Behaving ethically depends on the ability to recognize that ethical issues exist, to see from an ethical point of view. This ability to see and respond ethically may be related more to attributes of corporate culture than to attributes of individual employees. Efforts to increase ethical standards and decrease pressure to behave unethically should therefore concentrate on the organization and its culture. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how total quality (TQ) techniques can facilitate the development of a (...) cooperative corporate culture that promotes and encourages ethical behavior throughout an organization. (shrink)
This paper stems from an ethnographic, multidisciplinary study that explored the views and experiences of practitioners and scientists on social, ethical and clinical dilemmas encountered when working in the area of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for serious genetic disorders. We focus here on staff perceptions and experiences of working with embryos and helping women/couples to make choices that will result in selecting embryos for transfer and disposal of 'affected' embryos, compared to the termination of affected pregnancies following prenatal diagnosis. Analysis and (...) discussion of our data led us to consider the possible advantages of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and whether a gradualist account of the embryo's and fetus's moral status can account for all of these, particularly since a gradualist account concentrates on the significance of time (developmental stage) and makes no comment as to the significance of place (in vitro, in utero). (shrink)
Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction have been used to study the structural changes produced in thin (0001) crystals of NbSe2 and MoS2 by intercalation with sodium in ammonia solution. Three distinct superlattice structures have been identified, one, with orthorhombic symmetry, associated with the presence of sodium, the other two, with hexagonal symmetry, associated with ammonia.
Field-ion images were obtained from a compound, titanium carbide. This material is a hard, brittle, semi-metallic solid having the NaCl structure with several per cent vacancies in the carbon sub-lattice. Tips of ?100? orientation were prepared by cleaving single crystals and then electro-polishing. With the tip at 27°K and helium imaging gas, regular development of two crystallographic regions occurs. Other regions of the image are not regularly developed. The probable cause of this irregular development is irregular field evaporation.
Many philosophers have asserted that evolutionary theory is unfalsifiable. In this paper I refute these assertions by detailing some falsifiable predictions of the theory and the evidence used to test them. I then analyze both these predictions and evidence cited to support assertions of unfalsifiability in order to show both what type of predictions are possible and why it has been so difficult to spot them. The conclusion is that the apparent logical peculiarity of evolutionary theory is not a property (...) of evolutionary theory; it is a property of our human-sized perspective on evolutionary theory. (shrink)
It is clear from the above discussion that if I had wished to do so I could have truthfully presented every paper as either testing a prediction, presenting evidence needed in the test of a prediction, or presentin a D-N explanation. (I would not have been able to do this if I had not been sufficiently familiar with the evolutionary literature to recognize what hypotheses were at stake in several of the papers; even when the authors mention the hypotheses they (...) frequently do so only in enough detail to put their paper in context for the knowledgeable biologist.) Since these biologists are working in a period of normal science under the paradigm of the modern synthetic theory of evolution, none of these papers is presented as a test of the modern synthetic theory; but since this theory was used in the derivation of each prediction, each one is a test of it as well as of the hypothesis mentioned. Thus, once we learn to recognize the predictions beneath their cloaks of invisibility, we discover that prediction testing is not, as philosophers have claimed, at best peripheral to evolutionary biology; it is central to evolutionary biology. (shrink)
This paper shows that species are individuals with respect to evolutionary theory in the sense that the laws of the theory deal with species as irreducible wholes rather than as sets of organisms. 'Species X' is an instantiation of a primitive term of the theory. I present a sketch of a proof that it cannot be defined within the theory as a set of organisms; the proof relies not on details of my axiomatization but rather on a generally accepted property (...) of speciation; hence the same argument should work for any axiomatization which captures this generally accepted property of speciation. (shrink)
This paper: (1) gives a schema of the logical structure of functional explanation in biology; (2) shows that it falls under the covering law model of explanation by proving that the explanandum follows from the explanans; and (3) supports the claim that it captures the logical structure underlying the biological usage by analyzing in detail two cases from biology.
Many philosophers have claimed that the structure of evolutionary theory is intrinsically different from the structure of physical theories. These claims were based on the appearance of the immature structure of the theory. Refutations of these claims have been based on newly available glimpses of the mature structure of the theory. These claims and their refutations show that the relationship between the immature and mature structures of evolutionary theory is dramatically different from this relationship for Newtonian physics. Analysis of the (...) cause of this difference provides insight into significant features of the process of maturation of scientific theories. (shrink)
Narrative explanations in evolutionary biology have seemed fundamentally different from other scientific explanations, and similar to historical explanations. This investigation of the structure of narrative explanations in evolutionary biology reveals that narrative explanations do have a deductive-nomological base, but that their structure contains two significant additional elements as well. The additional elements are: the multidimensional recursive connection between the different sub-explanations in a narrative explanation; and a set of generic explanations which make possible the integration of multiple co-existing processes.
Critical thinking measures have often been empirically associated with other cognitive dimensions (e.g., achievement test scores, IQ scores, exam scores) but seldom with sociopolitical perspectives. Consequently, the current study examined the relationship of critical thinking to sociopolitical values reflective of political ideology, namely respect for civil liberties, emphasis on national security, militarism, and support for the Iraq War. In a sample of 232 undergraduates attending a Southeastern university, critical thinking correlated significantly with respect for civil liberties (.19), emphasis on national (...) security (-.29), militarism (-.25), and support for the Iraq War (-.28). A logistic regression analysis showed that the sociopolitical measures significantly predicted placement in high and low critical thinking groups, with support for the Iraq War being the primary predictor. A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) revealed that the sociopolitical means for the high and low critical thinking groups all differed significantly. The results suggest that critical thinking scores are generally predictive of liberal versus conservative political ideology. (shrink)
Seventeen television journalists from Indianapolis and Terre Haute responded to a computer simulation of a situation involving privacy of an AIDS testing site. Seven different forms of reasoning were used to deal with elements of the situation. It was found, using a 3D scale for analysis, that consequentialist forms of reasoning were dominant for respondents in this sample. Noncosequentialist thinking was also demonstrated and the nature of ethical reasoning was highly individualized.
Seventeen television journalistsfrom Indianapolis and Terre Haute, Indiana encountered a computer simulation of newsgathering, based on Potter's Box. The situation involved showing identijable faces in a story about AIDS testing. Additional information was the most accessed resource. Organizational codes of ethics were accessed the least. Journalism organization members sought more advice from all resources than others. More experienced respondents accessed more advicefrom professional peers. Females were less interested in peer advice than their male counterparts.
A propane bubble chamber of effective volume 1 litre has been constructed for experiments on the elastic scattering of low energy (< 40 Mev) π+-mesons on hydrogen and carbon. Stereoscopic pairs of pictures are taken on 35 mm film with a stero angle of 90°. The design and operation of the chamber and associated equipment is described, and examples of pictures taken are shown.
Residual stresses were measured in four Kanthal matrix-continuous-tungsten-fibre composites (with different tungsten fibre volume fractions V f = 10, 20, 30 and 70 vol.%) using neutron diffraction. Parallel to the fibres the stress in the Kanthal ranged from 40 MPa ( V f = 10 vol.%) to 1100 MPa ( V f = 70 vol.%) compared with m1877 MPa ( V f = 10 vol.%) to m400 MPa ( V f = 70 vol.%) for the tungsten. Perpendicular to the fibres (...) the stress ranged from m52 MPa ( V f = 10 vol.%) to 620 MPa ( V f = 70 vol.%) in the Kanthal compared with m778 MPa ( V f = 10vol.%) to m195 MPa ( V f = 70 vol.%) in the tungsten. Assuming that the measured residual stresses were solely thermal in origin, predictions were made using concentric cylinder and finite-element models. In the absence of hardening data the assumed material behaviour was elastic-perfectly plastic and the predictions underestimated the measured stresses for all volume fractions. Nevertheless the model results were consistent with the experimental measurements. The transverse stress in the fibres is discussed in the context of the interface normal stress, which is significant to the global mechanical response. (shrink)