Search results for 'Sign' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Catherine Legg (2006). Review of Anne Freadman. The Machinery of Talk: Charles Peirce and the Sign Hypothesis. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):642-645.score: 24.0
    This book, officially a contribution to the subject area of Charles Peirce’s semiotics, deserves a wider readership, including philosophers. Its subject matter is what might be termed the great question of how signification is brought about (what Peirce called the ‘riddle of the Sphinx’, who in Emerson’s poem famously asked, ‘Who taught thee me to name?’), and also Peirce’s answer to the question (what Peirce himself called his ‘guess at the riddle’, and Freadman calls his ‘sign hypothesis’).
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  2. Ludovic De Cuypere & Klaas Willems (2008). Meaning and Reference in Aristotle's Concept of the Linguistic Sign. Foundations of Science 13 (3-4):307-324.score: 24.0
    To Aristotle, spoken words are symbols, not of objects in the world, but of our mental experiences related to these objects. Presently there are two major strands of interpretation of Aristotle’s concept of the linguistic sign. First, there is the structuralist account offered by Coseriu (Geschichte der Sprachphilosophie. Von den Anfängen bis Rousseau, 2003 [1969], pp. 65–108) whose interpretation is reminiscent of the Saussurean sign concept. A second interpretation, offered by Lieb (in: Geckeler (Ed.) Logos Semantikos: Studia Linguistica (...)
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  3. Ernst Thoutenhoofd (2000). Philosophy's Real-World Consequences for Deaf People: Thoughts on Iconicity, Sign Language and Being Deaf. Human Studies 23 (3):261-279.score: 24.0
    The body of philosophical knowledge concerning the relations among language, the senses, and deafness, interpreted as a canon of key ideas which have found their way into folk metaphysics, constitutes one of the historically sustained conditions of the oppression of deaf people. Jonathan Rée, with his book I see a voice, makes the point that a philosophical history, grounded in a phenomenological and causal concern with philosophical thought and social life, can offer an archaeology of philosophy's contribution to the social (...)
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  4. Philippe Schlenker (2011). Donkey Anaphora: The View From Sign Language (ASL and LSF). [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (4):341-395.score: 24.0
    There are two main approaches to the problem of donkey anaphora (e.g. If John owns a donkey , he beats it ). Proponents of dynamic approaches take the pronoun to be a logical variable, but they revise the semantics of quantifiers so as to allow them to bind variables that are not within their syntactic scope. Older dynamic approaches took this measure to apply solely to existential quantifiers; recent dynamic approaches have extended it to all quantifiers. By contrast, proponents of (...)
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  5. Hannah Anglin-Jaffe (2013). Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages Within 'Oral' Schools for the Deaf. Studies in Philosophy and Education 32 (3):261-271.score: 24.0
    This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in Nicaragua and Thailand. The argument is advanced that these practices constituted a child-led oppositional pedagogy. A connection is drawn to (...)
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  6. Eszter Szabó Attila Krajcsi (2012). The Role of Number Notation: Sign-Value Notation Number Processing is Easier Than Place-Value. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbers. However, sign-value notation might have sufficient efficiency; for example, sign-value notations were common in flourishing cultures, such as in ancient Egypt. Herein we compared (...)
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  7. Ivano Caponigro & Kathryn Davidson (2011). Ask, and Tell as Well: Question–Answer Clauses in American Sign Language. Natural Language Semantics 19 (4):323-371.score: 24.0
    A construction is found in American Sign Language that we call a Question–Answer Clause. It is made of two parts: the first part looks like an interrogative clause conveying a question, while the second part resembles a declarative clause answering that question. The very same signer has to sign both, the entire construction is interpreted as truth-conditionally equivalent to a declarative sentence, and it can be uttered only under certain discourse conditions. These and other properties of Question–Answer Clauses (...)
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  8. Eeva Anita Elliott & Arthur M. Jacobs (2013). Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as ‘surprise’ to complex and culture specific concepts such as ‘carelessly’. The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present (...)
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  9. Attila Krajcsi & Eszter Szabó (2012). The Role of Number Notation: Sign-Value Notation Number Processing is Easier Than Place-Value. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbers. However, sign-value notation might have sufficient efficiency; for example, sign-value notations were common in flourishing cultures, such as in ancient Egypt. Herein we compared (...)
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  10. J. P. Morford, E. Wilkinson, A. Villwock, P. Piñar & J. F. Kroll (2011). When Deaf Signers Read English: Do Written Words Activate Their Sign Translations? Cognition 118 (2):286-292.score: 21.0
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  11. Elize Bisanz (2002). The Abstract Structure of the Aesthetic Sign. Sign Systems Studies 30 (2):707-721.score: 21.0
    Walter Benjamin foreshadowed many of the aesthetic theories, currently playing a fundamental role in the production and interpretation of art. By emphasising the role of the expressive character of art, or rather the category of expressivity itself, Benjamin defined art as a language. His aesthetics was characterised by the continuous interaction of two almost reciprocal projects: the theoretical critique of art which is based on an understanding of historical processes, and the understanding of historical processes which is formed by the (...)
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  12. K. Cormier, A. Schembri, D. Vinson & E. Orfanidou (2012). First Language Acquisition Differs From Second Language Acquisition in Prelingually Deaf Signers: Evidence From Sensitivity to Grammaticality Judgement in British Sign Language. Cognition 124 (1):50-65.score: 21.0
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  13. Kalevi Kull (2002). A Sign is Not Alive — a Text Is. Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):327-335.score: 21.0
    The article deals with the relationships between the concepts of life process and sign process, arguing against the simplified equation of these concepts. Assuming that organism (and its particular case — cell) is the carrier of what is called ‘life’, we attempt to find a correspondent notion in semiotics that can be equalled to the feature of being alive. A candidate for this is the textual process as a multiple sign action. Considering that biological texts are generally non-linguistic, (...)
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  14. Mats Bergman (2005). C. S. Peirce's Dialogical Conception of Sign Processes. Studies in Philosophy and Education 24 (3-4):213-233.score: 21.0
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  15. Leigh Minturn (1954). A Test for Sign-Gestalt Expectancies Under Conditions of Negative Motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (2):98.score: 21.0
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  16. John P. Seward & Nissim Levy (1949). Sign Learning as a Factor in Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (5):660.score: 21.0
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  17. K. W. Spence & R. Lippitt (1946). An Experimental Test of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Trial and Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (6):491.score: 21.0
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  18. Kenneth W. Spence & Howard H. Kendler (1948). The Speculations of Leeper with Respect to the Iowa Tests of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):106-109.score: 21.0
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  19. Elina Vladimirova (2009). Sign Activity of Mammals as Means of Ecological Adaptation. Sign Systems Studies 37 (3-4):614-635.score: 21.0
    The present article discusses different basic semiotic-scientific postulates regarding mammals’ sign activity. On the one hand, there are arguments denying animals sign activity, according to which mammals are not capable of semantic generalization on the basis of conventional linguistic values. According to another approach, mammals’ sign activity can be considered as means of ecological adaptation, that is, the features of animal behaviour based on the information, received by them through their habitat characteristics without direct visual contacts with (...)
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  20. H. F. Harlow & T. Spaet (1943). Problem Solution by Monkeys Following Bilateral Removal of the Prefrontal Areas. IV. Responses to Stimuli Having Multiple Sign Values. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (6):500.score: 21.0
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  21. Jacques Derrida (2011). Voice and Phenomenon: Introduction to the Problem of the Sign in Husserl's Phenomenology. Northwestern University Press.score: 20.0
    Translator's introduction: The germinal structure of Derrida's thought -- Translator's note -- Introduction -- Sign and signs -- The reduction of indication -- Meaning as soliloquy -- Meaning and representation -- The sign and the blink of an eye -- The voice that keeps silent -- The originative supplement.
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  22. Lesley Lancaster (2014). The Emergence of Symbolic Principles: The Distribution of Mind in Early Sign Making. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 7 (1):29-47.score: 20.0
    This paper considers the extent to which the earliest stages of learning about systems of inscription requires not just individual mental effort, but effort that is distributed across a wide physical and intellectual environment. It is particularly concerned with how children under the age of three learn about notational systems, including writing, and examines parallels with the evolution of written systems. It considers the position that children gain knowledge incrementally over the early months and years of life, supported by a (...)
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  23. Roger Fouts & Erin McKenna (2011). Chimpanzees and Sign Language: Darwinian Realities Versus Cartesian Delusions. The Pluralist 6 (3):19-24.score: 18.0
    Dr. Fouts began his lecture with the story of how he and his wife Deborah became involved with Washoe—the first non-human to acquire the signs of American Sign Language (ASL). Project Washoe began in 1966 with Drs. Allen and Beatrix Gardner in Reno, Nevada. There had been other experiments that attempted to get chimpanzees to speak. These experiments were not successful due to anatomical and neurological differences between humans and chimpanzees. (Fouts showed some video of the chimpanzee Vicki trying (...)
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  24. Barbara Allen, Nancy Meyers, John Sullivan & Melissa Sullivan (2002). American Sign Language and End-of-Life Care: Research in the Deaf Community. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 14 (3):197-208.score: 18.0
    We describe how a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) process was used to develop a means of discussing end-of-life care needs of Deaf seniors. This process identified a variety of communication issues to be addressed in working with this special population. We overview the unique linguistic and cultural characteristics of this community and their implications for working with Deaf individuals to provide information for making informed decisions about end-of-life care, including completion of health care directives. Our research and our work with (...)
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  25. Philip Clapson, The Theory of Brain-Sign: A Physical Alternative to Consciousness.score: 18.0
    Consciousness and the mind are prescientific concepts that begin with Greek theorizing. They suppose human rationality and reasoning placed in the human head by God, who structured the universe he created with the same kind of underlying characteristics. Descartes’ development of the model included scientific objectivity by placing the mind outside the physical universe. In its failure under evidential scrutiny and without physical explanation, this model is destined for terminal decline. Instead, a genuine biological and physical function for the brain (...)
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  26. Joëlle Vlassis (2008). The Role of Mathematical Symbols in the Development of Number Conceptualization: The Case of the Minus Sign. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):555 – 570.score: 18.0
    In mathematics education, students' difficulties with negative numbers are well known. To explain these difficulties, researchers traditionally refer to obstacles raised by the concept of NEGATIVE NUMBERS itself throughout its historical evolution. In order to improve our understanding, I propose to take into consideration another point of view, based on Vygotsky's principles, which define a strong relationship between signs such as language or symbols and cognitive development. I show how it is of great interest to consider students' difficulties with negatives (...)
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  27. Kenneth A. Taylor (2007). Sign, Sign, Everywhere a Sign! [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):703–709.score: 18.0
    For Millikan, purpose pervades the biological order, including the genes and genetically encoded traits of every living thing, the unconditioned reflexes and conditioned behavior of every animal, artifacts produced by humans or non-humans. There are also the conscious, explicit purposes and intentions of human beings. These are purposes in “a quite univocal sense,” Millikan insists. “In all cases,” she says, “the thing’s purpose is … what it was selected for doing.” Moreover, “…the purposes we attribute to whole persons … are (...)
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  28. Niall Lucy (2010). Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of Paul Auster's In the Country of Last Things. Angelaki 14 (2):21-28.score: 18.0
    (2009). Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of Paul Auster's In the Country of Last Things. Angelaki: Vol. 14, Ecopoetics and Pedagogies, pp. 21-28.
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  29. Karen Emmorey (2005). Sign Languages Are Problematic for a Gestural Origins Theory of Language Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):130-131.score: 18.0
    Sign languages exhibit all the complexities and evolutionary advantages of spoken languages. Consequently, sign languages are problematic for a theory of language evolution that assumes a gestural origin. There are no compelling arguments why the expanding spiral between protosign and protospeech proposed by Arbib would not have resulted in the evolutionary dominance of sign over speech.
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  30. Rachele Malavasi, Kalevi Kull & Almo Farina (2014). The Acoustic Codes: How Animal Sign Processes Create Sound-Topes and Consortia Via Conflict Avoidance. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 7 (1):89-95.score: 18.0
    In this essay we argue for the possibility to describe the co-presence of species in a community as a consortium built by acoustic codes, using mainly the examples of bird choruses. In this particular case, the consortium is maintained via the sound-tope that different bird species create by singing in a chorus. More generally, the formation of acoustic codes as well as cohesive communicative systems (the consortia) can be seen as a result of plastic adaptational behaviour of the specimen who (...)
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  31. Philip Clapson, Brain-Sign or the End of Consciousness.score: 18.0
    There is no question that something goes on in the head, which has been called consciousness. But is it consciousness? Over the last fifty years, there has been a concerted attempt to show how consciousness can be physical, of the brain. The diversity of views is characteristic of a Kuhnian pre- normal science revolution: but the revolution has not arrived. This is because the assumption that consciousness exists is wrong. In this paper consciousness (with e.g. its subjective/objective distinction) is characterized (...)
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  32. Bencie Woll (2003). The Neural Representation of Spatial Predicate-Argument Structures in Sign Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):300-301.score: 18.0
    Evidence from studies of the processing of topographic and classifier constructions in sign language sentences provides a model of how a mental scene description can be represented linguistically, but it also raises questions about how this can be related to spatial linguistic descriptions in spoken languages and their processing. This in turn provides insights into models of the evolution of language.
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  33. Brigitte Cambon de Lavalette, Charles Tijus, Christine Leproux & Olivier Bauer (2005). Taxonomy Based Models for Reasoning: Making Inferences From Electronic Road Sign Information. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 10 (1):25-45.score: 18.0
    Taxonomy Based modeling was applied to describe drivers’ mental models of variable message signs (VMS’s) displayed on expressways. Progress in road telematics has made it possible to introduce variable message signs (VMS’s). Sensors embedded in the carriageway every 500m record certain variables (speed, flow rate, etc.) that are transformed in real time into “driving times” to a given destination if road conditions do not change. VMS systems are auto-regulative Man-Machine (AMMI) systems which incorporate a model of the user: if the (...)
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  34. Ditte Marie Munch‐Jurišić (2014). Perpetrator Abhorrence: Disgust as a Stop Sign. Metaphilosophy 45 (2):270-287.score: 18.0
    Most contemporary research on disgust can be divided into “disgust advocates” and “disgust skeptics.” The so-called advocates argue that disgust can have a positive influence on our moral judgment; skeptics warn that it can mislead us toward prejudice and discrimination. This article compares this disagreement to a structurally similar debate in the field of genocide studies concerning the phenomenon of “perpetrator abhorrence.” While some soldiers report having felt strong disgust in the moment of committing or witnessing atrocity, scholars disagree on (...)
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  35. Edith Wyschogrod (1999). The Death of the Sign, The Rise of the Image in Merce Cunningham's Choreography. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1999:219-229.score: 18.0
    It is not the purpose of the present paper to chronicle transformations in the recent history of dance but rather to demonstrate that an art in which the materiality of the body and the localizability of space are critical has nevertheless been engaged in a struggle between sign and image. This struggle cannot be understood without attending to the tensions between the visceral and the virtual, between site specific spatiality and cyberspace. Exploring changes in dance, an art not generally (...)
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  36. Remo Gramigna (2013). The Place of Language Among Sign Systems: Juri Lotman and Émile Benveniste. Sign Systems Studies 41 (2-3).score: 18.0
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  37. Ans Kolk & Paolo Perego (2014). Sustainable Bonuses: Sign of Corporate Responsibility or Window Dressing? Journal of Business Ethics 119 (1):1-15.score: 18.0
    Despite a strong plea for integrating sustainability goals into traditional corporate bonus schemes, a comprehensive implementation of these systems has been lacking until recently. This article explores four illustrative cases from the Netherlands, where several multinationals started to pioneer with sustainable bonuses in the past few years. The article examines the setups and the different elements of bonus programmes used, in terms of performance criteria (focusing in particular on external vs. internal benchmarking), their link to specific stakeholders, type and size (...)
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  38. Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz, Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.score: 18.0
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based (...)
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  39. Robin Paul Malloy (2009). Place, Space, and Time in the Sign of Property. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 22 (3):265-277.score: 18.0
    Property is a complex sign in semiotics. It is also the source of tension and conflict in law. This paper examines property in triadic terms consisting of what Charles S. Peirce would identify as the icon (firstness), the index (secondness), and the symbol (thirdness). From this perspective the paper explores the ideas of place, space, and time at the iconic level of the sign of property. Discussion addresses the way in which property serves as a coded system for (...)
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  40. L. A. Petitto (1987). On the Autonomy of Language and Gesture: Evidence From the Acquisition of Personal Pronouns in American Sign Language. Cognition 27 (1):1-52.score: 18.0
    Two central assumptions of current models of language acquisition were addressed in this study: (1) knowledge of linguistic structure is "mapped onto" earlier forms of non-linguistic knowledge; and (2) acquiring a language involves a continuous learning sequence from early gestural communication to linguistic expression. The acquisition of the first and second person pronouns ME and YOU was investigated in a longitudinal study of two deaf children of deaf parents learning American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language. Personal pronouns (...)
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  41. John Deely (2001). A Sign is What? A Dialogne Between a Semiotician and a Would-Be Realist. Sign Systems Studies 29 (2):705-743.score: 18.0
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  42. Klaas Willems (2013). The Linguistic Sign at the Lexicon-Syntax Interface: Assumptions and Implications of the Generative Lexicon Theory. Semiotica 2013 (193):233-287.score: 18.0
    This article explores the basic assumptions of Generative Lexicon Theory (GL) and the implications for the general theory of the linguistic sign that arise from the generative mechanisms “selective binding,” “co-composition,” and “type coercion.” The article focuses on the assumption underlying GL that interpretation and polysemy are part of lexical structure. It is shown that encoded lexical meaning and inferred non-lexical knowledge cannot be clearly distinguished in GL. In order to be consistent, GL must also be supplemented by a (...)
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  43. Peter Bøgh Andersen & Berit Holmqvist (1989). Interactive Fiction: Artificial Intelligence as a Mode of Sign Production. AI and Society 4 (4):291-313.score: 18.0
    Interactive media need their own idioms that exploit the characteristics of the computer based sign. The fact that the reader can physically influence the course of events in the system changes the author's role, since he no longer creates a linear text but anarrative space that the reader can use to generate stories. Although stories are not simulations of the real world, they must still contain recognizable parts where everyday constraints of time and space hold. AI-techniques can be used (...)
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  44. J. Budziszewski (2011). The Line Through the Heart: Natural Law as Fact, Theory, and Sign of Contradiction. Intercollegiate Studies Institute.score: 18.0
    Natural law as fact, theory, and sign of contradiction -- The second tablet project -- The mystery of what? -- The natural, the connatural, and the unnatural -- Accept no imitations: natural law vs. naturalism -- Thou shalt not kill . . . whom? the meaning of the person -- Capital punishment: the case for justice -- Constitution vs. constitutionalism -- Constitutional metaphysics -- The liberal, illiberal religion.
     
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  45. David Cornberg (2006). Simplicity and Complexity in Sign Formation. Cultura 3 (1):151-160.score: 18.0
    This essay uses semiotics and complexity theory to examine processes of sign formation. Simplicity and complexity, construed as differences in configuration of elements, are then applied to sign formation. Sign formation is understood as the effort of one entity to gain the attention of another entity. Examples such as signs of wild animals also show that the signifying functions of signs always happen in time. Simplification of commercial signs can be interpreted as the use of lowest common (...)
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  46. Klaus Willmes Frank Domahs, Elise Klein, Korbinian Moeller, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Byung-Chen Yoon (2011). Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence From Korean Sign Language. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed (...)
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  47. Irene Portis-Winner (1999). A (Culture) Text is a Mechanism Constituting a System of Heterogeneous Semiotic Spaces, in Whose Continuum the Message...(Is) Circulated. We Do Not Perceive This Message to Be the Manifestation of a Single Language: A Minimum of Two Languages is Required to Create It (Lotman 1994: 377).[(1981]). The Assumption is That All Communication is Through Signs, Verbal, Visual, Movements, Performances, Rituals, Etc. Peirce's Classic Definition of the Sign is the Following:“A Sign is Something Which Stands to ... [REVIEW] Sign Systems Studies 27:24-45.score: 18.0
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  48. Anti Randviir (1998). Sign as an Object of Social Semiotics: Evolution of Cartographic Semiosis. Σημιοτκή-Sign Systems Studies 1:392-416.score: 18.0
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  49. Timo Maran (2011). Becoming a Sign: The Mimic's Activity in Biological Mimicry. Biosemiotics 4 (2):243-257.score: 17.0
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  50. Adalira Sáenz-Ludlow (2007). Signs and the Process of Interpretation: Sign as an Object and as a Process. Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (3):205-223.score: 17.0
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