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Stewart Shapiro [131]Gary Shapiro [63]Lawrence A. Shapiro [37]Michael J. Shapiro [34]
Ian Shapiro [28]Lisa Shapiro [19]Daniel Shapiro [18]Lionel Shapiro [16]

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Profile: Stewart Shapiro (Ohio State University)
Profile: Gary Shapiro (University of Richmond)
Profile: Lawrence Shapiro (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Profile: Lisa Shapiro (Simon Fraser University)
Profile: Lionel Shapiro (University of Connecticut)
Profile: Daniel Shapiro (West Virginia University)
Profile: Lauren Shapiro
Profile: Devora Shapiro (Southern Oregon University)
Profile: Devora Shapiro (Southern Oregon University)
Profile: Andrew Shapiro (Vassar College)
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  1. Larry Shapiro (web). Evolutionary Psychology. In E. Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge.
     
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  2. Larry Shapiro (web). Functionalism and Mental Boundaries. Cognitive Systems Research 9 (1-2).
     
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  3. Scott Shapiro, What is the Internal Point of View?
    Though the “internal point of view” is perhaps H.L.A. Hart’s greatestcontribution to legal theory, this concept is also often and easily misunderstood. This is unfortunate, not only because these misreadings distort Hart’s theory, but, more importantly, because they prevent us from appreciating the infirmities of sanction-centered theories of law and the compelling reasons why they ought to be rejected. In this paper, I try to address some of these confusions. What, exactly, is the internal point of view? What role (or (...)
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  4. Goldwin Smith Hall, John Heil, Nicholas Jolley, Norman Kretzmann & Lisa Shapiro, Locke On Supposing a Substratum.
    It is an old charge against Locke that his commitment to a common substratum for the observable qualities of particular objects and his empiricist theory about the origin of ideas are inconsistent with one another. How could we have an idea of something in which observable qualities inhere if all our ideas are constructed from ideas of observable qualities? In this paper, I propose an interpretation of the crucial passages in Locke, according to which the idea of substratum is formed (...)
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  5. Larry Shapiro, A Radical Interpretation of Quine.
    On this, the 97th anniversary of the year of his birth, thoughts turn naturally to Willard Van Orman Quine. Quine, known as ‘Van’ to his friends but ‘That putz with the beret’ to everyone else, was one of the great systematists of the last century. The range of topics he addressed is awesome: epistemology, confirmation, philosophical logic, set theory, analyticity, modality, and, perhaps most familiarly, the indeterminacy of translation. My focus in this, my final and most challenging address as (...)
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  6. Larry Shapiro, Squaring the Cartesian Circle.
    Last year, as some of you may recall, I took it upon my chairly shoulders to solve the problem of causation, where this problem can be stated this way: What is causation? According to the analysis I offered, C is a cause of E if and only if C makes E happen. I am happy to report that, in the year since delivering this account of causation, no objections have arisen. The critics have been silenced. Indeed, my colleague Dan Hausman, (...)
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  7. Lawrence A. Shapiro, Content.
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol. 1992, Volume One: Contributed Papers. (1992), pp. 469-480.
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  8. Lawrence A. Shapiro, Reductionism, Embodiment, and the Generality of Psychology.
    A central controversy in philosophy of psychology pits reductionists against, for lack of a better term, autonomists. The reductionist’s burden is to show that psychology is, at best, merely a heuristic device for describing phenomena that are, when speaking more precisely, just physical. I say “at best,” because reductionists are prone to less conciliatory remarks, such as: “psychological property P just is physical property N, so scientific explanation might as well focus exclusively on N,” and “psychological property P is nothing (...)
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  9. Scott J. Shapiro, What is the Rule of Recognition (and Does It Exist)?
    One of the principal lessons of The Concept of Law is that legal systems are not only comprised of rules, but founded on them as well. As Hart painstakingly showed, we cannot account for the way in which we talk and think about the law - that is, as an institution which persists over time despite turnover of officials, imposes duties and confers powers, enjoys supremacy over other kinds of practices, resolves doubts and disagreements about what is to be done (...)
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  10. William J. Rapaport, Erwin M. Segal, Stuart C. Shapiro, David A. Zubin, Gail A. Bruder, Judith Felson Duchan & David M. Mark, Cognitive and Computer Systems for Understanding Narrative Text.
    This project continues our interdisciplinary research into computational and cognitive aspects of narrative comprehension. Our ultimate goal is the development of a computational theory of how humans understand narrative texts. The theory will be informed by joint research from the viewpoints of linguistics, cognitive psychology, the study of language acquisition, literary theory, geography, philosophy, and artificial intelligence. The linguists, literary theorists, and geographers in our group are developing theories of narrative language and spatial understanding that are being tested by the (...)
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  11. Ian Shapiro, Political Representation.
    institutional framework ~ or rather a family of frameworks — for realizing the democratic ideal of giving kmms t0 the demos, power to the people. The distinction between a participatory and a representative system is not one between democracy proper and some faint approximation but a distinction between rival proposals for the implementation of democracy. My focus in this chapter is on representation in this democratic, popularly enabling scnsc. Thus the target of the chapter is narrower than it might have (...)
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  12. Larry Shapiro, Toward a New Theory of Causation.
    In this paper today, I would like to offer a new analysis of causation and of causal claims. It is an unorthodox one, as you will see, but I suspect that in the not too distant future it will be seen as intuitively, perhaps even trivially, true. I hardly need defend the urgency of my project. Ever since Hume, philosophers have wondered whether there are causes. This is a desperate situation. With no causes, it's hard to see how brushing my (...)
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  13. Larry Shapiro, The Book of Ruth.
    In every philosopher’s career, there comes a time to look back on accomplishments, assess achievements, evaluate one’s place in a canon that dates to an era when Ancient Greeks still roamed the Earth. Perhaps many of you have wondered when I’d finally get around to doing this. Sadly, this is not the night for that splendid occasion. Do not pretend to hide your disappointment. Also, do not hesitate to point fingers. Believe me when I tell you that I would take (...)
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  14. Lawrence A. Shapiro, The Metaphysics of Multiple Realizability: It's Like Apples and Oranges.
     
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  15. Julia R. Badger & Laura R. Shapiro (forthcoming). Category Structure Affects the Developmental Trajectory of Children's Inductive Inferences for Both Natural Kinds and Artefacts. Thinking and Reasoning:1-24.
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  16. Vicki Croke, Colin McGinn, Joy Mench, J. Anthony Movshon, John G. Robinson, James A. Serpell, Kenneth J. Shapiro & Nicholas Wade (forthcoming). A Consideration of Policy Implications: A Panel Discussion. Social Research.
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  17. Jodi Dean & Michael J. Shapiro (forthcoming). Introduction to 11.4. Theory and Event 11 (4).
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  18. Malcolm R. Forster, I. A. Kieseppä, Dan Hausman, Alexei Krioukov, Stephen Leeds, Alan Macdonald & Larry Shapiro (forthcoming). The Conceptual Role of 'Temperature'in Statistical Mechanics: Or How Probabilistic Averages Maximize Predictive Accuracy. Philosophy of Science.
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  19. Kathleen Cranley Glass, Charles Weijer, Trudo Lemmens, Roberta M. Palmour & Stanley H. Shapiro (forthcoming). Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols Part II: Diagnostic and Screening Studies. Irb.
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  20. Julien Murzi & Lionel Shapiro (forthcoming). Validity and Truth-Preservation. In D. Achourioti, H. Galinon & J. Martinez (eds.), Unifying the Philosophy of Truth Springer. Springer.
    The revisionary approach to semantic paradox is commonly thought to have a somewhat uncomfortable corollary, viz. that, on pain of triviality, we cannot affirm that all valid arguments preserve truth (Beall2007, Beall2009, Field2008, Field2009). We show that the standard arguments for this conclusion all break down once (i) the structural rule of contraction is restricted and (ii) how the premises can be aggregated---so that they can be said to jointly entail a given conclusion---is appropriately understood. In addition, we briefly rehearse (...)
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  21. Ann-Louise Shapiro (forthcoming). Introduction: History and Feminist Theory, or Talking Back to the Beadle. History and Theory.
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  22. B. A. Shapiro & R. B. Spooner (forthcoming). Book Note. [REVIEW] Science and Society.
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  23. Brian Shapiro & Michael Naughton (forthcoming). The Expression of Espoused Humanizing Values in Organizational Practice: A Conceptual Framework and Case Study. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  24. David Shapiro (forthcoming). Enduring Economic Hardship, Women's Education, Marriage and Fertility Transition in Kinshasa. Journal of Biosocial Science:1-17.
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  25. David Shapiro (forthcoming). F32. The New Genetics and its Regulation in the UK. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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  26. David Shapiro (forthcoming). On the Psychology of Self-Deception. Social Research.
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  27. David Shapiro (forthcoming). Toward a Structural Theory of Psychopathology. Social Research.
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  28. David A. Shapiro (forthcoming). Foreword'to What Works for Whom. A Critical Review.
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  29. Gary Shapiro (forthcoming). Nietzsche and the Future of the University. Journal of Nietzsche Studies.
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  30. Gary Shapiro (forthcoming). Nietzsche's Story of the Eye: Hyphenating the Augen-Blick. Journal of Nietzsche Studies.
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  31. H. A. Shapiro (forthcoming). Old and New Heroes: Narrative, Composition, and Subject in Attic Black-Figure. Classical Antiquity.
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  32. Kam Shapiro (forthcoming). Critical Feelings and Pleasurable Associations. Theory and Event 13 (4).
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  33. Lawrence Shapiro (ed.) (forthcoming). Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge.
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  34. Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober (forthcoming). Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don'ts. In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Studies in Causality: Historical and Contemporary. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann.
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  35. Lionel Shapiro (forthcoming). Linguistic Function and Content: Reflections on Price's Pragmatism. Philosophical Quarterly.
    Huw Price proposes a strategy for dissolving ontological puzzles through a pragmatist account of our conceptual activity. Here I consider the proper place for conceptual content in Price’s pragmatism. Price himself rules out any explanatory role for content, just as he rules out any explanatory role for representational notions such as reference and truth. I argue that the cases are disanalogous and that he offers no good reasons for avoiding explanatory appeal to content. Furthermore, I argue that doing so is (...)
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  36. Lionel Shapiro (forthcoming). Naive Structure, Contraction, and Paradox. Topoi:1-13.
    Rejecting structural contraction has been pro- posed as a strategy for escaping semantic paradoxes. The challenge for its advocates has been to make intuitive sense of how contraction might fail. I offer a way of doing so, based on a ‘‘naive’’ interpretation of the relation between structure and logical vocabulary in a sequent proof system. The naive interpretation of structure motivates the most common way of blaming Curry-style paradoxes on illicit contraction. By contrast, the naive interpretation will not as easily (...)
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  37. Lionel Shapiro (forthcoming). Sellars on the Function of Semantic Vocabulary. British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-20.
    This paper examines two explanations Sellars gives, at successive stages of his career, of how semantic vocabulary (paradigmatically ‘means that ... ’ and ‘is true if and only if ... ’) lets us relate linguistic expressions to extra-linguistic reality. Despite their differences, both explanations reveal a distinctive pragmatist approach. According to Sellars, we do not use semantic vocabulary to describe language- world relations. Rather, our taking language to relate to the world is implicit in the moves (inferential or non-inferential) licensed (...)
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  38. Lisa Shapiro (forthcoming). Elisabeth, Princess of Bohemia. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  39. Lisa Shapiro (ed.) (forthcoming). Pleasure: A History. Oxford University Press.
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  40. Michael C. Shapiro (forthcoming). Hindi Lagnā: A Study in Semantic Change. Journal of the American Oriental Society.
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  41. S. I. Shapiro (forthcoming). Contemporary Issues in the Americanization of Zen. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  42. Robert G. Shulman & Ian Shapiro (forthcoming). A Philosopher's Game. Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice:124.
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  43. F. K. Tangka, M. A. Jabbar & B. I. Shapiro (forthcoming). Gender Roles and Child Nutrition in Livestock Production Systems in Developing Countries. A Critical Review.
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  44. Salvatore Florio & Stewart Shapiro (2014). Set Theory, Type Theory, and Absolute Generality. Mind 123 (489):157-174.
    In light of the close connection between the ontological hierarchy of set theory and the ideological hierarchy of type theory, Øystein Linnebo and Agustín Rayo have recently offered an argument in favour of the view that the set-theoretic universe is open-ended. In this paper, we argue that, since the connection between the two hierarchies is indeed tight, any philosophical conclusions cut both ways. One should either hold that both the ontological hierarchy and the ideological hierarchy are open-ended, or that neither (...)
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  45. Adam R. Shapiro (2014). Darwin's Foil: The Evolving Uses of William Paley's Natural Theology 1802–2005. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:114-123.
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  46. Lawrence Shapiro (ed.) (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge.
    Embodied cognition is one of the foremost areas of study and research in philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology and cognitive science. The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition is an outstanding guide and reference source to the key philosophers, topics and debates in this exciting subject and essential reading for any student and scholar of philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into six parts: Historical Underpinnings Perspectives (...)
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  47. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2014). Radicalizing Enactivism: Basic Minds Without Content, by Daniel D. Hutto and Erik Myin. Mind 123 (489):213-220.
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  48. Steven Shapiro (2014). Poor People, Poor Planet: The Psychology of How We Harm and Heal Humanity and Earth. In Elena Mustakova-Possardt (ed.), Toward a Socially Responsible Psychology for a Global Era. Springer. 231--254.
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  49. Stewart Shapiro (2014). Structures and Logics: A Case for (a) Relativism. Erkenntnis 79 (2):309-329.
    In this paper, I use the cases of intuitionistic arithmetic with Church’s thesis, intuitionistic analysis, and smooth infinitesimal analysis to argue for a sort of pluralism or relativism about logic. The thesis is that logic is relative to a structure. There are classical structures, intuitionistic structures, and (possibly) paraconsistent structures. Each such structure is a legitimate branch of mathematics, and there does not seem to be an interesting logic that is common to all of them. One main theme of my (...)
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  50. Lucia Zivcakova, Eileen Wood, Gail Forsyth, Martin Zivcak, Joshua Shapiro, Amanda Coulas, Amy Linseman, Brittany Mascioli, Stephen Daniels & Valentin Angardi (2014). Investigating Perceptions of Students to a Peer-Based Academic Integrity Presentation Provided by Residence Dons. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (2):89-99.
    This study investigated students’ (n = 819) perceptions following a prepared, common presentation regarding academic integrity provided by their residence dons. This peer instruction study utilized both quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey data within a pre-test post-test design. Overall, students reported gains in knowledge, as well as confidence in their knowledge of academic integrity. Notably, students reported increases in their personal value for academic integrity after participating in the presentations. Overall, the quality and content of the presentations were judged (...)
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