60 found
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Shan Gao [58]Shanxing Gao [1]Shangkai Gao [1]
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Profile: Shan Gao (Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
  1.  4
    Chengli Shu, Kevin Z. Zhou, Yazhen Xiao & Shanxing Gao (forthcoming). How Green Management Influences Product Innovation in China: The Role of Institutional Benefits. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  2. Shan Gao, An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation.
    It is shown that the superposed wave function of a measuring device, in each branch of which there is a definite measurement result, does not correspond to many mutually unobservable but equally real worlds, as the superposed wave function can be observed in our world by protective measurement.
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  3.  21
    Shan Gao, The Measurement Problem Revisited.
    It has been realized that in order to solve the measurement problem, the physical state representing the measurement result is required to be also the physical state on which the mental state of an observer supervenes. This introduces an additional restriction on the solutions to the measurement problem. In this paper, I give a new formulation of the measurement problem which lays more stress on psychophysical connection, and analyze whether Everett's theory, Bohm's theory and dynamical collapse theories can satisfy the (...)
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  4. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not continuous but (...)
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  5. Shan Gao, Three Possible Implications of Spacetime Discreteness.
    We analyze the possible implications of spacetime discreteness for the special and general relativity and quantum theory. It is argued that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime may explain the invariance of the speed of light in special relativity and Einstein’s equivalence principle in general relativity. Moreover, the discreteness of spacetime may also result in the collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics, which may provide a possible solution to the quantum measurement problem. These interesting results might (...)
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  6. Shan Gao (2013). A Quantum Physical Argument for Panpsychism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (1-2):1 - 2.
    It has been widely thought that consciousness has no causal efficacy in the physical world. However, this may be not the case. In this paper, we show that a conscious being can distinguish definite perceptions and their quantum superpositions, while a physical measuring system without consciousness cannot distinguish such nonorthogonal quantum states. The possible existence of this distinct quantum physical effect of consciousness may have interesting implications for the science of consciousness. In particular, it suggests that consciousness is not emergent (...)
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  7.  24
    Shan Gao, What Does It Feel Like to Be in a Quantum Superposition?
    We suggest a new answer to this intriguing question and argue that the answer may have implications for the solutions to the measurement problem. The main basis of our analysis is the doctrine of psychophysical supervenience. First of all, based on this doctrine, we argue that an observer in a quantum superposition or a quantum observer has a definite conscious experience, which is neither disjunctive nor illusive. The inconsistency of this result with the bare theory is further analyzed, and it (...)
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  8.  24
    Shan Gao, Interpreting Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Random Discontinuous Motion of Particles.
    This thesis is an attempt to reconstruct the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation (...)
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  9. Shan Gao, The Wave Function and Its Evolution.
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  10. Shan Gao, Why the de Broglie-Bohm Theory is Probably Wrong.
    We investigate the validity of the field explanation of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. It is argued that a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. This is also a consequence of protective measurement. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously (...)
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  11. Shan Gao, Meaning of the Wave Function.
    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference (...)
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  12. Shan Gao (2006). A Model of Wavefunction Collapse in Discrete Space-Time. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 45 (10):1965-1979.
    We give a new argument supporting a gravitational role in quantum collapse. It is demonstrated that the discreteness of space-time, which results from the proper combination of quantum theory and general relativity, may inevitably result in the dynamical collapse of thewave function. Moreover, the minimum size of discrete space-time yields a plausible collapse criterion consistent with experiments. By assuming that the source to collapse the wave function is the inherent random motion of particles described by the wave function, we further (...)
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  13.  65
    Shan Gao, Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  14. Shan Gao, Derivation of the Schrödinger Equation.
    It is shown that the heuristic "derivation" of the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics textbooks can be turned into a real derivation by resorting to spacetime translation invariance and relativistic invariance.
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  15. Shan Gao, Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  16. Shan Gao, Why Gravity is Not an Entropic Force.
    The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics (...)
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  17. Shan Gao, Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; a charged quantum system (...)
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  18. Shan Gao (2003). A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism. Neuroquantology 1 (1):4-9.
    We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter.
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  19.  9
    Shan Gao, A Discrete Model of Energy-Conserved Wavefunction Collapse.
    Energy nonconservation is a serious problem of dynamical collapse theories. In this paper, we propose a discrete model of energy-conserved wavefunction collapse. It is shown that the model is consistent with existing experiments and our macroscopic experience.
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  20.  66
    Shan Gao, The Wave Function and Particle Ontology.
    In quantum mechanics, the wave function of a N-body system is a mathematical function defined in a 3N-dimensional configuration space. We argue that wave function realism implies particle ontology when assuming: (1) the wave function of a N-body system describes N physical entities; (2) each triple of the 3N coordinates of a point in configuration space that relates to one physical entity represents a point in ordinary three-dimensional space. Moreover, the motion of particles is random and discontinuous.
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  21.  64
    Shan Gao, Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  22.  9
    Shan Gao (2013). On Uffink's Criticism of Protective Measurements. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):513-518.
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Vaidman, and Anandan, with the aim of measuring the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. According to these authors, this feature of protective measurements favors a realistic interpretation of the wave function. These claims were challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, (...)
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  23.  15
    Shan Gao, Reality of the Quantum State: A New Proof in Terms of Protective Measurements.
    The ontological model framework provides a rigorous approach to address the question of whether the quantum state is ontic or epistemic. When considering only conventional projective measurements, auxiliary assumptions are always needed to prove the reality of the quantum state in the framework. For example, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem is based on an additional preparation independence assumption. In this paper, we give a new proof of psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements in the ontological model framework. It is argued that the (...)
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  24. Shan Gao (2008). A Quantum Theory of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 18 (1):39-52.
    The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot “know”. As a result, the consciousness observer (...)
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  25.  15
    Shan Gao, Quantum Collapse, Consciousness and Superluminal Communication.
    The relation between quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication is analyzed. As we know, quantum collapse, if exists, can result in the appearance of quantum nonlocality, and requires the existence of a pre- ferred Lorentz frame. This may permit the realization of quantum superluminal communication, which will no longer result in the usual causal loop in case of the existence of a preferred Lorentz frame. The possibility of the existence of QSC is further analyzed under the assumption that quantum collapse (...)
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  26.  19
    Shan Gao, Protective Measurement: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Quantum Mechanics.
    This article introduces the method of protective measurement and discusses its deep implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics.
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  27.  16
    Shan Gao, Explaining Holographic Dark Energy.
    The physical origin of holographic dark energy is investigated. The main existing explanations, namely the UV/IR connection argument of Cohen et al, Thomas' bulk holography argument, and Ng's spacetime foam argument, are shown to be not satisfactory. A new explanation of the HDE model is then proposed based on the ideas of Thomas and Ng. It is suggested that the dark energy might originate from the quantum fluctuations of spacetime limited by the event horizon of the universe. Several potential problems (...)
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  28.  11
    Shan Gao, A PBR-Like Argument for Psi-Ontology in Terms of Protective Measurements.
    The ontological status of the wave function in quantum mechanics has been analyzed in the context of conventional projective measurements. These analyses are usually based on some nontrivial assumptions, e.g. a preparation independence assumption is needed to prove the PBR theorem. In this paper, we give a PBR-like argument for psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements, by which one can directly measure the expectation values of observables on a single quantum system. The proof does not resort to nontrivial assumptions such (...)
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  29.  15
    Shan Gao, Protective Measurements and Relativity of Worlds.
    It is a fundamental and widely accepted assumption that a measurement result exists universally, and in particular, it exists for every observer, independently of whether the observer makes the measurement or knows the result. In this paper, we will argue that, based on an analysis of protective measurements, this assumption is rejected by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, and worlds, if they indeed exist according to the interpretation, can only exist relative to systems which are decoherent with respect to (...)
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  30.  52
    Shan Gao, What Quantum Mechanics Describes is Discontinuous Motion of Particles.
    We present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in continuous space-time. We show that the simplest nonrelativistic evolution equation of such motion is just the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. This strongly implies what quantum mechanics describes is discontinuous motion of particles. Considering the fact that space-time may be essentially discrete when considering gravity, we further present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in discrete space-time. We show that its evolution will naturally result in the dynamical collapse process (...)
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  31.  51
    Shan Gao, On the Invariance of the Speed of Light.
    It has been argued that the existence of a minimum observable interval of space and time is a model-independent result of the combination of quantum field theory and general relativity. In this paper, I promote this result to a fundamental postulate, called the MOIST postulate. It is argued that the postulate leads to the existence of a maximum signal speed and its invariance. This new result may have two interesting implications. On the one hand, it suggests that the MOIST postulate (...)
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  32.  9
    Shan Gao, A New Ontological Interpretation of the Wave Function.
    In this paper, we propose an ontological interpretation of the wave function in terms of random discontinuous motion of particles. According to this interpretation, the wave function of an N-body quantum system describes the state of random discontinuous motion of N particles, and in particular, the modulus squared of the wave function gives the probability density that the particles appear in every possible group of positions in space. We present three arguments supporting this new interpretation of the wave function. These (...)
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  33.  47
    Shan Gao, On Uffink's Alternative Interpretation of Protective Measurements.
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman. By a protective measurement, one can measure the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. This remarkable feature of protective measurements was challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, and a protective measurement of an observable that does not commute (...)
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  34.  8
    Shan Gao, On the Reality and Meaning of the Wave Function.
    In this article, we give a clearer argument for the reality of the wave function in terms of protective measurements, which does not depend on nontrivial assumptions and also overcomes existing objections. Moreover, based on an analysis of the mass and charge properties of a quantum system, we propose a new ontological interpretation of the wave function. According to this interpretation, the wave function of an N-body system represents the state of motion of N particles. Moreover, the motion of particles (...)
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  35.  8
    Shan Gao (2015). An Argument for Ψ-Ontology in Terms of Protective Measurements. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52:198-202.
    The ontological model framework provides a rigorous approach to address the question of whether the quantum state is ontic or epistemic. When considering only conventional projective measurements, auxiliary assumptions are always needed to prove the reality of the quantum state in the framework. For example, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem is based on an additional preparation independence assumption. In this paper, we give a new proof of psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements in the ontological model framework. The proof does not rely (...)
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  36.  42
    Shan Gao, Comment on "Distinct Quantum States Can Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality".
    Lewis et al. recently demonstrated that additional assumptions such as preparation independence are always necessary to rule out a psi-epistemic model, in which the quantum state is not uniquely determined by the underlying physical state. Here we point out that these authors ignored the important work of Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman on protective measurements, and their conclusion, which is based only on an analysis of conventional projective measurements, is not true.
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  37.  11
    Shan Gao, On the Possibility of Nonlinear Quantum Evolution and Superluminal Communication.
    A possible mechanism of nonlinear quantum evolution is introduced and its implications for quantum communication are investigated. First, it is demonstrated that an appropriate combination of wavefunction collapse and the consciousness of observer may permit the observer to distinguish nonorthogonal quantum states in principle, and thus consciousness will introduce certain nonlinearity into quantum dynamics. Next, it is shown that the distinguishability of nonorthogonal states can be used to achieve quantum superluminal communication, by which information can be transmitted nonlocally and faster (...)
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  38.  39
    Shan Gao, On the Origin of Gravity.
    It is argued that the existence of a minimum interval of space and time may imply the existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime described by general relativity.
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  39.  7
    Shan Gao, Notes on the Ontology of Bohmian Mechanics.
    It is argued that in Bohmian mechanics the effective wave function of a subsystem of the universe does not encode the influences of other particles on the subsystem. This suggests that the ontology of Bohmian mechanics does not consist only in Bohmian particles and their positions. It is nonetheless pointed out that since the wave function in configuration space may represent the state of ergodic motion of non-Bohmian particles in three-dimensional space, the ontology of Bohmian mechanics may still consist only (...)
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  40.  10
    Shan Gao, Does Gravity Induce Wavefunction Collapse? An Examination of Penrose's Argument.
    According to Penrose, the fundamental conflict between the superposition principle of quantum mechanics and the general covariance principle of general relativity entails the existence of wavefunction collapse, e.g. a quantum superposition of two different space-time geometries will collapse to one of them due to the ill-definedness of the time-translation operator for the superposition. In this paper, we argue that Penrose's conjecture on gravity's role in wavefunction collapse is debatable. First of all, it is still a controversial issue what the exact (...)
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  41.  10
    Shan Gao, Distinct Quantum States Cannot Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality.
    Recently Lewis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 150404 ] demonstrated that additional assumptions such as preparation independence are always necessary to rule out a psi-epistemic model, in which the quantum state is not uniquely determined by the underlying physical state. Their conclusion is based on an analysis of conventional projective measurements. Here we demonstrate that protective measurements, which are distinct from projective measurements, already shows that distinct quantum states cannot be compatible with a single state of reality. This improves (...)
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  42.  33
    Shan Gao, An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation: Further Consolidations.
    It is argued that the components of the superposed wave function of a measuring device, each of which represents a definite measurement result, do not correspond to many worlds, one of which is our world, because all components of the wave function can be measured in our world by a serious of protective measurements, and they all exist in this world.
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  43.  8
    Shan Gao, An Ontological Interpretation of the Wave Function.
    It is argued that, based on a new analysis of two-body systems, wave function realism seems to imply an unique ontological interpretation of the wave function, according to which the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and in particular, its modulus square gives the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  44.  15
    Shan Gao (2013). Does Gravity Induce Wavefunction Collapse? An Examination of Penrose's Conjecture. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):148-151.
    According to Penrose, the fundamental conflict between the superposition principle of quantum mechanics and the principle of general covariance of general relativity entails the existence of wavefunction collapse, e.g. a quantum superposition of two different space–time geometries will collapse to one of them due to the ill-definedness of the time-translation operator for the superposition. In this paper, we argue that Penrose's conjecture on gravity's role in wavefunction collapse is debatable. First of all, it is still a controversial issue what the (...)
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  45.  1
    Shijun Li, Yi Wang, Guangyu Bin, Xiaoshan Huang, Dan Zhang, Gang Liu, Yanwei Lv, Xiaorong Gao, Shangkai Gao & Lin Ma (2015). Space Distribution of EEG Responses to Hanoi-Moving Visual and Auditory Stimulation with Fourier Independent Component Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  46.  7
    Shan Gao, Protective Measurements and the Meaning of the Wave Function in the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.
    There are three possible interpretations of the wave function in the de Broglie-Bohm theory: taking the wave function as corresponding to a physical entity or a property of the Bohmian particles or a law. In this paper, we argue that the first interpretation is favored by an analysis of protective measurements.
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  47.  7
    Shan Gao, Problems of the De Broglie-Bohm Theory.
    It is shown that the de Broglie-Bohm theory has a potential problem concerning the mass and charge distributions of a quantum system such as an electron. According to the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the mass and charge of an electron are localized in a position where its Bohmian particle is. However, protective measurement indicates that they are not localized in one position but distributed throughout space, and the mass and charge density of the electron in each position is proportional to the (...)
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  48.  7
    Shan Gao, Why the De Broglie-Bohm Theory Goes Astray.
    We show that the de Broglie-Bohm theory is inconsistent with the established parts of quantum mechanics concerning its physical content. According to the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the mass and charge of an electron are localized in a position where its Bohmian particle is. However, protective measurement implies that they are not localized in one position but distributed throughout space, and the mass and charge density of the electron in each position is proportional to the modulus square of its wave function (...)
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  49.  46
    Shan Gao (2003). A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism. Cogprints.
    We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter, thus provides a possible quantum basis for panpsychism.
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  50.  6
    Shan Gao, Can Continuous Motion Be an Illusion?
    It is widely accepted that continuity is the most essential characteristic of motion; the motion of macroscopic objects is apparently continuous, and classical mechanics, which describes such motion, is also based on the assumption of continuous motion. But is motion really continuous in reality? In this paper, I will try to answer this question through a new analysis of the cause of motion. It has been argued that the standard velocity in classical mechanics cannot fulfill the causal role required for (...)
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