Search results for 'Sex differences' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paul W. Andrews, Steven W. Gangestad, Geoffrey F. Miller, Martie G. Haselton, Randy Thornhill & Michael C. Neale (2008). Sex Differences in Detecting Sexual Infidelity. Human Nature 19 (4):347-373.score: 180.0
    Despite the importance of extrapair copulation (EPC) in human evolution, almost nothing is known about the design features of EPC detection mechanisms. We tested for sex differences in EPC inference-making mechanisms in a sample of 203 young couples. Men made more accurate inferences (φmen = 0.66, φwomen = 0.46), and the ratio of positive errors to negative errors was higher for men than for women (1.22 vs. 0.18). Since some may have been reluctant to admit EPC behavior, we modeled (...)
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  2. Kathrin Ohla & Johan N. Lundström (2013). Sex Differences in Chemosensation: Sensory or Emotional? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 180.0
    Although the first sex-dependent differences for chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the (...)
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  3. Judith A. Easton & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). Morbid Jealousy and Sex Differences in Partner-Directed Violence. Human Nature 20 (3):342-350.score: 180.0
    Previous research suggests that individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy have jealousy mechanisms that are activated at lower thresholds than individuals with normal jealousy, but that these mechanisms produce behavior that is similar to individuals with normal jealousy. We extended previous research documenting these similarities by investigating sex differences in partner-directed violence committed by individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy. The results support some of our predictions. For example, a greater percentage of men than women diagnosed with morbid jealousy used physical (...)
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  4. Dario Maestripieri & Suzanne Pelka (2002). Sex Differences in Interest in Infants Across the Lifespan. Human Nature 13 (3):327-344.score: 180.0
    This study investigated sex differences in interest in infants among children, adolescents, young adults, and older individuals. Interest in infants was assessed with responses to images depicting animal and human infants versus adults, and with verbal responses to questionnaires. Clear sex differences, irrespective of age, emerged in all visual and verbal tests, with females being more interested in infants than males. Male interest in infants remained fairly stable across the four age groups, whereas female interest in infants was (...)
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  5. Deborah S. Mower (2009). Sex Differences in Moral Interests: The Role of Kinship and the Nature of Reciprocity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):111-119.score: 180.0
    Although moral psychologists and feminist moral theorists emphasize males’ interest in justice or fairness and females’ interest in care or empathy, recent work in evolutionary psychology links females’ interests in care and empathy for others with interests in fairness and equality. In an important work on sex differences in cognitive abilities, David Geary (1998) argues that the evolutionary mechanism of sexual selection drives the evolution of particular cognitive abilities and selection for particular interests. I mount two main challenges to (...)
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  6. John Archer (2009). Does Sexual Selection Explain Human Sex Differences in Aggression? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):249-266.score: 180.0
    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with (...)
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  7. Daniel J. Kruger & Randolph M. Nesse (2006). An Evolutionary Life-History Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Human Mortality Rates. Human Nature 17 (1):74-97.score: 180.0
    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and social causes that are best understood when integrated in an evolutionary life history framework. This paper investigates the Male-to-Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR) from external and internal causes and across contexts to illustrate how sex differences shaped by sexual selection interact with the environment to yield a pattern with some consistency, but also with expected variations due to socioeconomic and other factors.
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  8. Jacob Miguel Vigil (2009). A Socio-Relational Framework of Sex Differences in the Expression of Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):375.score: 180.0
    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to (...)
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  9. Sascha Schwarz & Manfred Hassebrauck (2012). Sex and Age Differences in Mate-Selection Preferences. Human Nature 23 (4):447-466.score: 162.0
    For nearly 70 years, studies have shown large sex differences in human mate selection preferences. However, most of the studies were restricted to a limited set of mate selection criteria and to college students, and neglecting relationship status. In this study, 21,245 heterosexual participants between 18 and 65 years of age (mean age 41) who at the time were not involved in a close relationship rated the importance of 82 mate selection criteria adapted from previous studies, reported age ranges (...)
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  10. Joyce F. Benenson, Tamara Morganstein & Rosanne Roy (1998). Sex Differences in Children's Investment in Peers. Human Nature 9 (4):369-390.score: 156.0
    It is hypothesized from within an evolutionary framework that females should be less invested in peer relations than males. Investment was operationalized as enjoyment in Study 1 and as preference for interaction in Study 2. In the first study, four- and six-year-old children’s enjoyment of peer interaction was observed in 26 groups of same-sex peers. Girls were rated as enjoying their interactions significantly less than boys. In the second study, six- and nine-year-old children were interviewed about the individuals with whom (...)
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  11. Jeannette McGlone (1980). Sex Differences in Human Brain Asymmetry: A Critical Survey. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):215.score: 150.0
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  12. David C. Geary (1996). Sexual Selection and Sex Differences in Mathematical Abilities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):229.score: 150.0
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  13. H. D. Kimmel & E. Kimmel (1965). Sex Differences in Adaptation of the GSR Under Repeated Applications of a Visual Stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):536.score: 150.0
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  14. Henryk Misiak (1947). Age and Sex Differences in Critical Flicker Frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (4):318.score: 150.0
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  15. David M. Buss (1989). Sex Differences in Human Mate Preferences: Evolutionary Hypotheses Tested in 37 Cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):1.score: 150.0
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  16. David I. Miller & Diane F. Halpern (2014). The New Science of Cognitive Sex Differences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):37-45.score: 150.0
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  17. Camilla Persson Benbow (1988). Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability in Intellectually Talented Preadolescents: Their Nature, Effects, and Possible Causes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):169.score: 150.0
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  18. Frank Salter, Karl Grammer & Anja Rikowski (2005). Sex Differences in Negotiating with Powerful Males. Human Nature 16 (3):306-321.score: 150.0
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  19. H. E. Burtt (1920). Sex Differences in the Effect of Discussion. Journal of Experimental Psychology 3 (5):390.score: 150.0
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  20. C. E. Buxton & D. A. Grant (1939). Retroaction and Gains in Motor Learning: II. Sex Differences, and a Further Analysis of Gains. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (2):198.score: 150.0
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  21. Betsy Worth Estes, Louise Brightwell Miller & Mary Ellen Curtin (1962). Supplementary Report: Monetary Incentive and Motivation in Discrimination Learning--Sex Differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (3):320.score: 150.0
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  22. Jeffrey M. Gredlein & David F. Bjorklund (2005). Sex Differences in Young Children's Use of Tools in a Problem-Solving Task. Human Nature 16 (2):211-232.score: 150.0
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  23. R. W. Husband & M. J. Ludden (1931). Sex Differences in Motor Skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (4):414.score: 150.0
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  24. Toine Lagro‐Janssen & Janja Grosicar (2010). Morbidity Figures From General Practice: Sex Differences in Traumatology. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):673-677.score: 150.0
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  25. Robyn Bluhm (2013). New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing. Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.score: 144.0
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  26. Carlos Gil-Burmann, Fernando Peláez & Susana Sánchez (2002). Mate Choice Differences According to Sex and Age. Human Nature 13 (4):493-508.score: 134.0
    We used 7,415 advertisements published in Spain to analyze traits sought/offered by men and women from different age groups. Findings regarding age, socioeconomic status, and physical attractiveness requirements support evolutionary predictions about mate preferences. However, changes in trait preferences among women under 40 appear to be contingent on Spain’s socioeconomic transformation. Women under 40 seek mainly physical attractiveness in men, whereas those over 40 seek mainly socioeconomic status. The trait most sought by men in all age groups is physical attractiveness. (...)
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  27. Karen J. Berkley (1997). Sex Differences in Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):371-380.score: 132.0
    Are there sex differences in pain? For experimentally delivered somatic stimuli, females have lower thresholds, greater ability to discriminate, higher pain ratings, and less tolerance of noxious stimuli than males. These differences, however, are small, exist only for certain forms of stimulation and are affected by many situational variables such as presence of disease, experimental setting, and even nutritive status. For endogenous pains, women report more multiple pains in more body regions than men. With no obvious underlying rationale, (...)
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  28. Cordelia Fine (2013). Is There Neurosexism in Functional Neuroimaging Investigations of Sex Differences? Neuroethics 6 (2):369-409.score: 132.0
    The neuroscientific investigation of sex differences has an unsavoury past, in which scientific claims reinforced and legitimated gender roles in ways that were not scientifically justified. Feminist critics have recently argued that the current use of functional neuroimaging technology in sex differences research largely follows that tradition. These charges of ‘neurosexism’ have been countered with arguments that the research being done is informative and valuable and that an over-emphasis on the perils, rather than the promise, of such research (...)
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  29. Victoria K. Burbank (1992). Sex, Gender, and Difference. Human Nature 3 (3):251-277.score: 126.0
    Empirical research has demonstrated that women’s aggressive behavior is widespread and displays regularities across societies. Until recently, however, discussions about the aggressive behavior of women and gender differences in aggressive behavior have been based largely on data from nonhuman primates, children, or laboratory experiments. Using a unique corpus of naturalistic data on aggressive human interactions both between and among men and women, I explore the complexity of our questions about sex differences in aggression and further illuminate the ways (...)
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  30. Cordelia Fine (2012). Explaining, or Sustaining, the Status Quo? The Potentially Self-Fulfilling Effects of 'Hardwired' Accounts of Sex Differences. Neuroethics 5 (3):285-294.score: 120.0
    In this article I flesh out support for observations that scientific accounts of social groups can influence the very groups and mental phenomena under investigation. The controversial hypothesis that there are hardwired differences between the brains of males and females that contribute to sex differences in gender-typed behaviour is common in both the scientific and popular media. Here I present evidence that such claims, quite independently of their scientific validity, have scope to sustain the very sex differences (...)
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  31. Alice H. Eagly & Wendy Wood (1999). The Origins of Aggression Sex Differences: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):223-224.score: 120.0
    The ultimate causes of sex differences in human aggressive behavior can lie mainly in evolved, inherited mechanisms that differ by sex or mainly in the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. The present commentary contrasts Campbell's evolutionary interpretation of aggression sex differences with a social structural interpretation that encompasses a wider range of phenomena.
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  32. Alice H. Eagly & Wendy Wood (2005). Universal Sex Differences Across Patriarchal Cultures [Not Equal] Evolved Psychological Dispositions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):281-283.score: 120.0
    Schmitt's findings provide little evidence that sex differences in sociosexuality are explained by evolved dispositions. These sex differences are better explained by an evolutionary account that treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent, given the biological attributes of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies.
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  33. Peggy DesAutels (2010). Sex Differences and Neuroethics. Philosophical Psychology 23 (1):95-111.score: 120.0
    Discussions in neuroethics to date have ignored an ever-increasing neuroscientific lilterature on sex differences in brains. If, indeed, there are significant differences in the brains of men versus women and in the brains of boys versus girls, the ethical and social implications loom very large. I argue that recent neuroscientific findings on sex-based brain differences have significant implications for theories of morality and for our understandings of the neuroscience of moral cognition and behavior.
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  34. Stephen C. Maxson (1999). Some Reflections on Sex Differences in Aggression and Violence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):232-233.score: 120.0
    Four issues relevant to sex differences in human aggression and violence are considered. (1) The motivation for play and serious aggression in children and juvenile animals is different. Consequently, the evolutionary explanations for each may be different. (2) Sex differences in intrasexual aggression may be due to effects of the attacker or the target. There is evidence that both males and females are more physically aggressive against males and less physically aggressive against females. The evolutionary explanation for each (...)
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  35. April L. Bleske & David M. Buss (2000). A Comprehensive Theory of Human Mating Must Explain Between-Sex and Within-Sex Differences in Mating Strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):593-594.score: 120.0
    Gangestad & Simpson make a major contribution by highlighting the importance of mate choice for good genes, the costs of alternative strategies, and tradeoffs inherent in human mating. By downplaying sex differences and ignoring the nongenetic adaptive benefits of short term mating, however, they undermine their goal of “strategic pluralism” by presenting a theory devoid of many documented complexities of human mating.
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  36. David C. Geary (1998). Sexual Selection, the Division of Labor, and the Evolution of Sex Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):444-447.score: 120.0
    Sexual selection traditionally involves male-male competition and female choice, but in some species, including humans, sexual selection can also involve female-female competition and male choice. The degree to which one aspect of sexual selection or another is manifest in human populations will be influenced by a host of social and ecological variables, including the operational sex ratio. These variables are discussed in connection with the relative contribution of sexual selection and the division of labor to the evolution of human sex (...)
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  37. Ann Searle (1971). A Study of 'Admired People' Among Adolescents in Relation to Aggression and Sex Differences. Journal of Moral Education 1 (1):61-66.score: 120.0
    (1971). A study of ‘admired people’ among adolescents in relation to aggression and sex differences. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 61-66.
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  38. Martin Voracek & Todd K. Shackelford (2002). An Evolutionary Theory of Pain Must Consider Sex Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):474-475.score: 120.0
    According to Williams, human facially expressed pain, and its perception by conspecifics, is generated by evolved mechanisms. We argue that a key variable – sex (male, female) – needs to be considered for a complete theory of pain expression and perception. To illustrate, we cite findings on sex differences in pain and pain perception, and in crying and crying responsiveness.
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  39. Kingsley R. Browne (1999). The Relevance of Sex Differences in Risk-Taking to the Military and the Workplace. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):218-219.score: 120.0
    Sex differences in willingness to take physical risks and in concern for peer esteem may be relevant to whether women should serve in combat, since two major fears soldiers experience are of being injured and of not measuring up as warriors. Women's relative aversion to nonphysical risk may have workplace implications, since risk taking is an attribute of most successful executives.
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  40. Edmund Keogh & Anita Holdcroft (2002). Sex Differences in Pain: Evolutionary Links to Facial Pain Expression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):465-465.score: 120.0
    Women typically report more pain than men, as well as exhibit specific sex differences in the perception and emotional expression of pain. We present evidence that sex is a significant variable in the evolution of facial expression of pain.
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  41. Kevin MacDonald (1999). What About Sex Differences? An Adaptationist Perspective on “the Lines of Causal Influence” of Personality Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):530-531.score: 120.0
    The evolutionary theory of sex implies a theoretically principled account of the causal mechanisms underlying personality systems in which males pursue a relatively high-risk strategy compared to females and are thus higher on traits linked to sensation seeking and social dominance. Females are expected to be lower on these traits but higher on traits related to nurturance and attraction to long-term relationships. The data confirm this pattern of sex differences. It is thus likely that these traits (...)
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  42. Gary B. Rollman (1997). Sex Differences in Pain Do Exist: The Role of Biological and Psychosocial Factors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):464-465.score: 120.0
    The evidence favoring sex differences in pain seems compelling (berkley). This commentary considers the role of such factors as anxiety, somatosensory amplification, and coping style in accounting for the differential response to pain in the laboratory and clinic, and emphasizes the need to base evaluation and treatment upon individual reports rather than gender-based stereotypes.
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  43. Joseph M. Boden (2009). Sex Differences in the Developmental Antecedents of Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):269-270.score: 120.0
    Archer examines sex differences in aggression, and argues that these differences may be better explained by sexual selection theory than by social role theory. This commentary examines sex differences in the developmental antecedents of aggression and violence, and presents a preliminary framework for examining whether the observed sex differences amongst these developmental antecedents can also be accounted for by sexual selection theory.
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  44. Ron Kupers (1997). Sex Differences in Pain: And Now for Something Completely Different. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):455-456.score: 120.0
    The belief that women report more somatic complaints than men is not new. Many centuries B.C., the Egyptians and the Greeks already made an association between female pains and hysteria, which is Greek for Despite the commonly held belief that women are more sensitive to pain than men, the issue of sex differences in pain has received little attention from the scientific community in general. It is the merit of berkley to draw our attention to this large gap in (...)
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  45. J. Colette Berbesque, Frank W. Marlowe, Ian Pawn, Peter Thompson, Guy Johnson & Audax Mabulla (2012). Sex Differences in Hadza Dental Wear Patterns. Human Nature 23 (3):270-282.score: 120.0
    Among hunter-gatherers, the sharing of male and female foods is often assumed to result in virtually the same diet for males and females. Although food sharing is widespread among the hunting and gathering Hadza of Tanzania, women were observed eating significantly more tubers than men. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of dental wear, diet, and extramasticatory use of teeth among the Hadza. Casts of the upper dentitions were made from molds taken from 126 adults and scored according to (...)
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  46. Michael J. Boulton, Mark Trueman & Ian Flemington (2002). Associations Between Secondary School Pupils' Definitions of Bullying, Attitudes Towards Bullying, and Tendencies to Engage in Bullying: Age and Sex Differences. Educational Studies 28 (4):353-370.score: 120.0
    A self-report questionnaire about involvement in different types of bullying, what behaviours were regarded as bullying, and attitudes towards bullying, bullies and victims was completed by pupils in Year 7 (aged 11/12) through to Year 10 (aged 14/15) ( n = 170). Overall, direct verbal assault was the most commonly reported, and stealing the least frequently reported, type of bullying. For six specific types of bullying investigated, and for a composite measure of all types of bullying, significantly fewer Year 9 (...)
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  47. K. Gijsbers & C. A. Niven (1997). Psychobiological Sex Differences in Pain: Psychological as Much as Biological. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):449-449.score: 120.0
    The argument of berkley for the existence sex differences in pain is based on biological factors. We suggest that the psychological evidence for such differences is more substantial.
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  48. Guy Madison (2009). Human Female Exogamy is Supported by Cross-Species Comparisons: Cause to Recognise Sex Differences in Societal Policy? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):400-400.score: 120.0
    A sex difference in the tendency to outbreed (female exogamy) is a premise for the target article's proposed framework, which receives some support by being shared with chimpanzees but not with more distantly related primates. Further empirical support is provided, and it is suggested that recognition of sex differences might improve effective fairness, taking sexual assault as a case in point.
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  49. Michael Schredl (2009). Sex Differences in Dream Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):287-288.score: 120.0
    Dream research shows sex differences in dream aggression that fit very well with the findings for waking-life aggressive behaviour. Dream studies are a valuable tool for investigating variables underlying the sex difference in aggression. One might argue that studying dream aggression might be even more promising because aggression in dreams is not socially labelled, as being aggressive in waking life is.
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  50. Wendy F. Sternberg (1997). Sex Differences in Descending Pain Modulatory Pathways May Clarify Sex Differences in Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):466-467.score: 120.0
    This commentary addresses the strength of the comparative approach to the study of sex differences in pain. Animal studies can focus our attention on mechanisms of sex differences in these clinical sex differences. Important sex differences are seen in descending pain modulation, thereby providing an explanation for the observation of sex differences in pain perception. [berkley].
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