The present work intends to investigate about explanation models related to the evolution concept in school texts in Argentina, using categories proposed by Bar (2005). The reconstructed model shows characteristics of adaptation systems, models that give account of biological phenomena with end..
The idea that knowledge can be extended by inference from what is known seems highly plausible. Yet, as shown by familiar preface paradox and lottery-type cases, the possibility of aggregating uncertainty casts doubt on its tenability. We show that these considerations go much further than previously recognized and significantly restrict the kinds of closure ordinary theories of knowledge can endorse. Meeting the challenge of uncertainty aggregation requires either the restriction of knowledge-extending inferences to single premises, or eliminating epistemic uncertainty in (...) known premises. The first strategy, while effective, retains little of the original idea—conclusions even of modus ponens inferences from known premises are not always known. We then look at the second strategy, inspecting the most elaborate and promising attempt to secure the epistemic role of basic inferences, namely Timothy Williamson’s safety theory of knowledge. We argue that while it indeed has the merit of allowing basic inferences such as modus ponens to extend knowledge, Williamson’s theory faces formidable difficulties. These difficulties, moreover, arise from the very feature responsible for its virtue- the infallibilism of knowledge. (shrink)
Harman and Lewis credit Kripke with having formulated a puzzle that seems to show that knowledge entails dogmatism. The puzzle is widely regarded as having been solved. In this paper we argue that this standard solution, in its various versions, addresses only a limited aspect of the puzzle and holds no promise of fully resolving it. Analyzing this failure and the proper rendering of the puzzle, it is suggested that it poses a significant challenge for the defense of epistemic closure.
Timothy Williamson has famously argued that the (KK) principle (roughly, that if one knows that p, then one knows that one knows that p) should be rejected. We analyze Williamson’s argument and show that its key premise is ambiguous, and that when it is properly stated this premise no longer supports the argument against (KK). After canvassing possible objections to our argument, we reflect upon some conclusions that suggest significant epistemological ramifications pertaining to the acquisition of knowledge from prior knowledge (...) by deduction. (shrink)
The claim that nonhuman animals lack foresight is common and intuitive. I propose an alternative whereby foresight is a gradual continuum in that it is present in animals to the extent that it is needed. A second aspect of this commentary points out that the requirements that the memory that mediates foresight be both specific yet flexible seem contradictory.
Recently, methods have been developed to analyse couplings in dynamic systems. In the field of medical analysis of complex cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems, there is growing interest in how insights may be gained into the interaction between regulatory mechanisms in healthy and diseased persons. The couplings within and between these systems can be linear or nonlinear. However, the complex mechanisms involved in cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory regulation very likely interact with each other in a nonlinear way. Recent advances in nonlinear dynamics (...) and information theory have allowed the multivariate study of information transfer between time series. They therefore might be able to provide additional diagnostic and prognostic information in medicine and might, in particular, be able to complement traditional linear coupling analysis techniques. In this review, we describe the approaches (Granger causality, nonlinear prediction, entropy, symbolization, phase synchronization) most commonly applied to detect direct and indirect couplings between time series, especially focusing on nonlinear approaches. We will discuss their capacity to quantify direct and indirect couplings and the direction (driver–response relationship) of the considered interaction between different biological time series. We also give their basic theoretical background, their basic requirements for application, their main features and demonstrate their usefulness in different applications in the field of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory coupling analyses. (shrink)
This essay is devoted to the reconstruction of some substantial categories of the epistemology of education in two of its components: generative transmission and conditionality theories, which are rooted on base ontologies. It is understood that both components set the conditions for the later formation of rationalities which are representative of the disciplinary domains. The study is carried out in two distinctly differentiated educational contexts - Biology and Educational Science courses of study. Este ensayo se dedica a la reconstrucción de (...) algunas categorías sustanciales de la epistemología de la educación en dos de sus componentes: las teorías de la transmisión generativa y las de la condicionalidad, que arraigan en ontologías de base. Se asume que ambos componentes dan condiciones para la posterior conformación de racionalidades propias de los campos disciplinares.El estudio se sitúa en dos contextos formativos manifiestamentediferenciados, los profesorados en biología y en ciencias de la educación. (shrink)
The politics of the popular-music business clearly showed its head at this yearï¿½s Grammy Awards. Two worthy artists were vying for New Female artists: Alicia Keys and India Arie. When the winner was called, Alicia Keys walked away with the award (and five others) while India Arie was shut out. Iï¿½m convinced that the reason Keys won was not that her workï¿½the strong and ubiquitous Songs in A Minor ï¿½was so much better than Arieï¿½s Acoustic Soul. It isnï¿½t. Instead it (...) was because of the power and major push on the Grammy voters supplied by Clive Davis, the long-time music power broker who runs Keysï¿½ label, J-Records. (shrink)
Visual objects can be represented by their similarities to a small number of reference shapes or prototypes. This method yields low-dimensional (and therefore computationally tractable) representations, which support both the recognition of familiar shapes and the categorization of novel ones. In this note, we show how such representations can be used in a variety of tasks involving novel objects: viewpoint-invariant recognition, recovery of a canonical view, estimation of pose, and prediction of an arbitrary view. The unifying principle in all these (...) cases is the representation of the view space of the novel object as an interpolation of the view spaces of the reference shapes. (shrink)
We treat here three apparently uncorrelated topics from the point of view of dense measurement: The EPR paradox, the teleportation process, and Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment (DCE). We begin with the DCE and show, using its unique nature and the histories formalism, that use may ascertain and fix the notion of dense measurement (the Zeno effect). We show here by including the experimenter (observer) as an inherent part of the physical system and using the Aharonov–Vardi notion of dense measurement along a (...) path, that knowledge of certain properties of the incoming system (after a measurement) is equivalent to dense measurement. We reach the same conclusion by discussing the teleportation process, and the EPR paradox from, the same point of view. (shrink)
We study here the properties of some quantum mechanical wave functions, which, in contrast to the regular quantum mechanical wave functions, can be predetermined with certainty (probability 1) by performing dense measurements (or continuous observations). These specific “certain” states are the junction points through which pass all the diverse paths that can proceed between each two such neighboring “sure” points. When we compare the properties of these points to the properties of the well-known universal wave functions of Everett we find (...) a strong similarity between these two apparently uncorrelated entities, and in this way find the same similarity between the Feynman path integrals and Everett's universal wave functions. (shrink)
We show that it is possible to generalize the Ursell–Mayer cluster formalism so that it may cover also the statistics of Internet websites. Our starting point is the introduction of an extra variable that is assumed to take account, as will be explained, of the nature of the Internet statistics. We then show, following the arguments in Mayer, that one may obtain a phase transition-like phenomena.
I critically discuss the account of self-knowledge presented in Dorit Bar-On’s Speaking My Mind (OUP 2004), focusing on Bar-On’s understanding of what makes our capacity for self-knowledge puzzling and on her ‘neo-expressivist’ solution to the puzzle. I argue that there is an important aspect of the problem of self-knowledge that Bar-On’s account does not sufficiently address. A satisfying account of self-knowledge must explain not merely how we are able to make accurate avowals about our own present mental states, but how (...) we can reasonably regard ourselves as entitled to claim self-knowledge. Addressing this aspect of the problem of self-knowledge requires confronting questions about the metaphysical nature of mental states, questions that Bar-On’s approach seeks to avoid. (shrink)
In this article I defend that Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information – TSSI – is correct while encompassing the Veracity Thesis, which guides the semantic information definition as “p is information if and only if p is constituted by meaningful, truth well-formed data”. I argue that the theory is not arbitrary because it deals with important philosophical conundrums, mainly by avoiding the Bar-Hillel and Carnap paradox (1953) generated from the classical theory of semantic information. First, one of the classic (...) theory’s main result is discussed: the production of “too much informative sentences to be true”. Then the motivations to elaborate a “logic of being informed” are summarized and it is shown how the KTB-IL system is built and modelled keeping the veracity axiom among its axioms – K or A4. Finally the TSSI is examined and defended by showing that it aletically restricts the extension of the classic concept of information, avoiding problems with tautologies and contradictions. The TSSI offers an original solution by capturing our modal intuitions concerning informativeness as a basic notion. (shrink)
“Avowals” are utterances that “ascribe [current] states of mind”; for instance utterances of ‘I have a terrible headache’ and ‘I’m finding this painting utterly puzzling’ (Bar-On 2004: 1). And avowals, “when compared to ordinary empirical reports…appear to enjoy distinctive security” (1), which Bar-On elaborates as follows: A subject who avows being tired, or scared of something, or thinking that p, is normally presumed to have the last word on the relevant matters; we would not presume to criticize her self-ascription or (...) to reject it on the basis of our contrary judgement. Furthermore, unlike ordinary empirical reports, and somewhat like apriori statements, avowals are issued with a very high degree of confidence and are not easily subjected to doubt. (3) The project of this ambitious, original, and challenging book is to explain why avowals have this distinctive security. Bar-On’s guiding idea is that avowals “can be seen as pieces of expressive behavior, similar in certain ways to bits of behavior that naturally express subjects’ states” (227). Crying and moaning are natural expressions of pain, yawning is a natural expression of tiredness, reaching for beer is a natural expression of the desire for beer, and so on. In some important sense, avowals are supposed to be like that. In what sense, though? It will be useful to begin with the simplest answer. (shrink)
For several subsystems of second order arithmetic T we show that the proof-theoretic strength of T + (bar rule) can be characterized in terms of T + (bar induction) □ , where the latter scheme arises from the scheme of bar induction by restricting it to well-orderings with no parameters. In addition, we demonstrate that ACA + 0 , ACA 0 + (bar rule) and ACA 0 + (bar induction) □ prove the same Π 1 1 -sentences.
This experiment investigated the effect of format (line vs. bar), viewers’ familiarity with variables, and viewers’ graphicacy (graphical literacy) skills on the comprehension of multivariate (three variable) data presented in graphs. Fifty-five undergraduates provided written descriptions of data for a set of 14 line or bar graphs, half of which depicted variables familiar to the population and half of which depicted variables unfamiliar to the population. Participants then took a test of graphicacy skills. As predicted, the format influenced viewers’ interpretations (...) of data. Specifically, viewers were more likely to describe x–y interactions when viewing line graphs than when viewing bar graphs, and they were more likely to describe main effects and “z–y” (the variable in the legend) interactions when viewing bar graphs than when viewing line graphs. Familiarity of data presented and individuals’ graphicacy skills interacted with the influence of graph format. Specifically, viewers were most likely to generate inferences only when they had high graphicacy skills, the data were familiar and thus the information inferred was expected, and the format supported those inferences. Implications for multivariate data display are discussed. (shrink)
An investigation into the conditions conducive to the emergence of heterogeneity amoung agents is presented. This is done by using a model of creative artificial agents to investigate some of the possibilities. The simulation is based on Brian Arthur's 'El Farol Bar' model but extended so that the agents also learn and communicate. The learning and communication is implemented using an evolutionary process acting upon a population of strategies inside each agent. This evolutionary learning process is based on a Genetic (...) Programming algorithm. This is chosen to make the agents as creative as possible and thus allow the outside edge of the simulation trajectory to be explored. A detailed case study from the simulations show how the agents have differentiated so that by the end of the run they had taken on qualitatively different roles. It provides some evidence that the introduction of a flexible learning process and an expressive internal representation has facilitated the emergence of this heterogeneity. (shrink)
Brouwer's demonstration of his Bar Theorem gives rise to provocative questions regarding the proper explanation of the logical connectives within intuitionistic and constructivist frameworks, respectively, and, more generally, regarding the role of logic within intuitionism. It is the purpose of the present note to discuss a number of these issues, both from an historical, as well as a systematic point of view.
On the intended interpretation of intuitionistic logic, Heyting's Proof Interpretation, a proof of a proposition of the form p -> q consists in a construction method that transforms any possible proof of p into a proof of q. This involves the notion of the totality of all proofs in an essential way, and this interpretation has therefore been objected to on grounds of impredicativity (e.g. Gödel 1933). In fact this hardly ever leads to problems as in proofs of implications usually (...) nothing more is assumed about a proof of the antecedent than that it indeed is one, and this assumption does not require a further grasp of the totality of proofs. The prime example of an intuitionistic theorem that goes beyond that assumption is Brouwer's proof of the 'bar theorem': For every tree x, if x contains a decidable subset of nodes such that every path through the tree meets it (a 'bar'), then there is a well-ordered subtree of x that contains a bar for the whole of x. Instantiated with an arbitrary tree t, this proposition takes the form P(t) -> Q(t). Brouwer's proof of the bar theorem mainly consists in an analysis of the inner structure that a proof of P(t) must have, where proofs are taken to be primarily mental objects. So here Brouwer engages in phenomenological reflection by considering the acts in which we think about bars. From that analysis he obtains the information from which to construct a proof of Q(t). In this talk I will argue that Brouwer circumvents the problem of impredicativity by resorting to a transcendental argument based on phenomenological description, and defend this application by showing how common objections to transcendental arguments do not apply here. Finally, I will indulge in some historical speculation by relating the foregoing considerations to the remarkable change that Gödel's view on the Proof Interpretation underwent between his Yale Lecture (1941) and the Dialectica paper (1958). (shrink)
The main result of this paper is the equivalence of several definition schemas of bar recursion occurring in the literature on functionals of finite type. We present the theory of functionals of finite type, in [T] denoted byqf-WE-HA ω, which is necessary for giving the equivalence proofs. Moreover we prove two results on this theory that cannot be found in the literature, namely the deduction theorem and a derivation of Spector's rule of extensionality from [S]: ifP→T 1=T 2 and Q[X∶≡T1], (...) then P→Q[X∶≡ T2], from the at first sight weaker rule obtained by omitting “P→”. (shrink)
Este trabajo analiza las nociones de realidad virtual y de simulación. Ambas estarían estrechamente conectadas. Podemos entender los modelos de simulación como experimentos mentales materializados y manipulables. Y la realidad virtual como un tipo especial de simulación que se percibe como algo real. Frente a los problemas de pluralismo y de inconmensurabilidad a la hora de interpretar los modelos de simulación, se defiende la posibilidad de una racionalidad acotada basada en la interacción con éstos. Un claro e interesante ejemplo de (...) esto lo constituiría el caso, ampliamente estudiado en los últimos años, del bar «El Farol». (shrink)
This article attempts to locate the solicitor-advocacy reforms in the UK in the context of wider New Right led reforms of the welfare state and suggests that such reforms are part of a broader package aimed at weakening social democracy, encouraging the use of the market as an allocation mechanism and instilling 'efficiency' within and control over the professions. On the basis of interviews with organizational clients in Scotland, it is argued that the reforms may have a significant impact upon (...) the junior Bar and that while they may ultimately benefit corporate clients they are likely to bring further disadvantage to individual clients who are already weak within the professional-client relationship. (shrink)
A critical examination is made of the interpretation of experiments reported by Pfann et al. (1957) in which molten alloy zones were observed to move along the surface of a germanium bar through which a current was passed. It is shown that the influence of the Peltier effect along cannot account for all of their experimental results and an alternative interpretation is proposed in which the motion is ascribed to a combination of the Peltier effect and ionic migration in the (...) molten alloy. A theory is presented which yields an expression for the steady velocity of a thin zone under the influence of a temperature gradient, Peltier, Thomson and ionic migration effects. Certain special cases are considered and a new method of measuring differential ionic mobility is proposed. (shrink)