yield a pattern with some consistency, but also with expected variations due to socioeconomic and other factors.
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  2. Gordon Rattray Taylor (1970/1973). Sex in History. Harper & Row.score: 180.0
  3. Laura Hirshbein (2010). Sex and Gender in Psychiatry: A View From History. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (2):155-170.score: 156.0
    Although physicians have attempted for centuries to uncover the biological differences between men and women with regard to mental illness, they continue to face the challenges of untangling biological factors from social and cultural ones. This article uses examples from history to illustrate three common problems in trying to establish biological differences: identifying factors as sex-based when they are really gender-based; overlooking changes in masculine and feminine roles over time; and placing too great an emphasis on hormones. By using (...)
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  4. Dominic Dp Johnson & Mark van Vugt (2009). A History of War: The Role of Inter-Group Conflict in Sex Differences in Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):280 - 281.score: 144.0
    Human aggression has two important dimensions: within-group aggression and between-group aggression. Archer offers an excellent treatment of the former only. A full explanation of sex differences in aggression will fail without accounting for our history of inter-group aggression, which has deep evolutionary roots and specific psychological adaptations. The causes and consequences of inter-group aggression are dramatically different for males and females.
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  5. Howard H. Chiang (2010). Liberating Sex, Knowing Desire: Scientia Sexualis and Epistemic Turning Points in the History of Sexuality. History of the Human Sciences 23 (5):42-69.score: 132.0
    This study considers the role of epistemic turning points in the historiography of sexuality. Disentangling the historical complexity of scientia sexualis, I argue that the late 19th century and the mid-20th century constitute two critical epistemic junctures in the genealogy of sexual liberation, as the notion of free love slowly gave way to the idea of sexual freedom in modern western society. I also explore the value of the Foucauldian approach for the study of the history of sexuality in (...)
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  6. Berel Lang (2004). Oskar Rosenfeld and the Realism of Holocaust-History: On Sex, Shit, and Status. History and Theory 43 (2):278–288.score: 126.0
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  7. Jean-Paul Gaudillière (2004). Genesis and Development of a Biomedical Object: Styles of Thought, Styles of Work and the History of the Sex Steroids. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (3):525-543.score: 126.0
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  8. Lara Anderson & Heather Merle Benbow (2009). Christoph Meiners' History of the Female Sex (1788–1800): The Orientalisation of Spain and German Nationalism. History of European Ideas 35 (4):433-440.score: 126.0
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  9. Aurelio Jose Figueredo, Paul Robert Gladden & Barbara Hagenah Brumbach (2009). Sex, Aggression, and Life History Strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):278-278.score: 126.0
    We agree that sexual selection is a more comprehensive explanation for sex differences in direct aggression than social role theory, which is an unparsimonious and vestigial remnant of human exceptionalism. Nevertheless, Archer misses several opportunities to put the theoretical predictions made by himself and by others into direct competition in a way that would further the interests of strong inference.
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  10. Joan Gibson (2006). The Logic of Chastity: Women, Sex, and the History of Philosophy in the Early Modern Period. Hypatia 21 (4):1-19.score: 120.0
    : Before women could become visible as philosophers, they had first to become visible as rational autonomous thinkers. A social and ethical position holding that chastity was the most important virtue for women, and that rationality and chastity were incompatible, was a significant impediment to accepting women's capacity for philosophical thought. Thus one of the first tasks for women was to confront this belief and argue for their rationality in the face of a self-referential dilemma.
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  11. J. Morgan (1996). Review. Writing Sex. Foucault's Virginity. Ancient Erotic Fiction and the History of Sexuality. S Goldhill. The Classical Review 46 (2):263-264.score: 120.0
  12. Thomas Kuehn (1987). Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice. (Studies in the History of Sexuality.) New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Pp. Viii, 223. $29.95. [REVIEW] Speculum 62 (1):182-185.score: 120.0
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  13. Helen Rodnite Lemay (1994). Joan Cadden, The Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture.(Cambridge History of Medicine.) Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. Xii, 310; 7 Black-and-White Illustrations. $54.95. Pierre J. Payer, The Bridling of Desire: Views of Sex in the Later Middle Ages. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Pp. Ix, 285. $35. [REVIEW] Speculum 69 (4):1131-1134.score: 120.0
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  14. Mariana Valverde (forthcoming). A New Entity in the History of Sexuality: The Respectable Same-Sex Couple. Feminist Studies.score: 120.0
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  15. Adriana Vergés, Nicholas A. Paul & Peter D. Steinberg (2008). Sex and Life-History Stage Alter Herbivore Responses to a Chemically Defended Red Alga. In Carolyn Merchant (ed.), Ecology. Humanity Books. 89--5.score: 120.0
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  16. Amy L. Bonnette, Lise van Boxel, Catherine Connors, Eve Grace, Heather King, Paul Ludwig, Clifford Orwin, Kathrin H. Rosenfield, Dana Jalbert Stauffer & Diana J. Schaub (2010). The Pious Sex: Essays on Women and Religion in the History of Political Thought. Lexington Books.score: 120.0
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  17. Stephen Downes (1990). Immortality Vs. Muller's Ratchet. Sex and Death in Protozoa: The History of an Obsession (1988). By Graham Bell. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 199. £25.00, $44.50. ISBN 0 521 36141 9. [REVIEW] Bioessays 12 (4):198-198.score: 120.0
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  18. B. Farrington, C. Singer & C. Rabin (1948). A Prelude to Modern Science, Being a Discussion of the History, Sources and Circumstances of the Tabulae Anatomicae Sex of Vesalius. Journal of Hellenic Studies 68:164.score: 120.0
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  19. John C. Moore (1995). John W. Baldwin, The Language of Sex: Five Voices From Northern France Around 1200 (Chicago Series on Sexuality, History, and Society.) Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1994. Pp. Xxviii, 331; 2 Tables. [REVIEW] Speculum 70 (4):871-873.score: 120.0
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  20. Arlete Maria Feijó Salcides (2000). Possíveis Conexões Entre a Identidade Docente Ea História Política Dos Sexos Nas Sociedades Ocidentais; Possible Connections Between Teacher's Identity and Political History of Sex in Western Societies. Aletheia 11:21-28.score: 120.0
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  21. C. M. Worthman (1997). Sex Differences in Endocrine Regulation of Life History Organisation. Journal of Biosocial Science 29 (2):249-250.score: 120.0
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  22. Alan Soble (ed.) (2006). Sex From Plato to Paglia: A Philosophical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press.score: 90.0
  23. Shira Tarrant (2006). When Sex Became Gender. Routledge.score: 84.0
    This book is a study of post World War II feminist theory from the viewpoint of intellectual history. The key theme is that the social construction of gender has its origins in the feminist theorists of this period. This paradigm is a key foundational element to both second and third wave feminist thought. It will focus on the five key scholars of the period: Komarovsky, de Beauvoir, Mead, Klein and Herschberger. This has been a somewhat overlooked period in the (...)
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  24. Elisabeth Roudinesco (2009). Our Dark Side: A History of Perversion. Polity.score: 78.0
    The sublime and the abject -- Sade pro and contra Sade -- Dark enlightenment or barbaric science -- The Auschwitz confessions -- The perverse society.
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  25. Mark Miller (2004). Philosophical Chaucer: Love, Sex, and Agency in the Canterbury Tales. Cambridge University Press.score: 78.0
    While most Chaucer critics interested in gender and sexuality have used psychoanalytic theory to analyze Chaucer's poetry, Mark Miller re-examines the links between sexuality and the philosophical analysis of agency in medieval texts such as the Canterbury Tales, Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, and the Romance of the Rose. Chaucer's philosophical sophistication provides the basis for a new interpretation of the emerging notions of sexual desire and romantic love in the late Middle Ages.
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  26. A. J. Lustig (2000). Sex, Death, and Evolution in Proto- and Metazoa, 1876-1913. Journal of the History of Biology 33 (2):221 - 246.score: 72.0
    In the period 1875-1920, a debate about the generality and applicability of evolutionary theory to all organisms was motivated by work on unicellular ciliates like Paramecium because of their peculiar nuclear dualism and life cycles. The French cytologist Emile Maupas and the German zoologist August Weismann argued in the 1880s about the evolutionary origins and functions of sex (which in the ciliates is not linked to reproduction), and death (which appeared to be the inevitable fate of lineages denied sexual conjugation), (...)
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  27. Alan G. Soble (2003). The History of Sexual Anatomy and Self-Referential Philosophy of Science. Metaphilosophy 34 (3):229-249.score: 66.0
    This essay is a case study of the self-destruction that occurs in the work of a social-constructionist historian of science who embraces a radical philosophy of science. It focuses on Thomas Laqueur's Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud in arguing that a history of science committed to the social construction of science and to the central theses of Kuhnian, Duhemian, and Quinean philosophy of science is incoherent through self-reference. Laqueur's text is examined in detail in (...)
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  28. Shadi Bartsch (2006). The Mirror of the Self: Sexuality, Self-Knowledge, and the Gaze in the Early Roman Empire. University of Chicago Press.score: 66.0
    People in the ancient world thought of vision as both an ethical tool and a tactile sense, akin to touch. Gazing upon someone—or oneself—was treated as a path to philosophical self-knowledge, but the question of tactility introduced an erotic element as well. In The Mirror of the Self , Shadi Bartsch asserts that these links among vision, sexuality, and self-knowledge are key to the classical understanding of the self. Weaving together literary theory, philosophy, and social history, Bartsch traces this (...)
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  29. Matthew Lister (forthcoming). Review of Corvino and Gallagher, Debating Same-Sex Marriage. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy.score: 66.0
    With the recent U.S. Supreme Court cases finding the Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutional and removing impediments to same-sex marriage in California,as well as a number of recent successes in special elections and with legislators inthe U.S. and other countries, we might wonder whether there is still need for a book debating same-sex marriage. Is not the tide of history inevitably movingtowards marriage equality? While that position seems tempting, it is too quick.
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  30. Gail Hawkes (1996). A Sociology of Sex and Sexuality. Open University Press.score: 66.0
    A Sociology of Sex and Sexuality offers an historical sociological analysis of ideas about expressions of sexual desire, combining both primary and secondary historical and theoretical material with original research and popular imagery in the contemporary context. While some reference is made to the sexual ideology of Classical Antiquity and of early Christianity, the major focus of the book is on the development of ideas about sex and sexuality in the context of modernity. It questions the widespread assumption that the (...)
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  31. Kermyt G. Anderson (2010). Life Expectancy and the Timing of Life History Events in Developing Countries. Human Nature 21 (2):103-123.score: 66.0
    Life history theory predicts that greater extrinsic mortality will lead to earlier and higher fertility. To test this prediction, I examine the relationship between life expectancy at birth and several proxies for life history traits (ages at first sex and first marriage, total fertility rate, and ideal number of children), measured for both men and women. Data on sexual behaviors come from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Two separate samples are analyzed: a cross-sectional sample of 62 countries (...)
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  32. Carey M. Noland (2012). Institutional Barriers to Research on Sensitive Topics: Case of Sex Communication Research Among University Students. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - M2.score: 66.0
    When conducting research on sensitive topics, it is challenging to use new methods of data collection given the apprehensions of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). This is especially worrying because sensitive topics of research often require novel approaches. In this article a brief personal history of navigating the IRB process for conducting sex communication research is presented, along with data from a survey that tested the assumptions long held by many IRBs. Results support some of the assumptions IRBs hold about (...)
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  33. Alan Soble (2008). The Philosophy of Sex and Love: An Introduction. Paragon House.score: 66.0
    The background -- Projects; the significance of sex and love; secret pictures; sexual pluralism -- A history of the philosophy of sex and love -- The ancients; medieval philosophy; modern philosophy; the twentieth century; contemporary philosophy -- Sex -- Sexual concepts -- Analytic questions; sexual activity; sexual desire; social constructionism; polysemicity (polysemy); sexual sensations -- Sexual perversion -- St. thomas aquinas; problems with natural law; psychological perversion; psychiatry and perversion; a conceptual framework -- Sexual ethics -- Contraception; beyond natural (...)
     
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  34. John Archer (2009). Does Sexual Selection Explain Human Sex Differences in Aggression? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):249-266.score: 66.0
    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative (...)
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  35. Marco Del Giudice (2009). Sex, Attachment, and the Development of Reproductive Strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):1-21.score: 66.0
    This target article presents an integrated evolutionary model of the development of attachment and human reproductive strategies. It is argued that sex differences in attachment emerge in middle childhood, have adaptive significance in both children and adults, and are part of sex-specific life history strategies. Early psychosocial stress and insecure attachment act as cues of environmental risk, and tend to switch development towards reproductive strategies favoring current reproduction and higher mating effort. However, due to sex differences in life (...) trade-offs between mating and parenting, insecure males tend to adopt avoidant strategies, whereas insecure females tend to adopt anxious/ambivalent strategies, which maximize investment from kin and mates. Females are expected to shift to avoidant patterns when environmental risk is more severe. Avoidant and ambivalent attachment patterns also have different adaptive values for boys and girls, in the context of same-sex competition in the peer group: in particular, the competitive and aggressive traits related to avoidant attachment can be favored as a status-seeking strategy for males. Finally, adrenarche is proposed as the endocrine mechanism underlying the reorganization of attachment in middle childhood, and the implications for the relationship between attachment and sexual development are explored. Sex differences in the development of attachment can be fruitfully integrated within the broader framework of adaptive plasticity in life history strategies, thus contributing to a coherent evolutionary theory of human development. (shrink)
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  36. Aurelio José Figueredo & Pedro S. A. Wolf (2009). Assortative Pairing and Life History Strategy. Human Nature 20 (3):317-330.score: 66.0
    A secondary analysis was performed on preliminary data from an ongoing cross-cultural study on assortative pairing. Independently sampled pairs of opposite-sex romantic partners and of same-sex friends rated themselves and each other on Life History (LH) strategy and mate value. Data were collected in local bars, clubs, coffeehouses, and other public places from three different cultures: Tucson, Arizona; Hermosillo, Sonora; and San José, Costa Rica. The present analysis found that slow LH individuals assortatively pair with both sexual and social (...)
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  37. Wade C. Mackey (1993). Relationships Between the Human Sex Ratio and the Woman's Microenvironment. Human Nature 4 (2):175-198.score: 66.0
    Independent samples of women were surveyed to test Trivers and Willard’s hypothesis that the mother’s condition and her ability to invest in her offspring affect the (secondary) sex ratio of her offspring. Patterns of sex ratios (number of males per 100 females) were analyzed in conjunction with four attributes of a mother’s microenvironment: level of health in her community, family structure, relative access to resources, and her birthing history. The results inferentially support the hypothesis that the microenvironment of the (...)
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  38. Bryan Roche, Anthony O'Reilly, Amanda Gavin, Maria R. Ruiz & Gabriela Arancibia (2012). Using Behavior-Analytic Implicit Tests to Assess Sexual Interests Among Normal and Sex-Offender Populations. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.score: 66.0
    Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards of behavioral psychologists. (...)
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  39. Prudence Allen (1997). The Concept of Woman. W.B. Eerdmans Pub..score: 60.0
    v. 1. The Aristotelian revolution, 750 BC-AD 1250 -- v. 2. The early humanist Reformation, 1250-1500.
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  40. Kari Vepsäläinen & John R. Spence (2000). Generalization in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: From Hypothesis to Paradigm. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):211-238.score: 60.0
    We argue that broad, simplegeneralizations, not specifically linked tocontingencies, will rarely approach truth in ecologyand evolutionary biology. This is because mostinteresting phenomena have multiple, interactingcauses. Instead of looking for single universaltheories to explain the great diversity of naturalsystems, we suggest that it would be profitable todevelop general explanatory frameworks. A frameworkshould clearly specify focal levels. The process orpattern that we wish to study defines our level offocus. The set of potential and actual states at thefocal level interacts with conditions at (...)
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  41. Paul W. Ludwig (2006). Eros and Polis: Desire and Community in Greek Political Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Paul Ludwig examines how and why Greek theorists treated political passions as erotic. Because of the tiny size of ancient Greek cities, contemporary theory and ideology could conceive of entire communities based on desire. A recurrent aspiration was to transform the polity into one great household that would bind the citizens together through ties of mutual affection. In this study, Ludwig evaluates sexuality, love, and civic friendship as sources of political attachment and as bonds of political association.
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  42. Gisela Bock & Sébastien de Villèle (2011). Les dichotomies en histoire des femmes: un défi. Clio 2:53-88.score: 60.0
    L’article traduit pour Clio HFS est le premier chapitre de Writing Women’s History : International Perspectives (1991), premier ouvrage édité par La Fédération internationale pour la recherche en histoire des femmes née en 1987. Il dissèque six dichotomies qui ont permis ou permettent encore de penser les relations entre hommes et femmes et l’écriture de leur passé. Si les trois premières (nature/culture, travail/famille, public/privé), profondément inscrites dans la culture occidentale moderne et source de hiérarchies et d’exclusions, ont été à (...)
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  43. John F. Dedek (1977/1989). Intrinsic Evil: The Invention of an Idea. St. Julian.score: 60.0
     
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  44. Lara Denis (1999). Kant on the Wrongness of 'Unnatural' Sex. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (2):225-48.score: 54.0
    I consider Kant’s use of claims about “nature’s ends” in his arguments to establish maxims of homosexual sex, masturbation, and bestiality as constituting “unnatural” sexual vices, which are contrary to one’s duties to oneself as an animal and moral being. I argue, first, that the formula of humanity is the principle best suited for understanding duties to oneself as an animal and moral being; and second, that although natural teleology is relevant to some degree in specifying these duties, it cannot (...)
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  45. Erika Milam, Roberta L. Millstein, Angela Potochnik & Joan Roughgarden (2011). Sex and Sensibility: The Role of Social Selection. Metascience 20 (2):253-277.score: 54.0
    Sex and sensibility: The role of social selection Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9464-6 Authors Erika L. Milam, Department of History, University of Maryland, 2115 Francis Scott Key Hall, College Park, MD 20742, USA Roberta L. Millstein, Department of Philosophy, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA Angela Potochnik, Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210374, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA Joan E. Roughgarden, Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA Journal Metascience (...)
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  46. Joshua M. Ackerman & Douglas T. Kenrick (2009). Selfishness and Sex or Cooperation and Family Values? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):21-21.score: 54.0
    Evolutionary models of behavior often encounter resistance due to an apparent focus on themes of sex, selfishness, and gender differences. The target article might seem ripe for such criticism. However, life history theory suggests that these themes, and their counterparts, including cooperation, generosity, and gender similarities, represent two sides of the same coin – all are consequences of reproductive trade-offs made throughout development.
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  47. Nadine Changfoot (2009). Transcendence in Simone de Beauvoir's the Second Sex: Revisiting Masculinist Ontology. Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (4):391-410.score: 54.0
    A large number of feminist philosophers and social critics accept that Simone de Beauvoir's conception of transcendence in The Second Sex relies on masculinist ontology. In contrast with feminist interpretations that see Beauvoir claiming the success of masculinist ontology, this article argues that transcendence as masculinist ontology does not succeed in The Second Sex because it requires a relation of domination, something contrary to its own definition of freedom-producing relations. The Second Sex obliquely reveals this failure, but Beauvoir does not (...)
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  48. A. C. Grayling (2002/2003). Life, Sex, and Ideas: The Good Life Without God. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    "A distinctive voice somewhere between Mark Twain and Michel Montaigne" is how Psychology Today described A.C. Grayling. In Life, Sex, and Ideas: The Good Life Without God, readers have the pleasure of hearing this distinctive voice address some of the most serious topics in philosophy--and in our daily lives--including reflections on guns, anger, conflict, war; monsters, madness, decay; liberty, justice, utopia; suicide, loss, and remembrance. A civilized society, says Grayling, is one which never ceases having a discussion with itself about (...)
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  49. Aurelio José Figueredo, Jon A. Sefcek & Sally G. Olderbak (2009). Attachment and Life History Strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):26-27.score: 54.0
    Del Giudice addresses a complex and pertinent theoretical issue: the evolutionary adaptiveness of sex differences in attachment styles in relation to life history strategy. Although we applaud Del Giudice for calling attention to the problem, we regret that he does not sufficiently specify how attachment styles serve as an integral part of a coordinate life history strategy for either sex.
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  50. Jenée James Jackson & Bruce J. Ellis (2009). Synthesizing Life History Theory with Sexual Selection: Toward a Comprehensive Model of Alternative Reproductive Strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):31-32.score: 54.0
    Del Giudice's model of sex-specific attachment patterns demonstrates the usefulness of infusing life history theory with principles of sexual selection. We believe a full synthesis between the two theories provides a foundation for a comprehensive model of alternative reproductive strategies. We extend Del Giudice's ideas based on our own program of research, focusing specifically on the importance of intrasexual competition and the individual phenotype during development.
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