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Stewart Shapiro [155]Gary Shapiro [73]Ian Shapiro [54]Michael J. Shapiro [47]
Lawrence A. Shapiro [38]Alan Shapiro [25]Daniel Shapiro [25]S. Shapiro [24]

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Profile: Stewart Shapiro (Ohio State University)
Profile: Stewart Shapiro (Ohio State University)
Profile: Gary Shapiro (University of Richmond)
Profile: Lawrence Shapiro (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Profile: Daniel Shapiro (West Virginia University)
Profile: Lisa Shapiro (Simon Fraser University)
Profile: Lionel Shapiro (University of Connecticut)
Profile: Lauren Shapiro
Profile: Leland Shapiro (University of Colorado at Denver)
Profile: Devora Shapiro (Southern Oregon University)
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  1. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2010). Embodied Cognition. Routledge.
    Introduction: toward an understanding of embodied cognition -- Standard cognitive science -- Challenging standard cognitive science -- Conceptions of embodiment -- Embodied cognition: the conceptualization hypothesis -- Embodied cognition: the replacement hypothesis -- Embodied cognition: the constitution hypothesis -- Concluding thoughts.
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  2.  64
    Stewart Shapiro (1997). Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Do numbers, sets, and so forth, exist? What do mathematical statements mean? Are they literally true or false, or do they lack truth values altogether? Addressing questions that have attracted lively debate in recent years, Stewart Shapiro contends that standard realist and antirealist accounts of mathematics are both problematic. As Benacerraf first noted, we are confronted with the following powerful dilemma. The desired continuity between mathematical and, say, scientific language suggests realism, but realism in this context suggests seemingly intractable epistemic (...)
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  3.  62
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2004). The Mind Incarnate. MIT Press.
    Shapiro tests these hypotheses against two rivals, the mental constraint thesis and the embodied mind thesis. Collecting evidence from a variety of sources (e.g., neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and embodied cognition) he concludes that the multiple realizability thesis, accepted by most philosophers as a virtual truism, is much less obvious than commonly assumed, and that there is even stronger reason to give up the separability thesis. In contrast to views of mind that tempt us to see the mind as simply being (...)
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  4.  83
    Scott Shapiro (2011). Legality. Harvard University Press.
    What is law (and why should we care)? -- Crazy little thing called "law" -- Austin's sanction theory -- Hart and the rule of recognition -- How to do things with plans -- The making of a legal system -- What law is -- Legal reasoning and judicial decision making -- Hard cases -- Theoretical disagreements -- Dworkin and distrust -- The economy of trust -- The interpretation of plans -- The value of legality.
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  5. Lauren J. Apfel, Amalia Avramidou, Anne Balansard, Gilles Dorival, Mireille Loubet, Lee L. Brice, Jennifer T. Roberts, Peter Burian & Alan Shapiro (2011). Ademollo, Francesco. The Cratylus of Plato: A Commentary. Cambridge: Cam-Bridge University Press, 2011. Xx+ 538 Pp. 1 Black-and-White Fig. Cloth, $140. Adler, Eric. Valorizing the Barbarians: Enemy Speeches in Roman Historiography. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011. Xiii+ 269 Pp. Cloth, $55. Africa, Thomas W. A Historian's Palette: Studies in Greek and Roman History. [REVIEW] American Journal of Philology 132:683-690.
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  6.  59
    Stewart Shapiro (2006/2008). Vagueness in Context. Oxford University Press.
    Stewart Shapiro's ambition in Vagueness in Context is to develop a comprehensive account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. It is a commonplace that the extensions of vague terms vary according to their context: a person can be tall with respect to male accountants and not tall (even short) with respect to professional basketball players. The key feature of Shapiro's account is that the extensions of vague terms (...)
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  7.  58
    Stewart Shapiro (1991). Foundations Without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic. Oxford University Press.
    The central contention of this book is that second-order logic has a central role to play in laying the foundations of mathematics. In order to develop the argument fully, the author presents a detailed description of higher-order logic, including a comprehensive discussion of its semantics. He goes on to demonstrate the prevalence of second-order concepts in mathematics and the extent to which mathematical ideas can be formulated in higher-order logic. He also shows how first-order languages are often insufficient to codify (...)
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  8. Lionel Shapiro (2011). Deflating Logical Consequence. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (243):320-342.
    Deflationists about truth seek to undermine debates about the nature of truth by arguing that the truth predicate is merely a device that allows us to express a certain kind of generality. I argue that a parallel approach is available in the case of logical consequence. Just as deflationism about truth offers an alternative to accounts of truth's nature in terms of correspondence or justification, deflationism about consequence promises an alternative to model-theoretic or proof-theoretic accounts of consequence's nature. I then (...)
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  9. Steven Shapiro (2014). Poor People, Poor Planet: The Psychology of How We Harm and Heal Humanity and Earth. In Elena Mustakova-Possardt (ed.), Toward a Socially Responsible Psychology for a Global Era. Springer 231--254.
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  10.  25
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (forthcoming). Mechanism or Bust? Explanation in Psychology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv062.
    Proponents of mechanistic explanation have recently suggested that all explanation in the cognitive sciences is mechanistic, even functional explanation. This last claim is surprising, for functional explanation has traditionally been conceived as autonomous from the structural details that mechanistic explanations emphasize. I argue that functional explanation remains autonomous from mechanistic explanation, but not for reasons commonly associated with the phenomenon of multiple realizability. 1 Introduction2 Mechanistic Explanation: A Quick Primer3 Functional Explanation: An Example4 Autonomy as Lack of Constraint5 The Price (...)
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  11. William J. Rapaport, Erwin M. Segal, Stuart C. Shapiro, David A. Zubin, Gail A. Bruder, Judith Felson Duchan & David M. Mark, Cognitive and Computer Systems for Understanding Narrative Text.
    This project continues our interdisciplinary research into computational and cognitive aspects of narrative comprehension. Our ultimate goal is the development of a computational theory of how humans understand narrative texts. The theory will be informed by joint research from the viewpoints of linguistics, cognitive psychology, the study of language acquisition, literary theory, geography, philosophy, and artificial intelligence. The linguists, literary theorists, and geographers in our group are developing theories of narrative language and spatial understanding that are being tested by the (...)
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  12. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2000). Multiple Realizations. Journal of Philosophy 97 (12):635-654.
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  13.  97
    Stewart Shapiro (2000). Thinking About Mathematics: The Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    This unique book by Stewart Shapiro looks at a range of philosophical issues and positions concerning mathematics in four comprehensive sections. Part I describes questions and issues about mathematics that have motivated philosophers since the beginning of intellectual history. Part II is an historical survey, discussing the role of mathematics in the thought of such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. Part III covers the three major positions held throughout the twentieth century: the idea that mathematics is logic (logicism), (...)
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  14.  66
    Øystein Linnebo, Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman (forthcoming). Aristotelian Continua. Philosophia Mathematica:nkv024.
    In previous work, Hellman and Shapiro present a regions-based account of a one-dimensional continuum. This paper produces a more Aristotelian theory, eschewing the existence of points and the use of infinite sets or pluralities. We first show how to modify the original theory. There are a number of theorems that have to be added as axioms. Building on some work by Linnebo, we then show how to take the ‘potential’ nature of the usual operations seriously, by using a modal language, (...)
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  15. Stewart Shapiro (2008). Identity, Indiscernibility, and Ante Rem Structuralism: The Tale of I and –I. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):285-309.
    Some authors have claimed that ante rem structuralism has problems with structures that have indiscernible places. In response, I argue that there is no requirement that mathematical objects be individuated in a non-trivial way. Metaphysical principles and intuitions to the contrary do not stand up to ordinary mathematical practice, which presupposes an identity relation that, in a sense, cannot be defined. In complex analysis, the two square roots of –1 are indiscernible: anything true of one of them is true of (...)
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  16.  49
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2014). Radicalizing Enactivism: Basic Minds Without Content, by Daniel D. Hutto and Erik Myin. Mind 123 (489):213-220.
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  17. Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober (forthcoming). Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don 'Ts'. In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Studies in Causality: Historical and Contemporary. University of Pittsburgh Press
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann.
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  18. Stewart Shapiro (1998). Proof and Truth: Through Thick and Thin. Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):493-521.
  19.  77
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2008). How to Test for Multiple Realization. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):514-525.
    When conceived as an empirical claim, it is natural to wonder how one might test the hypothesis of multiple realization. I consider general issues of testability, show how they apply specifically to the hypothesis of multiple realization, and propose an auxiliary assumption that, I argue, must be conjoined to the hypothesis of multiple realization to ensure its testability. I argue further that Bechtel and Mundale go astray because they fail to appreciate the need for this auxiliary assumption. †To contact the (...)
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  20.  56
    Larry Shapiro (2010). Lessons From Causal Exclusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):594-604.
    Jaegwon Kim’s causal exclusion argument has rarely been evaluated from an empirical perspective. This is puzzling because its conclusion seems to be making a testable claim about the world: supervenient properties are causally inefficacious. An empirical perspective, however, reveals Kim’s argument to rest on a mistaken conception about how to test whether a property is causally efficacious. Moreover, the empirical perspective makes visible a metaphysical bias that Kim brings to his argument that involves a principle of non-inclusion.
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  21. Scott J. Shapiro (2007). The "Hart-Dworkin" Debate : A Short Guide for the Perplexed. In Arthur Ripstein (ed.), Ronald Dworkin. Cambridge University Press 22--49.
    For the past four decades, Anglo-American legal philosophy has been preoccupied – some might say obsessed – with something called the “Hart-Dworkin” debate. Since the appearance in 1967 of “The Model of Rules I,” Ronald Dworkin’s seminal critique of H.L.A. Hart’s theory of legal positivism, countless books and articles have been written either defending Hart against Dworkin’s objections or defending Dworkin against Hart’s defenders. My purpose in this essay is not to declare an ultimate victor; rather it is to identify (...)
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  22.  51
    Stewart Shapiro & Øystein Linnebo (2015). Frege Meets Brouwer. Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (3):540-552.
    We show that, by choosing definitions carefully, a version of Frege's theorem can be proved in intuitionistic logic.
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  23.  46
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2012). Mental Manipulations and the Problem of Causal Exclusion. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):507 - 524.
    Christian List and Peter Menzies 2009 have looked to interventionist theories of causation for an answer to Jaegwon Kim's causal exclusion problem. Important to their response is the idea of realization-insensitivity. However, this idea becomes mired in issues concerning multiple realization, leaving it unable to fulfil its promise to block exclusion. After explaining why realization-insensitivity fails as a solution to Kim's problem, I look to interventionism to describe a different kind of solution.
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  24. L. Shapiro & E. Sober (2012). Against Proportionality. Analysis 72 (1):89-93.
    A statement of the form ‘C caused E’ obeys the requirement of proportionality precisely when C says no more than what is necessary to bring about E. The thesis that causal statements must obey this requirement might be given a semantic or a pragmatic justification. We use the idea that causal claims are contrastive to criticize both.
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  25. Thomas W. Polger & Lawrence Shapiro (2008). Understanding the Dimensions of Realization. Journal of Philosophy 105 (4):213-222.
    Carl Gillett has defended what he calls the “dimensioned” view of the realization relation, which he contrasts with the traditional “flat” view of realization (2003, 2007; see also Gillett 2002). Intuitively, the dimensioned approach characterizes realization in terms of composition whereas the flat approach views realization in terms of occupiers of functional roles. Elsewhere we have argued that the general view of realization and multiple realization that Gillett advances is not able to discharge the theoretical duties of those relations (Shapiro (...)
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  26.  44
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2013). Dynamics and Cognition. Minds and Machines 23 (3):353-375.
    Many who advocate dynamical systems approaches to cognitive science believe themselves committed to the thesis of extended cognition and to the rejection of representation. I argue that this belief is false. In part, this misapprehension rests on a warrantless re-conception of cognition as intelligent behavior. In part also, it rests on thinking that conceptual issues can be resolved empirically. Once these issues are sorted out, the way is cleared for a dynamical systems approach to cognition that is free to retain (...)
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  27.  25
    Lionel Shapiro (2013). Validity Curry Strengthened. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):100-107.
    Several authors have argued that a version of Curry's paradox involving validity motivates rejecting the structural rule of contraction. This paper criticizes two recently suggested alternative responses to “validity Curry.” There are three salient stages in a validity Curry derivation. Rejecting contraction blocks the first, while the alternative responses focus on the second and third. I show that a distinguishing feature of validity Curry, as contrasted with more familiar forms of Curry's paradox, is that paradox arises already at the first (...)
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  28.  68
    K. Shapiro (2005). HIV Prevention Research and Global Inequality: Steps Towards Improved Standards of Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (1):39-47.
    Next SectionIntensification of poverty and degradation of health infrastructure over recent decades in countries most affected by HIV/AIDS present formidable challenges to clinical research. This paper addresses the overall standard of health care (SOC) that should be provided to research participants in developing countries, rather than the narrow definition of SOC that has characterised the international debate on standards of health care. It argues that contributing to sustainable improvements in health by progressively ratcheting the standard of care upwards for research (...)
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  29.  85
    Kathleen Cranley Glass, Charles Weijer, Denis Cournoyer, Trudo Lemmens, Roberta M. Palmour, Stanley H. Shapiro & Benjamin Freedman (1999). Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 21.
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  30. Stewart Shapiro (2005). Categories, Structures, and the Frege-Hilbert Controversy: The Status of Meta-Mathematics. Philosophia Mathematica 13 (1):61-77.
    There is a parallel between the debate between Gottlob Frege and David Hilbert at the turn of the twentieth century and at least some aspects of the current controversy over whether category theory provides the proper framework for structuralism in the philosophy of mathematics. The main issue, I think, concerns the place and interpretation of meta-mathematics in an algebraic or structuralist approach to mathematics. Can meta-mathematics itself be understood in algebraic or structural terms? Or is it an exception to the (...)
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  31.  45
    Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman (forthcoming). Frege Meets Aristotle: Points as Abstracts. Philosophia Mathematica:nkv021.
    There are a number of regions-based accounts of space/time, due to Whitehead, Roeper, Menger, Tarski, the present authors, and others. They all follow the Aristotelian theme that continua are not composed of points: each region has a proper part. The purpose of this note is to show how to recapture ‘points’ in such frameworks via Scottish neo-logicist abstraction principles. The results recapitulate some Aristotelian themes. A second agenda is to provide a new arena to help decide what is at stake (...)
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  32. Jules L. Coleman & Scott Shapiro (eds.) (2002). The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press.
    One of the first volumes in the new series of prestigious Oxford Handbooks, The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law brings together specially commissioned essays by twenty-seven of the foremost legal theorists currently writing, to provide a state of the art overview of jurisprudential scholarship. Each author presents an account of the contending views and scholarly debates animating their field of enquiry as well as setting the agenda for further study. This landmark publication will be essential reading (...)
     
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  33. John Locke & Ian Shapiro (2003). Two Treatises of Government and, a Letter Concerning Toleration. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
  34. Larry Shapiro (2007). The Embodied Cognition Research Programme. Philosophy Compass 2 (2):338–346.
  35.  14
    Stewart Shapiro (2014). Varieties of Logic. OUP Oxford.
    Logical pluralism is the view that different logics are equally appropriate, or equally correct. Logical relativism is a pluralism according to which validity and logical consequence are relative to something. Stewart Shapiro explores various such views. He argues that the question of meaning shift is itself context-sensitive and interest-relative.
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  36. Philip A. Ebert & Stewart Shapiro (2009). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Synthese 170 (3):415 - 441.
    This paper discusses the neo-logicist approach to the foundations of mathematics by highlighting an issue that arises from looking at the Bad Company objection from an epistemological perspective. For the most part, our issue is independent of the details of any resolution of the Bad Company objection and, as we will show, it concerns other foundational approaches in the philosophy of mathematics. In the first two sections, we give a brief overview of the "Scottish" neo-logicist school, present a generic form (...)
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  37. Stuart C. Shapiro & William J. Rapaport (1992). The SNePS Family. Computers and Mathematics with Applications 23:243-275.
    SNePS, the Semantic Network Processing System 45, 54], has been designed to be a system for representing the beliefs of a natural-language-using intelligent system (a \cognitive agent"). It has always been the intention that a SNePS-based \knowledge base" would ultimatelybe built, not by a programmeror knowledge engineer entering representations of knowledge in some formallanguage or data entry system, but by a human informing it using a natural language (NL) (generally supposed to be English), or by the system reading books or (...)
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  38.  93
    Salvatore Florio & Stewart Shapiro (2014). Set Theory, Type Theory, and Absolute Generality. Mind 123 (489):157-174.
    In light of the close connection between the ontological hierarchy of set theory and the ideological hierarchy of type theory, Øystein Linnebo and Agustín Rayo have recently offered an argument in favour of the view that the set-theoretic universe is open-ended. In this paper, we argue that, since the connection between the two hierarchies is indeed tight, any philosophical conclusions cut both ways. One should either hold that both the ontological hierarchy and the ideological hierarchy are open-ended, or that neither (...)
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  39.  27
    Lawrence Shapiro (2013). When is Cognition Embodied. In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Mind. Routledge
  40.  36
    Geoffrey Hellman & Stewart Shapiro (forthcoming). Regions-Based Two Dimensional Continua: The Euclidean Case. Logic and Logical Philosophy.
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  41. William J. Rapaport, Stuart C. Shapiro & Janyce M. Wiebe (1997). Quasi‐Indexicals and Knowledge Reports. Cognitive Science 21 (1):63-107.
    We present a computational analysis of de re, de dicto, and de se belief and knowledge reports. Our analysis solves a problem first observed by Hector-Neri Castañeda, namely, that the simple rule -/- `(A knows that P) implies P' -/- apparently does not hold if P contains a quasi-indexical. We present a single rule, in the context of a knowledge-representation and reasoning system, that holds for all P, including those containing quasi-indexicals. In so doing, we explore the difference between reasoning (...)
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  42.  34
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (2010). Lessons From Causal Exclusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):594-604.
    Jaegwon Kim's causal exclusion argument has rarely been evaluated from an empirical perspective. This is puzzling because its conclusion seems to be making a testable claim about the world: supervenient properties are causally inefficacious. An empirical perspective, however, reveals Kim's argument to rest on a mistaken conception about how to test whether a property is causally efficacious. Moreover, the empirical perspective makes visible a metaphysical bias that Kim brings to his argument that involves a principle of non-inclusion.
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  43.  24
    Michael Shapiro (2014). Paradox. Semiotics:1-28.
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  44.  4
    Lawrence Shapiro (2010). Embodied Cognition. Routledge.
    Embodied cognition often challenges standard cognitive science. In this outstanding introduction, Lawrence Shapiro sets out the central themes and debates surrounding embodied cognition, explaining and assessing the work of many of the key figures in the field, including George Lakoff, Alva Noë, Andy Clark, and Arthur Glenberg. Beginning with an outline of the theoretical and methodological commitments of standard cognitive science, Shapiro then examines philosophical and empirical arguments surrounding the traditional perspective. He introduces topics such as dynamic systems theory, ecological (...)
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  45.  47
    Stewart Shapiro (2003). Prolegomenon to Any Future Neo-Logicist Set Theory: Abstraction and Indefinite Extensibility. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (1):59--91.
    The purpose of this paper is to assess the prospects for a neo-logicist development of set theory based on a restriction of Frege's Basic Law V, which we call (RV): PQ[Ext(P) = Ext(Q) [(BAD(P) & BAD(Q)) x(Px Qx)]] BAD is taken as a primitive property of properties. We explore the features it must have for (RV) to sanction the various strong axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. The primary interpretation is where ‘BAD’ is Dummett's ‘indefinitely extensible’. 1 Background: what and why? (...)
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  46.  37
    Lawrence Shapiro (2010). James Bond and the Barking Dog: Evolution and Extended Cognition. Philosophy of Science 77 (3):400-418.
    Prominent defenders of the extended cognition thesis have looked to evolutionary theory for support. Roughly, the idea is that natural selection leads one to expect that cognitive strategies should exploit the environment, and exploitation of the right sort results in a cognitive system that extends beyond the head of the organism. I argue that proper appreciation of evolutionary theory should create no such expectation. This leaves open whether cognitive systems might in fact bear a relationship to the environment that leads (...)
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  47.  18
    K. L. Shapiro, J. E. Raymond & K. M. Arnell (1997). The Attentional Blink. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (8):291-296.
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  48. Stewart Shapiro (1983). Mathematics and Reality. Philosophy of Science 50 (4):523-548.
    The subject of this paper is the philosophical problem of accounting for the relationship between mathematics and non-mathematical reality. The first section, devoted to the importance of the problem, suggests that many of the reasons for engaging in philosophy at all make an account of the relationship between mathematics and reality a priority, not only in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science, but also in general epistemology/metaphysics. This is followed by a (rather brief) survey of the major, traditional philosophies (...)
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  49. Kevin Shapiro & Alfonso Caramazza (2003). The Representation of Grammatical Categories in the Brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (5):201-206.
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  50.  16
    Lawrence A. Shapiro (1992). Darwin and Disjunction: Foraging Theory and Univocal Assignments of Content. Philosophy of Science Association 1992:469-480.
    Fodor (1990) argues that the theory of evolution by natural selection will not help to save naturalistic accounts of representation from the disjunction problem. This is because, he claims, the context 'was selected for representing things as F' is transparent to the substitution of predicates coextensive with F. But, I respond, from an evolutionary perspective representational contexts cannot be transparent: only under particular descriptions will a representational state appear as a "solution" to a selection "problem" and so be adaptive. Only (...)
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